Guide to the Secure Configuration of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8

with profile ANSSI-BP-028 (high)
This profile contains configurations that align to ANSSI-BP-028 v1.2 at the high hardening level. ANSSI is the French National Information Security Agency, and stands for Agence nationale de la sécurité des systèmes d'information. ANSSI-BP-028 is a configuration recommendation for GNU/Linux systems. A copy of the ANSSI-BP-028 can be found at the ANSSI website: https://www.ssi.gouv.fr/administration/guide/recommandations-de-securite-relatives-a-un-systeme-gnulinux/
This guide presents a catalog of security-relevant configuration settings for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8. It is a rendering of content structured in the eXtensible Configuration Checklist Description Format (XCCDF) in order to support security automation. The SCAP content is is available in the scap-security-guide package which is developed at https://www.open-scap.org/security-policies/scap-security-guide.

Providing system administrators with such guidance informs them how to securely configure systems under their control in a variety of network roles. Policy makers and baseline creators can use this catalog of settings, with its associated references to higher-level security control catalogs, in order to assist them in security baseline creation. This guide is a catalog, not a checklist, and satisfaction of every item is not likely to be possible or sensible in many operational scenarios. However, the XCCDF format enables granular selection and adjustment of settings, and their association with OVAL and OCIL content provides an automated checking capability. Transformations of this document, and its associated automated checking content, are capable of providing baselines that meet a diverse set of policy objectives. Some example XCCDF Profiles, which are selections of items that form checklists and can be used as baselines, are available with this guide. They can be processed, in an automated fashion, with tools that support the Security Content Automation Protocol (SCAP). The DISA STIG, which provides required settings for US Department of Defense systems, is one example of a baseline created from this guidance.
Do not attempt to implement any of the settings in this guide without first testing them in a non-operational environment. The creators of this guidance assume no responsibility whatsoever for its use by other parties, and makes no guarantees, expressed or implied, about its quality, reliability, or any other characteristic.

Profile Information

Profile TitleANSSI-BP-028 (high)
Profile IDxccdf_org.ssgproject.content_profile_anssi_bp28_high

CPE Platforms

  • cpe:/o:redhat:enterprise_linux:8
  • cpe:/o:redhat:enterprise_linux:8.0
  • cpe:/o:redhat:enterprise_linux:8.1
  • cpe:/o:redhat:enterprise_linux:8.2
  • cpe:/o:redhat:enterprise_linux:8.3
  • cpe:/o:redhat:enterprise_linux:8.4
  • cpe:/o:redhat:enterprise_linux:8.5
  • cpe:/o:redhat:enterprise_linux:8.6
  • cpe:/o:redhat:enterprise_linux:8.7
  • cpe:/o:redhat:enterprise_linux:8.8
  • cpe:/o:redhat:enterprise_linux:8.9
  • cpe:/o:redhat:enterprise_linux:8.10

Revision History

Current version: 0.1.62

  • draft (as of 2022-05-27)

Table of Contents

  1. System Settings
    1. Installing and Maintaining Software
    2. Account and Access Control
    3. System Accounting with auditd
    4. GRUB2 bootloader configuration
    5. Configure Syslog
    6. Network Configuration and Firewalls
    7. File Permissions and Masks
    8. SELinux
  2. Services
    1. DHCP
    2. Mail Server Software
    3. Network Time Protocol
    4. Obsolete Services
    5. SSH Server

Checklist

Group   Guide to the Secure Configuration of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8   Group contains 61 groups and 184 rules
Group   System Settings   Group contains 45 groups and 163 rules
[ref]   Contains rules that check correct system settings.
Group   Installing and Maintaining Software   Group contains 6 groups and 40 rules
[ref]   The following sections contain information on security-relevant choices during the initial operating system installation process and the setup of software updates.
Group   System and Software Integrity   Group contains 2 groups and 6 rules
[ref]   System and software integrity can be gained by installing antivirus, increasing system encryption strength with FIPS, verifying installed software, enabling SELinux, installing an Intrusion Prevention System, etc. However, installing or enabling integrity checking tools cannot prevent intrusions, but they can detect that an intrusion may have occurred. Requirements for integrity checking may be highly dependent on the environment in which the system will be used. Snapshot-based approaches such as AIDE may induce considerable overhead in the presence of frequent software updates.
Group   Software Integrity Checking   Group contains 1 group and 6 rules
[ref]   Both the AIDE (Advanced Intrusion Detection Environment) software and the RPM package management system provide mechanisms for verifying the integrity of installed software. AIDE uses snapshots of file metadata (such as hashes) and compares these to current system files in order to detect changes.

The RPM package management system can conduct integrity checks by comparing information in its metadata database with files installed on the system.
Group   Verify Integrity with AIDE   Group contains 6 rules
[ref]   AIDE conducts integrity checks by comparing information about files with previously-gathered information. Ideally, the AIDE database is created immediately after initial system configuration, and then again after any software update. AIDE is highly configurable, with further configuration information located in /usr/share/doc/aide-VERSION.

Rule   Install AIDE   [ref]

The aide package can be installed with the following command:
$ sudo yum install aide
Rationale:
The AIDE package must be installed if it is to be available for integrity checking.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_package_aide_installed
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80844-4

References:  BP28(R51), 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 5.10.1.3, APO01.06, BAI01.06, BAI02.01, BAI03.05, BAI06.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS01.03, DSS03.05, DSS04.07, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, DSS06.06, CCI-002696, CCI-002699, CCI-001744, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.3.4.4.4, SR 3.1, SR 3.3, SR 3.4, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.6, 1034, 1288, 1341, 1417, A.11.2.4, A.12.1.2, A.12.2.1, A.12.4.1, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.8.2.3, CM-6(a), DE.CM-1, DE.CM-7, PR.DS-1, PR.DS-6, PR.DS-8, PR.IP-1, PR.IP-3, Req-11.5, SRG-OS-000363-GPOS-00150, SRG-OS-000445-GPOS-00199, RHEL-08-010359, 1.4.1, SV-251710r809354_rule


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable

package --add=aide

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
- name: Ensure aide is installed
  package:
    name: aide
    state: present
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
    - CCE-80844-4
    - CJIS-5.10.1.3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-010359
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
    - enable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - package_aide_installed

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

if ! rpm -q --quiet "aide" ; then
    yum install -y "aide"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi


[[packages]]
name = "aide"
version = "*"

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
include install_aide

class install_aide {
  package { 'aide':
    ensure => 'installed',
  }
}

Rule   Build and Test AIDE Database   [ref]

Run the following command to generate a new database:
$ sudo /usr/sbin/aide --init
By default, the database will be written to the file /var/lib/aide/aide.db.new.gz. Storing the database, the configuration file /etc/aide.conf, and the binary /usr/sbin/aide (or hashes of these files), in a secure location (such as on read-only media) provides additional assurance about their integrity. The newly-generated database can be installed as follows:
$ sudo cp /var/lib/aide/aide.db.new.gz /var/lib/aide/aide.db.gz
To initiate a manual check, run the following command:
$ sudo /usr/sbin/aide --check
If this check produces any unexpected output, investigate.
Rationale:
For AIDE to be effective, an initial database of "known-good" information about files must be captured and it should be able to be verified against the installed files.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_aide_build_database
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80675-2

References:  BP28(R51), 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 5.10.1.3, APO01.06, BAI01.06, BAI02.01, BAI03.05, BAI06.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS01.03, DSS03.05, DSS04.07, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, DSS06.06, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.3.4.4.4, SR 3.1, SR 3.3, SR 3.4, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.6, A.11.2.4, A.12.1.2, A.12.2.1, A.12.4.1, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.8.2.3, CM-6(a), DE.CM-1, DE.CM-7, PR.DS-1, PR.DS-6, PR.DS-8, PR.IP-1, PR.IP-3, Req-11.5


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: Ensure AIDE is installed
  package:
    name: '{{ item }}'
    state: present
  with_items:
    - aide
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
    - CCE-80675-2
    - CJIS-5.10.1.3
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
    - aide_build_database
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Build and Test AIDE Database
  command: /usr/sbin/aide --init
  changed_when: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
    - CCE-80675-2
    - CJIS-5.10.1.3
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
    - aide_build_database
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Check whether the stock AIDE Database exists
  stat:
    path: /var/lib/aide/aide.db.new.gz
  register: aide_database_stat
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
    - CCE-80675-2
    - CJIS-5.10.1.3
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
    - aide_build_database
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Stage AIDE Database
  copy:
    src: /var/lib/aide/aide.db.new.gz
    dest: /var/lib/aide/aide.db.gz
    backup: true
    remote_src: true
  when:
    - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
    - (aide_database_stat.stat.exists is defined and aide_database_stat.stat.exists)
  tags:
    - CCE-80675-2
    - CJIS-5.10.1.3
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
    - aide_build_database
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

if ! rpm -q --quiet "aide" ; then
    yum install -y "aide"
fi

/usr/sbin/aide --init
/bin/cp -p /var/lib/aide/aide.db.new.gz /var/lib/aide/aide.db.gz

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Configure Periodic Execution of AIDE   [ref]

At a minimum, AIDE should be configured to run a weekly scan. To implement a daily execution of AIDE at 4:05am using cron, add the following line to /etc/crontab:
05 4 * * * root  --check
To implement a weekly execution of AIDE at 4:05am using cron, add the following line to /etc/crontab:
05 4 * * 0 root  --check
AIDE can be executed periodically through other means; this is merely one example. The usage of cron's special time codes, such as @daily and @weekly is acceptable.
Rationale:
By default, AIDE does not install itself for periodic execution. Periodically running AIDE is necessary to reveal unexpected changes in installed files.

Unauthorized changes to the baseline configuration could make the system vulnerable to various attacks or allow unauthorized access to the operating system. Changes to operating system configurations can have unintended side effects, some of which may be relevant to security.

Detecting such changes and providing an automated response can help avoid unintended, negative consequences that could ultimately affect the security state of the operating system. The operating system's Information Management Officer (IMO)/Information System Security Officer (ISSO) and System Administrators (SAs) must be notified via email and/or monitoring system trap when there is an unauthorized modification of a configuration item.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_aide_periodic_cron_checking
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80676-0

References:  BP28(R51), 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 5.10.1.3, APO01.06, BAI01.06, BAI02.01, BAI03.05, BAI06.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS01.03, DSS03.05, DSS04.07, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, DSS06.06, CCI-001744, CCI-002699, CCI-002702, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.3.4.4.4, SR 3.1, SR 3.3, SR 3.4, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.6, A.11.2.4, A.12.1.2, A.12.2.1, A.12.4.1, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.8.2.3, SI-7, SI-7(1), CM-6(a), DE.CM-1, DE.CM-7, PR.DS-1, PR.DS-6, PR.DS-8, PR.IP-1, PR.IP-3, Req-11.5, SRG-OS-000363-GPOS-00150, SRG-OS-000446-GPOS-00200, SRG-OS-000447-GPOS-00201, 1.4.2


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: Ensure AIDE is installed
  package:
    name: '{{ item }}'
    state: present
  with_items:
    - aide
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
    - CCE-80676-0
    - CJIS-5.10.1.3
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7(1)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
    - aide_periodic_cron_checking
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Set cron package name - RedHat
  set_fact:
    cron_pkg_name: cronie
  when:
    - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
    - ansible_os_family == "RedHat" or ansible_os_family == "Suse"
  tags:
    - CCE-80676-0
    - CJIS-5.10.1.3
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7(1)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
    - aide_periodic_cron_checking
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Set cron package name - Debian
  set_fact:
    cron_pkg_name: cron
  when:
    - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
    - ansible_os_family == "Debian"
  tags:
    - CCE-80676-0
    - CJIS-5.10.1.3
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7(1)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
    - aide_periodic_cron_checking
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Install cron
  package:
    name: '{{ cron_pkg_name }}'
    state: present
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
    - CCE-80676-0
    - CJIS-5.10.1.3
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7(1)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
    - aide_periodic_cron_checking
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Configure Periodic Execution of AIDE
  cron:
    name: run AIDE check
    minute: 5
    hour: 4
    weekday: 0
    user: root
    job: /usr/sbin/aide --check
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
    - CCE-80676-0
    - CJIS-5.10.1.3
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7(1)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
    - aide_periodic_cron_checking
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

if ! rpm -q --quiet "aide" ; then
    yum install -y "aide"
fi

if ! grep -q "/usr/sbin/aide --check" /etc/crontab ; then
    echo "05 4 * * * root /usr/sbin/aide --check" >> /etc/crontab
else
    sed -i '\!^.* --check.*$!d' /etc/crontab
    echo "05 4 * * * root /usr/sbin/aide --check" >> /etc/crontab
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Configure Notification of Post-AIDE Scan Details   [ref]

AIDE should notify appropriate personnel of the details of a scan after the scan has been run. If AIDE has already been configured for periodic execution in /etc/crontab, append the following line to the existing AIDE line:
 | /bin/mail -s "$(hostname) - AIDE Integrity Check" root@localhost
Otherwise, add the following line to /etc/crontab:
05 4 * * * root /usr/sbin/aide --check | /bin/mail -s "$(hostname) - AIDE Integrity Check" root@localhost
AIDE can be executed periodically through other means; this is merely one example.
Rationale:
Unauthorized changes to the baseline configuration could make the system vulnerable to various attacks or allow unauthorized access to the operating system. Changes to operating system configurations can have unintended side effects, some of which may be relevant to security.

Detecting such changes and providing an automated response can help avoid unintended, negative consequences that could ultimately affect the security state of the operating system. The operating system's Information Management Officer (IMO)/Information System Security Officer (ISSO) and System Administrators (SAs) must be notified via email and/or monitoring system trap when there is an unauthorized modification of a configuration item.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_aide_scan_notification
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-82891-3

References:  BP28(R51), 1, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, BAI01.06, BAI06.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS01.03, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, CCI-001744, CCI-002702, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 6.2, SR 7.6, A.12.1.2, A.12.4.1, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, CM-6(a), CM-3(5), DE.CM-1, DE.CM-7, PR.IP-1, PR.IP-3, SRG-OS-000363-GPOS-00150, SRG-OS-000447-GPOS-00201, RHEL-08-010360, SV-230263r627750_rule


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value var_aide_scan_notification_email # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_aide_scan_notification_email: !!str root@localhost
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure AIDE is installed
  package:
    name: '{{ item }}'
    state: present
  with_items:
    - aide
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
    - CCE-82891-3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-010360
    - NIST-800-53-CM-3(5)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - aide_scan_notification
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Configure Notification of Post-AIDE Scan Details
  cron:
    name: run AIDE check
    minute: 5
    hour: 4
    weekday: 0
    user: root
    job: /usr/sbin/aide  --check | /bin/mail -s "$(hostname) - AIDE Integrity Check"
      {{ var_aide_scan_notification_email }}
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
    - CCE-82891-3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-010360
    - NIST-800-53-CM-3(5)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - aide_scan_notification
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

if ! rpm -q --quiet "aide" ; then
    yum install -y "aide"
fi
var_aide_scan_notification_email='root@localhost'


    




CRONTAB=/etc/crontab
CRONDIRS='/etc/cron.d /etc/cron.daily /etc/cron.weekly /etc/cron.monthly'

# NOTE: on some platforms, /etc/crontab may not exist
if [ -f /etc/crontab ]; then
	CRONTAB_EXIST=/etc/crontab
fi

if [ -f /var/spool/cron/root ]; then
	VARSPOOL=/var/spool/cron/root
fi

if ! grep -qR '^.*/usr/sbin/aide\s*\-\-check.*|.*\/bin\/mail\s*-s\s*".*"\s*.*@.*$' $CRONTAB_EXIST $VARSPOOL $CRONDIRS; then
	echo "0 5 * * * root /usr/sbin/aide  --check | /bin/mail -s \"\$(hostname) - AIDE Integrity Check\" $var_aide_scan_notification_email" >> $CRONTAB
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Configure AIDE to Verify Access Control Lists (ACLs)   [ref]

By default, the acl option is added to the FIPSR ruleset in AIDE. If using a custom ruleset or the acl option is missing, add acl to the appropriate ruleset. For example, add acl to the following line in /etc/aide.conf:
FIPSR = p+i+n+u+g+s+m+c+acl+selinux+xattrs+sha256
AIDE rules can be configured in multiple ways; this is merely one example that is already configured by default. The remediation provided with this rule adds acl to all rule sets available in /etc/aide.conf
Rationale:
ACLs can provide permissions beyond those permitted through the file mode and must be verified by the file integrity tools.
Severity: 
low
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_aide_verify_acls
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-84220-3

References:  BP28(R51), 2, 3, APO01.06, BAI03.05, BAI06.01, DSS06.02, CCI-000366, 4.3.4.4.4, SR 3.1, SR 3.3, SR 3.4, SR 3.8, A.11.2.4, A.12.2.1, A.12.5.1, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.4, SI-7, SI-7(1), CM-6(a), PR.DS-6, PR.DS-8, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, RHEL-08-040310, SV-230552r627750_rule


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

if ! rpm -q --quiet "aide" ; then
    yum install -y "aide"
fi

aide_conf="/etc/aide.conf"

groups=$(LC_ALL=C grep "^[A-Z][A-Za-z_]*" $aide_conf | grep -v "^ALLXTRAHASHES" | cut -f1 -d '=' | tr -d ' ' | sort -u)

for group in $groups
do
	config=$(grep "^$group\s*=" $aide_conf | cut -f2 -d '=' | tr -d ' ')

	if ! [[ $config = *acl* ]]
	then
		if [[ -z $config ]]
		then
			config="acl"
		else
			config=$config"+acl"
		fi
	fi
	sed -i "s/^$group\s*=.*/$group = $config/g" $aide_conf
done

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Configure AIDE to Verify Extended Attributes   [ref]

By default, the xattrs option is added to the FIPSR ruleset in AIDE. If using a custom ruleset or the xattrs option is missing, add xattrs to the appropriate ruleset. For example, add xattrs to the following line in /etc/aide.conf:
FIPSR = p+i+n+u+g+s+m+c+acl+selinux+xattrs+sha256
AIDE rules can be configured in multiple ways; this is merely one example that is already configured by default. The remediation provided with this rule adds xattrs to all rule sets available in /etc/aide.conf
Rationale:
Extended attributes in file systems are used to contain arbitrary data and file metadata with security implications.
Severity: 
low
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_aide_verify_ext_attributes
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-83733-6

References:  BP28(R51), 2, 3, APO01.06, BAI03.05, BAI06.01, DSS06.02, CCI-000366, 4.3.4.4.4, SR 3.1, SR 3.3, SR 3.4, SR 3.8, A.11.2.4, A.12.2.1, A.12.5.1, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.4, SI-7, SI-7(1), CM-6(a), PR.DS-6, PR.DS-8, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, RHEL-08-040300, SV-230551r627750_rule


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

if ! rpm -q --quiet "aide" ; then
    yum install -y "aide"
fi

aide_conf="/etc/aide.conf"

groups=$(LC_ALL=C grep "^[A-Z][A-Za-z_]*" $aide_conf | grep -v "^ALLXTRAHASHES" | cut -f1 -d '=' | tr -d ' ' | sort -u)

for group in $groups
do
	config=$(grep "^$group\s*=" $aide_conf | cut -f2 -d '=' | tr -d ' ')

	if ! [[ $config = *xattrs* ]]
	then
		if [[ -z $config ]]
		then
			config="xattrs"
		else
			config=$config"+xattrs"
		fi
	fi
	sed -i "s/^$group\s*=.*/$group = $config/g" $aide_conf
done

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi
Group   Disk Partitioning   Group contains 10 rules
[ref]   To ensure separation and protection of data, there are top-level system directories which should be placed on their own physical partition or logical volume. The installer's default partitioning scheme creates separate logical volumes for /, /boot, and swap.
  • If starting with any of the default layouts, check the box to \"Review and modify partitioning.\" This allows for the easy creation of additional logical volumes inside the volume group already created, though it may require making /'s logical volume smaller to create space. In general, using logical volumes is preferable to using partitions because they can be more easily adjusted later.
  • If creating a custom layout, create the partitions mentioned in the previous paragraph (which the installer will require anyway), as well as separate ones described in the following sections.
If a system has already been installed, and the default partitioning scheme was used, it is possible but nontrivial to modify it to create separate logical volumes for the directories listed above. The Logical Volume Manager (LVM) makes this possible. See the LVM HOWTO at http://tldp.org/HOWTO/LVM-HOWTO/ for more detailed information on LVM.

Rule   Ensure /boot Located On Separate Partition   [ref]

It is recommended that the /boot directory resides on a separate partition. This makes it easier to apply restrictions e.g. through the noexec mount option. Eventually, the /boot partition can be configured not to be mounted automatically with the noauto mount option.
Rationale:
The /boot partition contains the kernel and bootloader files. Access to this partition should be restricted.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_partition_for_boot
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-83336-8

References:  BP28(R12)


Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Strategy:enable

part /boot


[[customizations.filesystem]]
mountpoint = "/boot"
size = 1073741824

Rule   Ensure /home Located On Separate Partition   [ref]

If user home directories will be stored locally, create a separate partition for /home at installation time (or migrate it later using LVM). If /home will be mounted from another system such as an NFS server, then creating a separate partition is not necessary at installation time, and the mountpoint can instead be configured later.
Rationale:
Ensuring that /home is mounted on its own partition enables the setting of more restrictive mount options, and also helps ensure that users cannot trivially fill partitions used for log or audit data storage.
Severity: 
low
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_partition_for_home
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-81044-0

References:  BP28(R12), 12, 15, 8, APO13.01, DSS05.02, CCI-000366, CCI-001208, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, CM-6(a), SC-5(2), PR.PT-4, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, RHEL-08-010800, 1.1.13, SV-230328r627750_rule


Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Strategy:enable

part /home


[[customizations.filesystem]]
mountpoint = "/home"
size = 1073741824

Rule   Ensure /opt Located On Separate Partition   [ref]

It is recommended that the /opt directory resides on a separate partition.
Rationale:
The /opt partition contains additional software, usually installed outside the packaging system. Putting this directory on a separate partition makes it easier to apply restrictions e.g. through the nosuid mount option.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_partition_for_opt
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-83340-0

References:  BP28(R12)


Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Strategy:enable

part /opt


[[customizations.filesystem]]
mountpoint = "/opt"
size = 1073741824

Rule   Ensure /srv Located On Separate Partition   [ref]

If a file server (FTP, TFTP...) is hosted locally, create a separate partition for /srv at installation time (or migrate it later using LVM). If /srv will be mounted from another system such as an NFS server, then creating a separate partition is not necessary at installation time, and the mountpoint can instead be configured later.
Rationale:
Srv deserves files for local network file server such as FTP. Ensuring that /srv is mounted on its own partition enables the setting of more restrictive mount options, and also helps ensure that users cannot trivially fill partitions used for log or audit data storage.
Severity: 
unknown
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_partition_for_srv
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-83387-1

References:  BP28(R12)


Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Strategy:enable

part /srv


[[customizations.filesystem]]
mountpoint = "/srv"
size = 1073741824

Rule   Ensure /tmp Located On Separate Partition   [ref]

The /tmp directory is a world-writable directory used for temporary file storage. Ensure it has its own partition or logical volume at installation time, or migrate it using LVM.
Rationale:
The /tmp partition is used as temporary storage by many programs. Placing /tmp in its own partition enables the setting of more restrictive mount options, which can help protect programs which use it.
Severity: 
low
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_partition_for_tmp
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80851-9

References:  BP28(R12), 12, 15, 8, APO13.01, DSS05.02, CCI-000366, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, CM-6(a), SC-5(2), PR.PT-4, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, RHEL-08-010543, 1.1.2, SV-230295r627750_rule


Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Strategy:enable

part /tmp


[[customizations.filesystem]]
mountpoint = "/tmp"
size = 1073741824

Rule   Ensure /usr Located On Separate Partition   [ref]

It is recommended that the /usr directory resides on a separate partition.
Rationale:
The /usr partition contains system software, utilities and files. Putting it on a separate partition allows limiting its size and applying restrictions through mount options.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_partition_for_usr
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-83343-4

References:  BP28(R12)


Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Strategy:enable

part /usr


[[customizations.filesystem]]
mountpoint = "/usr"
size = 5368709120

Rule   Ensure /var Located On Separate Partition   [ref]

The /var directory is used by daemons and other system services to store frequently-changing data. Ensure that /var has its own partition or logical volume at installation time, or migrate it using LVM.
Rationale:
Ensuring that /var is mounted on its own partition enables the setting of more restrictive mount options. This helps protect system services such as daemons or other programs which use it. It is not uncommon for the /var directory to contain world-writable directories installed by other software packages.
Severity: 
low
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_partition_for_var
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80852-7

References:  BP28(R12), 12, 15, 8, APO13.01, DSS05.02, CCI-000366, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, CM-6(a), SC-5(2), PR.PT-4, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, SRG-OS-000341-VMM-001220, RHEL-08-010540, 1.1.6, SV-230292r627750_rule


Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Strategy:enable

part /var


[[customizations.filesystem]]
mountpoint = "/var"
size = 3221225472

Rule   Ensure /var/log Located On Separate Partition   [ref]

System logs are stored in the /var/log directory. Ensure that /var/log has its own partition or logical volume at installation time, or migrate it using LVM.
Rationale:
Placing /var/log in its own partition enables better separation between log files and other files in /var/.
Severity: 
low
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_partition_for_var_log
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80853-5

References:  BP28(R12), BP28(R47), 1, 12, 14, 15, 16, 3, 5, 6, 8, APO11.04, APO13.01, BAI03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, MEA02.01, CCI-000366, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, CIP-007-3 R6.5, CM-6(a), AU-4, SC-5(2), PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, RHEL-08-010541, 1.1.11, SV-230293r627750_rule


Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Strategy:enable

part /var/log


[[customizations.filesystem]]
mountpoint = "/var/log"
size = 5368709120

Rule   Ensure /var/log/audit Located On Separate Partition   [ref]

Audit logs are stored in the /var/log/audit directory. Ensure that /var/log/audit has its own partition or logical volume at installation time, or migrate it using LVM. Make absolutely certain that it is large enough to store all audit logs that will be created by the auditing daemon.
Rationale:
Placing /var/log/audit in its own partition enables better separation between audit files and other files, and helps ensure that auditing cannot be halted due to the partition running out of space.
Severity: 
low
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_partition_for_var_log_audit
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80854-3

References:  BP28(R43), 1, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, APO11.04, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI04.04, DSS05.02, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, MEA02.01, CCI-000366, CCI-001849, 164.312(a)(2)(ii), 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 7.1, SR 7.2, SR 7.6, A.12.1.3, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.17.2.1, CIP-007-3 R6.5, CM-6(a), AU-4, SC-5(2), PR.DS-4, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, SRG-OS-000341-GPOS-00132, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, SRG-OS-000341-VMM-001220, RHEL-08-010542, 1.1.12, SV-230294r627750_rule


Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Strategy:enable

part /var/log/audit


[[customizations.filesystem]]
mountpoint = "/var/log/audit"
size = 10737418240

Rule   Ensure /var/tmp Located On Separate Partition   [ref]

The /var/tmp directory is a world-writable directory used for temporary file storage. Ensure it has its own partition or logical volume at installation time, or migrate it using LVM.
Rationale:
The /var/tmp partition is used as temporary storage by many programs. Placing /var/tmp in its own partition enables the setting of more restrictive mount options, which can help protect programs which use it.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_partition_for_var_tmp
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-82730-3

References:  BP28(R12), SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, RHEL-08-010544, 1.1.7, SV-244529r743836_rule


Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Strategy:enable

part /var/tmp


[[customizations.filesystem]]
mountpoint = "/var/tmp"
size = 1073741824
Group   Sudo   Group contains 14 rules
[ref]   Sudo, which stands for "su 'do'", provides the ability to delegate authority to certain users, groups of users, or system administrators. When configured for system users and/or groups, Sudo can allow a user or group to execute privileged commands that normally only root is allowed to execute.

For more information on Sudo and addition Sudo configuration options, see https://www.sudo.ws.

Rule   Install sudo Package   [ref]

The sudo package can be installed with the following command:
$ sudo yum install sudo
Rationale:
sudo is a program designed to allow a system administrator to give limited root privileges to users and log root activity. The basic philosophy is to give as few privileges as possible but still allow system users to get their work done.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_package_sudo_installed
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-82214-8

References:  BP28(R19), 1382, 1384, 1386, CM-6(a), SRG-OS-000324-GPOS-00125, 1.3.1


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable

package --add=sudo

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
- name: Ensure sudo is installed
  package:
    name: sudo
    state: present
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
    - CCE-82214-8
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - enable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - package_sudo_installed

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

if ! rpm -q --quiet "sudo" ; then
    yum install -y "sudo"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi


[[packages]]
name = "sudo"
version = "*"

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
include install_sudo

class install_sudo {
  package { 'sudo':
    ensure => 'installed',
  }
}

Rule   Ensure sudo Runs In A Minimal Environment - sudo env_reset   [ref]

The sudo env_reset tag, when specified, will run the command in a minimal environment, containing the TERM, PATH, HOME, MAIL, SHELL, LOGNAME, USER and SUDO_* variables. On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8, env_reset is enabled by default This should be enabled by making sure that the env_reset tag exists in /etc/sudoers configuration file or any sudo configuration snippets in /etc/sudoers.d/.
Rationale:
Forcing sudo to reset the environment ensures that environment variables are not passed on to the command accidentaly, preventing leak of potentially sensitive information.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sudo_add_env_reset
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-83820-1

References:  BP28(R58)


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: Ensure env_reset is enabled in /etc/sudoers
  lineinfile:
    path: /etc/sudoers
    regexp: ^[\s]*Defaults.*\benv_reset\b.*$
    line: Defaults env_reset
    validate: /usr/sbin/visudo -cf %s
  tags:
    - CCE-83820-1
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy
    - sudo_add_env_reset

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict

if /usr/sbin/visudo -qcf /etc/sudoers; then
    cp /etc/sudoers /etc/sudoers.bak
    if ! grep -P '^[\s]*Defaults.*\benv_reset\b.*$' /etc/sudoers; then
        # sudoers file doesn't define Option env_reset
        echo "Defaults env_reset" >> /etc/sudoers
    fi
    
    # Check validity of sudoers and cleanup bak
    if /usr/sbin/visudo -qcf /etc/sudoers; then
        rm -f /etc/sudoers.bak
    else
        echo "Fail to validate remediated /etc/sudoers, reverting to original file."
        mv /etc/sudoers.bak /etc/sudoers
        false
    fi
else
    echo "Skipping remediation, /etc/sudoers failed to validate"
    false
fi

Rule   Ensure sudo Ignores Commands In Current Dir - sudo ignore_dot   [ref]

The sudo ignore_dot tag, when specified, will ignore the current directory in the PATH environment variable. On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8, env_reset is enabled by default This should be enabled by making sure that the ignore_dot tag exists in /etc/sudoers configuration file or any sudo configuration snippets in /etc/sudoers.d/.
Rationale:
Ignoring the commands in the user's current directory prevents an attacker from executing commands downloaded locally.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sudo_add_ignore_dot
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-83810-2

References:  BP28(R58)


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: Ensure ignore_dot is enabled in /etc/sudoers
  lineinfile:
    path: /etc/sudoers
    regexp: ^[\s]*Defaults.*\bignore_dot\b.*$
    line: Defaults ignore_dot
    validate: /usr/sbin/visudo -cf %s
  tags:
    - CCE-83810-2
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy
    - sudo_add_ignore_dot

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict

if /usr/sbin/visudo -qcf /etc/sudoers; then
    cp /etc/sudoers /etc/sudoers.bak
    if ! grep -P '^[\s]*Defaults.*\bignore_dot\b.*$' /etc/sudoers; then
        # sudoers file doesn't define Option ignore_dot
        echo "Defaults ignore_dot" >> /etc/sudoers
    fi
    
    # Check validity of sudoers and cleanup bak
    if /usr/sbin/visudo -qcf /etc/sudoers; then
        rm -f /etc/sudoers.bak
    else
        echo "Fail to validate remediated /etc/sudoers, reverting to original file."
        mv /etc/sudoers.bak /etc/sudoers
        false
    fi
else
    echo "Skipping remediation, /etc/sudoers failed to validate"
    false
fi

Rule   Ensure Privileged Escalated Commands Cannot Execute Other Commands - sudo NOEXEC   [ref]

The sudo NOEXEC tag, when specified, prevents user executed commands from executing other commands, like a shell for example. This should be enabled by making sure that the NOEXEC tag exists in /etc/sudoers configuration file or any sudo configuration snippets in /etc/sudoers.d/.
Rationale:
Restricting the capability of sudo allowed commands to execute sub-commands prevents users from running programs with privileges they wouldn't have otherwise.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sudo_add_noexec
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-83747-6

References:  BP28(R58)


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: Ensure noexec is enabled in /etc/sudoers
  lineinfile:
    path: /etc/sudoers
    regexp: ^[\s]*Defaults.*\bnoexec\b.*$
    line: Defaults noexec
    validate: /usr/sbin/visudo -cf %s
  tags:
    - CCE-83747-6
    - high_severity
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy
    - sudo_add_noexec

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict

if /usr/sbin/visudo -qcf /etc/sudoers; then
    cp /etc/sudoers /etc/sudoers.bak
    if ! grep -P '^[\s]*Defaults.*\bnoexec\b.*$' /etc/sudoers; then
        # sudoers file doesn't define Option noexec
        echo "Defaults noexec" >> /etc/sudoers
    fi
    
    # Check validity of sudoers and cleanup bak
    if /usr/sbin/visudo -qcf /etc/sudoers; then
        rm -f /etc/sudoers.bak
    else
        echo "Fail to validate remediated /etc/sudoers, reverting to original file."
        mv /etc/sudoers.bak /etc/sudoers
        false
    fi
else
    echo "Skipping remediation, /etc/sudoers failed to validate"
    false
fi

Rule   Ensure sudo passwd_timeout is appropriate - sudo passwd_timeout   [ref]

The sudo passwd_timeout tag sets the amount of time sudo password prompt waits. On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8, the default passwd_timeout value is 5 minutes. The passwd_timeout should be configured by making sure that the passwd_timeout=sub_var_value("var_sudo_passwd_timeout") tag exists in /etc/sudoers configuration file or any sudo configuration snippets in /etc/sudoers.d/.
Rationale:
Reducing the time sudo waits for a a password reduces the time the process is exposed.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sudo_add_passwd_timeout
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-83964-7

References:  BP28(R58)


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value var_sudo_passwd_timeout # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_sudo_passwd_timeout: !!str 1
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure passwd_timeout is enabled with the appropriate value in /etc/sudoers
  lineinfile:
    path: /etc/sudoers
    regexp: ^[\s]*Defaults\s(.*)\bpasswd_timeout=[-]?\w+\b(.*)$
    line: Defaults \1passwd_timeout={{ var_sudo_passwd_timeout }}\2
    validate: /usr/sbin/visudo -cf %s
    backrefs: true
  register: edit_sudoers_passwd_timeout_option
  tags:
    - CCE-83964-7
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy
    - sudo_add_passwd_timeout

- name: Enable passwd_timeout option with appropriate value in /etc/sudoers
  lineinfile:
    path: /etc/sudoers
    line: Defaults passwd_timeout={{ var_sudo_passwd_timeout }}
    validate: /usr/sbin/visudo -cf %s
  when: edit_sudoers_passwd_timeout_option is defined and not edit_sudoers_passwd_timeout_option.changed
  tags:
    - CCE-83964-7
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy
    - sudo_add_passwd_timeout

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict


var_sudo_passwd_timeout='1'


if /usr/sbin/visudo -qcf /etc/sudoers; then
    cp /etc/sudoers /etc/sudoers.bak
    if ! grep -P '^[\s]*Defaults.*\bpasswd_timeout=\w+\b\b.*$' /etc/sudoers; then
        # sudoers file doesn't define Option passwd_timeout
        echo "Defaults passwd_timeout=${var_sudo_passwd_timeout}" >> /etc/sudoers
    else
        # sudoers file defines Option passwd_timeout, remediate if appropriate value is not set
        if ! grep -P "^[\s]*Defaults.*\bpasswd_timeout=${var_sudo_passwd_timeout}\b.*$" /etc/sudoers; then
            
            sed -Ei "s/(^[\s]*Defaults.*\bpasswd_timeout=)[-]?\w+(\b.*$)/\1${var_sudo_passwd_timeout}\2/" /etc/sudoers
        fi
    fi
    
    # Check validity of sudoers and cleanup bak
    if /usr/sbin/visudo -qcf /etc/sudoers; then
        rm -f /etc/sudoers.bak
    else
        echo "Fail to validate remediated /etc/sudoers, reverting to original file."
        mv /etc/sudoers.bak /etc/sudoers
        false
    fi
else
    echo "Skipping remediation, /etc/sudoers failed to validate"
    false
fi

Rule   Ensure Only Users Logged In To Real tty Can Execute Sudo - sudo requiretty   [ref]

The sudo requiretty tag, when specified, will only execute sudo commands from users logged in to a real tty. This should be enabled by making sure that the requiretty tag exists in /etc/sudoers configuration file or any sudo configuration snippets in /etc/sudoers.d/.
Rationale:
Restricting the use cases in which a user is allowed to execute sudo commands reduces the attack surface.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sudo_add_requiretty
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-83790-6

References:  BP28(R58)


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: Ensure requiretty is enabled in /etc/sudoers
  lineinfile:
    path: /etc/sudoers
    regexp: ^[\s]*Defaults.*\brequiretty\b.*$
    line: Defaults requiretty
    validate: /usr/sbin/visudo -cf %s
  tags:
    - CCE-83790-6
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy
    - sudo_add_requiretty

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict

if /usr/sbin/visudo -qcf /etc/sudoers; then
    cp /etc/sudoers /etc/sudoers.bak
    if ! grep -P '^[\s]*Defaults.*\brequiretty\b.*$' /etc/sudoers; then
        # sudoers file doesn't define Option requiretty
        echo "Defaults requiretty" >> /etc/sudoers
    fi
    
    # Check validity of sudoers and cleanup bak
    if /usr/sbin/visudo -qcf /etc/sudoers; then
        rm -f /etc/sudoers.bak
    else
        echo "Fail to validate remediated /etc/sudoers, reverting to original file."
        mv /etc/sudoers.bak /etc/sudoers
        false
    fi
else
    echo "Skipping remediation, /etc/sudoers failed to validate"
    false
fi

Rule   Ensure sudo umask is appropriate - sudo umask   [ref]

The sudo umask tag, when specified, will be added the to the user's umask in the command environment. On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8, the default umask value is 0022. The umask should be configured by making sure that the umask=sub_var_value("var_sudo_umask") tag exists in /etc/sudoers configuration file or any sudo configuration snippets in /etc/sudoers.d/.
Rationale:
The umask value influences the permissions assigned to files when they are created. A misconfigured umask value could result in files with excessive permissions that can be read or written to by unauthorized users.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sudo_add_umask
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-83860-7

References:  BP28(R58)


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value var_sudo_umask # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_sudo_umask: !!str 0027
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure umask is enabled with the appropriate value in /etc/sudoers
  lineinfile:
    path: /etc/sudoers
    regexp: ^[\s]*Defaults\s(.*)\bumask=[-]?\w+\b(.*)$
    line: Defaults \1umask={{ var_sudo_umask }}\2
    validate: /usr/sbin/visudo -cf %s
    backrefs: true
  register: edit_sudoers_umask_option
  tags:
    - CCE-83860-7
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy
    - sudo_add_umask

- name: Enable umask option with appropriate value in /etc/sudoers
  lineinfile:
    path: /etc/sudoers
    line: Defaults umask={{ var_sudo_umask }}
    validate: /usr/sbin/visudo -cf %s
  when: edit_sudoers_umask_option is defined and not edit_sudoers_umask_option.changed
  tags:
    - CCE-83860-7
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy
    - sudo_add_umask

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict


var_sudo_umask='0027'


if /usr/sbin/visudo -qcf /etc/sudoers; then
    cp /etc/sudoers /etc/sudoers.bak
    if ! grep -P '^[\s]*Defaults.*\bumask=\w+\b\b.*$' /etc/sudoers; then
        # sudoers file doesn't define Option umask
        echo "Defaults umask=${var_sudo_umask}" >> /etc/sudoers
    else
        # sudoers file defines Option umask, remediate if appropriate value is not set
        if ! grep -P "^[\s]*Defaults.*\bumask=${var_sudo_umask}\b.*$" /etc/sudoers; then
            
            sed -Ei "s/(^[\s]*Defaults.*\bumask=)[-]?\w+(\b.*$)/\1${var_sudo_umask}\2/" /etc/sudoers
        fi
    fi
    
    # Check validity of sudoers and cleanup bak
    if /usr/sbin/visudo -qcf /etc/sudoers; then
        rm -f /etc/sudoers.bak
    else
        echo "Fail to validate remediated /etc/sudoers, reverting to original file."
        mv /etc/sudoers.bak /etc/sudoers
        false
    fi
else
    echo "Skipping remediation, /etc/sudoers failed to validate"
    false
fi

Rule   Ensure Only Users Logged In To Real tty Can Execute Sudo - sudo use_pty   [ref]

The sudo use_pty tag, when specified, will only execute sudo commands from users logged in to a real tty. This should be enabled by making sure that the use_pty tag exists in /etc/sudoers configuration file or any sudo configuration snippets in /etc/sudoers.d/.
Rationale:
Requiring that sudo commands be run in a pseudo-terminal can prevent an attacker from retaining access to the user's terminal after the main program has finished executing.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sudo_add_use_pty
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-83798-9

References:  BP28(R58), 1.3.2


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: Ensure use_pty is enabled in /etc/sudoers
  lineinfile:
    path: /etc/sudoers
    regexp: ^[\s]*Defaults.*\buse_pty\b.*$
    line: Defaults use_pty
    validate: /usr/sbin/visudo -cf %s
  tags:
    - CCE-83798-9
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy
    - sudo_add_use_pty

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict

if /usr/sbin/visudo -qcf /etc/sudoers; then
    cp /etc/sudoers /etc/sudoers.bak
    if ! grep -P '^[\s]*Defaults.*\buse_pty\b.*$' /etc/sudoers; then
        # sudoers file doesn't define Option use_pty
        echo "Defaults use_pty" >> /etc/sudoers
    fi
    
    # Check validity of sudoers and cleanup bak
    if /usr/sbin/visudo -qcf /etc/sudoers; then
        rm -f /etc/sudoers.bak
    else
        echo "Fail to validate remediated /etc/sudoers, reverting to original file."
        mv /etc/sudoers.bak /etc/sudoers
        false
    fi
else
    echo "Skipping remediation, /etc/sudoers failed to validate"
    false
fi

Rule   Ensure a dedicated group owns sudo   [ref]

Restrict the execution of privilege escalated commands to a dedicated group of users. Ensure the group owner of /usr/bin/sudo is sudogrp.
Warning:  Changing group owner of /usr/bin/sudo to a group with no member users will prevent any and all escalatation of privileges. Additionally, the system may become unmanageable if root logins are not allowed.
Warning:  This rule doesn't come with a remediation, before remediating the sysadmin needs to add users to the dedicated sudo group.
Rationale:
Restricting the set of users able to execute commands as privileged user reduces the attack surface.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sudo_dedicated_group
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-83982-9

References:  BP28(R57)

Rule   Ensure Users Re-Authenticate for Privilege Escalation - sudo !authenticate   [ref]

The sudo !authenticate option, when specified, allows a user to execute commands using sudo without having to authenticate. This should be disabled by making sure that the !authenticate option does not exist in /etc/sudoers configuration file or any sudo configuration snippets in /etc/sudoers.d/.
Rationale:
Without re-authentication, users may access resources or perform tasks for which they do not have authorization.

When operating systems provide the capability to escalate a functional capability, it is critical that the user re-authenticate.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sudo_remove_no_authenticate
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-82202-3

References:  BP28(R5), BP28(R59), 1, 12, 15, 16, 5, DSS05.04, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, CCI-002038, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, A.18.1.4, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, IA-11, CM-6(a), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-7, SRG-OS-000373-GPOS-00156, SRG-OS-000373-GPOS-00157, SRG-OS-000373-GPOS-00158, SRG-OS-000373-VMM-001470, SRG-OS-000373-VMM-001480, SRG-OS-000373-VMM-001490, RHEL-08-010381, SV-230272r627750_rule


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: Find /etc/sudoers.d/ files
  find:
    paths:
      - /etc/sudoers.d/
  register: sudoers
  tags:
    - CCE-82202-3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-010381
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-11
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy
    - sudo_remove_no_authenticate

- name: Remove lines containing !authenticate from sudoers files
  replace:
    regexp: (^(?!#).*[\s]+\!authenticate.*$)
    replace: '# \g<1>'
    path: '{{ item.path }}'
    validate: /usr/sbin/visudo -cf %s
  with_items:
    - path: /etc/sudoers
    - '{{ sudoers.files }}'
  tags:
    - CCE-82202-3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-010381
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-11
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy
    - sudo_remove_no_authenticate

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict

for f in /etc/sudoers /etc/sudoers.d/* ; do
  if [ ! -e "$f" ] ; then
    continue
  fi
  matching_list=$(grep -P '^(?!#).*[\s]+\!authenticate.*$' $f | uniq )
  if ! test -z "$matching_list"; then
    while IFS= read -r entry; do
      # comment out "!authenticate" matches to preserve user data
      sed -i "s/^${entry}$/# &/g" $f
    done <<< "$matching_list"

    /usr/sbin/visudo -cf $f &> /dev/null || echo "Fail to validate $f with visudo"
  fi
done

Rule   Ensure Users Re-Authenticate for Privilege Escalation - sudo NOPASSWD   [ref]

The sudo NOPASSWD tag, when specified, allows a user to execute commands using sudo without having to authenticate. This should be disabled by making sure that the NOPASSWD tag does not exist in /etc/sudoers configuration file or any sudo configuration snippets in /etc/sudoers.d/.
Warning:  This rule is disabled on Red Hat Virtualization Hosts and Managers, it will report not applicable. RHV requires to perform operations as root without being asked for password.
Rationale:
Without re-authentication, users may access resources or perform tasks for which they do not have authorization.

When operating systems provide the capability to escalate a functional capability, it is critical that the user re-authenticate.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sudo_remove_nopasswd
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-82197-5

References:  BP28(R5), BP28(R59), 1, 12, 15, 16, 5, DSS05.04, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, CCI-002038, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, A.18.1.4, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, IA-11, CM-6(a), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-7, SRG-OS-000373-GPOS-00156, SRG-OS-000373-GPOS-00157, SRG-OS-000373-GPOS-00158, SRG-OS-000373-VMM-001470, SRG-OS-000373-VMM-001480, SRG-OS-000373-VMM-001490, RHEL-08-010380, SV-230271r627750_rule


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: Find /etc/sudoers.d/ files
  find:
    paths:
      - /etc/sudoers.d/
  register: sudoers
  tags:
    - CCE-82197-5
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-010380
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-11
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy
    - sudo_remove_nopasswd

- name: Remove lines containing NOPASSWD from sudoers files
  replace:
    regexp: (^(?!#).*[\s]+NOPASSWD[\s]*\:.*$)
    replace: '# \g<1>'
    path: '{{ item.path }}'
    validate: /usr/sbin/visudo -cf %s
  with_items:
    - path: /etc/sudoers
    - '{{ sudoers.files }}'
  tags:
    - CCE-82197-5
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-010380
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-11
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy
    - sudo_remove_nopasswd

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict

for f in /etc/sudoers /etc/sudoers.d/* ; do
  if [ ! -e "$f" ] ; then
    continue
  fi
  matching_list=$(grep -P '^(?!#).*[\s]+NOPASSWD[\s]*\:.*$' $f | uniq )
  if ! test -z "$matching_list"; then
    while IFS= read -r entry; do
      # comment out "NOPASSWD" matches to preserve user data
      sed -i "s/^${entry}$/# &/g" $f
    done <<< "$matching_list"

    /usr/sbin/visudo -cf $f &> /dev/null || echo "Fail to validate $f with visudo"
  fi
done

Rule   Explicit arguments in sudo specifications   [ref]

All commands in the sudoers file must strictly specify the arguments allowed to be used for a given user. If the command is supposed to be executed only without arguments, pass "" as an argument in the corresponding user specification.
Warning:  This rule doesn't come with a remediation, as absence of arguments in the user spec doesn't mean that the command is intended to be executed with no arguments.
Warning:  The rule can produce false findings when an argument contains a comma - sudoers syntax allows comma escaping using backslash, but the check doesn't support that. For example, root ALL=(ALL) echo 1\,2 allows root to execute echo 1,2, but the check would interpret it as two commands echo 1\ and 2.
Rationale:
Any argument can modify quite significantly the behavior of a program, whether regarding the realized operation (read, write, delete, etc.) or accessed resources (path in a file system tree). To avoid any possibility of misuse of a command by a user, the ambiguities must be removed at the level of its specification. For example, on some systems, the kernel messages are only accessible by root. If a user nevertheless must have the privileges to read them, the argument of the dmesg command has to be restricted in order to prevent the user from flushing the buffer through the -c option:
user ALL = dmesg ""
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sudoers_explicit_command_args
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-83632-0

References:  BP28(R63)

Rule   Don't define allowed commands in sudoers by means of exclusion   [ref]

Policies applied by sudo through the sudoers file should not involve negation. Each user specification in the sudoers file contains a comma-delimited list of command specifications. The definition can make use glob patterns, as well as of negations. Indirect definition of those commands by means of exclusion of a set of commands is trivial to bypass, so it is not allowed to use such constructs.
Warning:  This rule doesn't come with a remediation, as negations indicate design issues with the sudoers user specifications design. Just removing negations doesn't increase the security - you typically have to rethink the definition of allowed commands to fix the issue.
Rationale:
Specifying access right using negation is inefficient and can be easily circumvented. For example, it is expected that a specification like
# To avoid absolutely , this rule can be easily circumvented!
user ALL = ALL ,!/ bin/sh
prevents the execution of the shell but that’s not the case: just copy the binary /bin/sh to a different name to make it executable again through the rule keyword ALL.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sudoers_no_command_negation
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-83518-1

References:  BP28(R61)

Rule   Don't target root user in the sudoers file   [ref]

The targeted users of a user specification should be, as much as possible, non privileged users (i.e.: non-root). User specifications have to explicitly list the runas spec (i.e. the list of target users that can be impersonated), and ALL or root should not be used.
Warning:  This rule doesn't come with a remediation, as the exact requirement allows exceptions, and removing lines from the sudoers file can make the system non-administrable.
Rationale:
It is common that the command to be executed does not require superuser rights (editing a file whose the owner is not root, sending a signal to an unprivileged process,etc.). In order to limit any attempt of privilege escalation through a command, it is better to apply normal user rights.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sudoers_no_root_target
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-83598-3

References:  BP28(R60)

Group   Updating Software   Group contains 9 rules
[ref]   The yum command line tool is used to install and update software packages. The system also provides a graphical software update tool in the System menu, in the Administration submenu, called Software Update.

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 systems contain an installed software catalog called the RPM database, which records metadata of installed packages. Consistently using yum or the graphical Software Update for all software installation allows for insight into the current inventory of installed software on the system.

Rule   Install dnf-automatic Package   [ref]

The dnf-automatic package can be installed with the following command:
$ sudo yum install dnf-automatic
Rationale:
dnf-automatic is an alternative command line interface (CLI) to dnf upgrade suitable for automatic, regular execution.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_package_dnf-automatic_installed
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-82985-3

References:  BP28(R8), SRG-OS-000191-GPOS-00080


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable

package --add=dnf-automatic

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
- name: Ensure dnf-automatic is installed
  package:
    name: dnf-automatic
    state: present
  tags:
    - CCE-82985-3
    - enable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - package_dnf-automatic_installed

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable

if ! rpm -q --quiet "dnf-automatic" ; then
    yum install -y "dnf-automatic"
fi


[[packages]]
name = "dnf-automatic"
version = "*"

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
include install_dnf-automatic

class install_dnf-automatic {
  package { 'dnf-automatic':
    ensure => 'installed',
  }
}

Rule   Configure dnf-automatic to Install Available Updates Automatically   [ref]

To ensure that the packages comprising the available updates will be automatically installed by dnf-automatic, set apply_updates to yes under [commands] section in /etc/dnf/automatic.conf.
Rationale:
Installing software updates is a fundamental mitigation against the exploitation of publicly-known vulnerabilities. If the most recent security patches and updates are not installed, unauthorized users may take advantage of weaknesses in the unpatched software. The lack of prompt attention to patching could result in a system compromise. The automated installation of updates ensures that recent security patches are applied in a timely manner.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_dnf-automatic_apply_updates
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-82494-6

References:  BP28(R8), 0940, 1144, 1467, 1472, 1483, 1493, 1494, 1495, SI-2(5), CM-6(a), SI-2(c), FMT_SMF_EXT.1, SRG-OS-000191-GPOS-00080


Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
- name: Configure dnf-automatic to Install Available Updates Automatically
  ini_file:
    dest: /etc/dnf/automatic.conf
    section: commands
    option: apply_updates
    value: 'yes'
    create: true
  tags:
    - CCE-82494-6
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-2(5)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-2(c)
    - dnf-automatic_apply_updates
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - unknown_strategy


found=false

# set value in all files if they contain section or key
for f in $(echo -n "/etc/dnf/automatic.conf"); do
    if [ ! -e "$f" ]; then
        continue
    fi

    # find key in section and change value
    if grep -qzosP "[[:space:]]*\[commands\]([^\n\[]*\n+)+?[[:space:]]*apply_updates" "$f"; then
            sed -i "s/apply_updates[^(\n)]*/apply_updates = yes/" "$f"
            found=true

    # find section and add key = value to it
    elif grep -qs "[[:space:]]*\[commands\]" "$f"; then
            sed -i "/[[:space:]]*commands/a apply_updates = yes" "$f"
            found=true
    fi
done

# if section not in any file, append section with key = value to FIRST file in files parameter
if ! $found ; then
    file=$(echo "/etc/dnf/automatic.conf" | cut -f1 -d' ')
    mkdir -p "$(dirname "$file")"
    echo -e "[commands]\napply_updates = yes" >> "$file"
fi

Rule   Configure dnf-automatic to Install Only Security Updates   [ref]

To configure dnf-automatic to install only security updates automatically, set upgrade_type to security under [commands] section in /etc/dnf/automatic.conf.
Rationale:
By default, dnf-automatic installs all available updates. Reducing the amount of updated packages only to updates that were issued as a part of a security advisory increases the system stability.
Severity: 
low
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_dnf-automatic_security_updates_only
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-82267-6

References:  BP28(R8), SI-2(5), CM-6(a), SI-2(c), FMT_SMF_EXT.1, SRG-OS-000191-GPOS-00080


Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
- name: Configure dnf-automatic to Install Only Security Updates
  ini_file:
    dest: /etc/dnf/automatic.conf
    section: commands
    option: upgrade_type
    value: security
    create: true
  tags:
    - CCE-82267-6
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-2(5)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-2(c)
    - dnf-automatic_security_updates_only
    - low_complexity
    - low_severity
    - medium_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - unknown_strategy


found=false

# set value in all files if they contain section or key
for f in $(echo -n "/etc/dnf/automatic.conf"); do
    if [ ! -e "$f" ]; then
        continue
    fi

    # find key in section and change value
    if grep -qzosP "[[:space:]]*\[commands\]([^\n\[]*\n+)+?[[:space:]]*upgrade_type" "$f"; then
            sed -i "s/upgrade_type[^(\n)]*/upgrade_type = security/" "$f"
            found=true

    # find section and add key = value to it
    elif grep -qs "[[:space:]]*\[commands\]" "$f"; then
            sed -i "/[[:space:]]*commands/a upgrade_type = security" "$f"
            found=true
    fi
done

# if section not in any file, append section with key = value to FIRST file in files parameter
if ! $found ; then
    file=$(echo "/etc/dnf/automatic.conf" | cut -f1 -d' ')
    mkdir -p "$(dirname "$file")"
    echo -e "[commands]\nupgrade_type = security" >> "$file"
fi

Rule   Ensure gpgcheck Enabled In Main yum Configuration   [ref]

The gpgcheck option controls whether RPM packages' signatures are always checked prior to installation. To configure yum to check package signatures before installing them, ensure the following line appears in /etc/yum.conf in the [main] section:
gpgcheck=1
Rationale:
Changes to any software components can have significant effects on the overall security of the operating system. This requirement ensures the software has not been tampered with and that it has been provided by a trusted vendor.
Accordingly, patches, service packs, device drivers, or operating system components must be signed with a certificate recognized and approved by the organization.
Verifying the authenticity of the software prior to installation validates the integrity of the patch or upgrade received from a vendor. This ensures the software has not been tampered with and that it has been provided by a trusted vendor. Self-signed certificates are disallowed by this requirement. Certificates used to verify the software must be from an approved Certificate Authority (CA).
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_ensure_gpgcheck_globally_activated
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80790-9

References:  BP28(R15), 11, 2, 3, 9, 5.10.4.1, APO01.06, BAI03.05, BAI06.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS06.02, 3.4.8, CCI-001749, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.312(b), 164.312(c)(1), 164.312(c)(2), 164.312(e)(2)(i), 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.3.4.4.4, SR 3.1, SR 3.3, SR 3.4, SR 3.8, SR 7.6, A.11.2.4, A.12.1.2, A.12.2.1, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, CM-5(3), SI-7, SC-12, SC-12(3), CM-6(a), SA-12, SA-12(10), CM-11(a), CM-11(b), PR.DS-6, PR.DS-8, PR.IP-1, FPT_TUD_EXT.1, FPT_TUD_EXT.2, Req-6.2, SRG-OS-000366-GPOS-00153, SRG-OS-000366-VMM-001430, SRG-OS-000370-VMM-001460, SRG-OS-000404-VMM-001650, RHEL-08-010370, 1.2.4, SV-230264r627750_rule


Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Strategy:configure
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
    - CCE-80790-9
    - CJIS-5.10.4.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-010370
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
    - NIST-800-53-CM-11(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-11(b)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-SA-12
    - NIST-800-53-SA-12(10)
    - NIST-800-53-SC-12
    - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
    - configure_strategy
    - ensure_gpgcheck_globally_activated
    - high_severity
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed

- name: Ensure GPG check is globally activated
  ini_file:
    dest: /etc/yum.conf
    section: main
    option: gpgcheck
    value: 1
    no_extra_spaces: true
    create: false
  when: '"yum" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
    - CCE-80790-9
    - CJIS-5.10.4.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-010370
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
    - NIST-800-53-CM-11(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-11(b)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-SA-12
    - NIST-800-53-SA-12(10)
    - NIST-800-53-SC-12
    - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
    - configure_strategy
    - ensure_gpgcheck_globally_activated
    - high_severity
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q yum; then

# Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
# Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
sed_command=('sed' '-i')
if test -L "/etc/yum.conf"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
fi

# Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^gpgcheck")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s = %s" "$stripped_key" "1"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^gpgcheck\\>" "/etc/yum.conf"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/^gpgcheck\\>.*/$formatted_output/gi" "/etc/yum.conf"
else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    cce="CCE-80790-9"
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "/etc/yum.conf" >> "/etc/yum.conf"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "/etc/yum.conf"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Ensure gpgcheck Enabled for Local Packages   [ref]

yum should be configured to verify the signature(s) of local packages prior to installation. To configure yum to verify signatures of local packages, set the localpkg_gpgcheck to 1 in /etc/yum.conf.
Rationale:
Changes to any software components can have significant effects to the overall security of the operating system. This requirement ensures the software has not been tampered and has been provided by a trusted vendor.

Accordingly, patches, service packs, device drivers, or operating system components must be signed with a certificate recognized and approved by the organization.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_ensure_gpgcheck_local_packages
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80791-7

References:  BP28(R15), 11, 3, 9, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, 3.4.8, CCI-001749, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.312(b), 164.312(c)(1), 164.312(c)(2), 164.312(e)(2)(i), 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 7.6, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, CM-11(a), CM-11(b), CM-6(a), CM-5(3), SA-12, SA-12(10), PR.IP-1, FPT_TUD_EXT.1, FPT_TUD_EXT.2, SRG-OS-000366-GPOS-00153, SRG-OS-000366-VMM-001430, SRG-OS-000370-VMM-001460, SRG-OS-000404-VMM-001650, RHEL-08-010371, SV-230265r627750_rule


Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
    - CCE-80791-7
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-010371
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
    - NIST-800-53-CM-11(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-11(b)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-SA-12
    - NIST-800-53-SA-12(10)
    - ensure_gpgcheck_local_packages
    - high_severity
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - unknown_strategy

- name: Ensure GPG check Enabled for Local Packages (Yum)
  ini_file:
    dest: /etc/yum.conf
    section: main
    option: localpkg_gpgcheck
    value: 1
    no_extra_spaces: true
    create: true
  when: '"yum" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
    - CCE-80791-7
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-010371
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
    - NIST-800-53-CM-11(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-11(b)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-SA-12
    - NIST-800-53-SA-12(10)
    - ensure_gpgcheck_local_packages
    - high_severity
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - unknown_strategy

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q yum; then

# Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
# Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
sed_command=('sed' '-i')
if test -L "/etc/yum.conf"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
fi

# Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^localpkg_gpgcheck")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s = %s" "$stripped_key" "1"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^localpkg_gpgcheck\\>" "/etc/yum.conf"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/^localpkg_gpgcheck\\>.*/$formatted_output/gi" "/etc/yum.conf"
else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    cce="CCE-80791-7"
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "/etc/yum.conf" >> "/etc/yum.conf"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "/etc/yum.conf"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Ensure gpgcheck Enabled for All yum Package Repositories   [ref]

To ensure signature checking is not disabled for any repos, remove any lines from files in /etc/yum.repos.d of the form:
gpgcheck=0
Rationale:
Verifying the authenticity of the software prior to installation validates the integrity of the patch or upgrade received from a vendor. This ensures the software has not been tampered with and that it has been provided by a trusted vendor. Self-signed certificates are disallowed by this requirement. Certificates used to verify the software must be from an approved Certificate Authority (CA)."
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_ensure_gpgcheck_never_disabled
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80792-5

References:  BP28(R15), 11, 2, 3, 9, 5.10.4.1, APO01.06, BAI03.05, BAI06.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS06.02, 3.4.8, CCI-001749, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.312(b), 164.312(c)(1), 164.312(c)(2), 164.312(e)(2)(i), 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.3.4.4.4, SR 3.1, SR 3.3, SR 3.4, SR 3.8, SR 7.6, A.11.2.4, A.12.1.2, A.12.2.1, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, CM-5(3), SI-7, SC-12, SC-12(3), CM-6(a), SA-12, SA-12(10), CM-11(a), CM-11(b), PR.DS-6, PR.DS-8, PR.IP-1, FPT_TUD_EXT.1, FPT_TUD_EXT.2, Req-6.2, SRG-OS-000366-GPOS-00153, SRG-OS-000366-VMM-001430, SRG-OS-000370-VMM-001460, SRG-OS-000404-VMM-001650


Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Strategy:enable
- name: Grep for yum repo section names
  shell: |
    set -o pipefail
    grep -HEr '^\[.+\]' -r /etc/yum.repos.d/
  register: repo_grep_results
  ignore_errors: true
  changed_when: false
  tags:
    - CCE-80792-5
    - CJIS-5.10.4.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
    - NIST-800-53-CM-11(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-11(b)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-SA-12
    - NIST-800-53-SA-12(10)
    - NIST-800-53-SC-12
    - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
    - enable_strategy
    - ensure_gpgcheck_never_disabled
    - high_severity
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed

- name: Set gpgcheck=1 for each yum repo
  ini_file:
    path: '{{ item[0] }}'
    section: '{{ item[1] }}'
    option: gpgcheck
    value: '1'
    no_extra_spaces: true
  loop: '{{ repo_grep_results.stdout | regex_findall( ''(.+\.repo):\[(.+)\]\n?'' )
    }}'
  tags:
    - CCE-80792-5
    - CJIS-5.10.4.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
    - NIST-800-53-CM-11(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-11(b)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-SA-12
    - NIST-800-53-SA-12(10)
    - NIST-800-53-SC-12
    - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
    - enable_strategy
    - ensure_gpgcheck_never_disabled
    - high_severity
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed

sed -i 's/gpgcheck\s*=.*/gpgcheck=1/g' /etc/yum.repos.d/*

Rule   Ensure Red Hat GPG Key Installed   [ref]

To ensure the system can cryptographically verify base software packages come from Red Hat (and to connect to the Red Hat Network to receive them), the Red Hat GPG key must properly be installed. To install the Red Hat GPG key, run:
$ sudo subscription-manager register
If the system is not connected to the Internet or an RHN Satellite, then install the Red Hat GPG key from trusted media such as the Red Hat installation CD-ROM or DVD. Assuming the disc is mounted in /media/cdrom, use the following command as the root user to import it into the keyring:
$ sudo rpm --import /media/cdrom/RPM-GPG-KEY
Alternatively, the key may be pre-loaded during the RHEL installation. In such cases, the key can be installed by running the following command:
sudo rpm --import /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-redhat-release
Rationale:
Changes to software components can have significant effects on the overall security of the operating system. This requirement ensures the software has not been tampered with and that it has been provided by a trusted vendor. The Red Hat GPG key is necessary to cryptographically verify packages are from Red Hat.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_ensure_redhat_gpgkey_installed
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80795-8

References:  BP28(R15), 11, 2, 3, 9, 5.10.4.1, APO01.06, BAI03.05, BAI06.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS06.02, 3.4.8, CCI-001749, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.312(b), 164.312(c)(1), 164.312(c)(2), 164.312(e)(2)(i), 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.3.4.4.4, SR 3.1, SR 3.3, SR 3.4, SR 3.8, SR 7.6, A.11.2.4, A.12.1.2, A.12.2.1, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, CIP-003-8 R4.2, CIP-003-8 R6, CIP-007-3 R4, CIP-007-3 R4.1, CIP-007-3 R4.2, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CM-5(3), SI-7, SC-12, SC-12(3), CM-6(a), PR.DS-6, PR.DS-8, PR.IP-1, FPT_TUD_EXT.1, FPT_TUD_EXT.2, Req-6.2, SRG-OS-000366-GPOS-00153, SRG-OS-000366-VMM-001430, SRG-OS-000370-VMM-001460, SRG-OS-000404-VMM-001650, 1.2.3


Complexity:medium
Disruption:medium
Strategy:restrict
- name: Read permission of GPG key directory
  stat:
    path: /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/
  register: gpg_key_directory_permission
  check_mode: false
  tags:
    - CCE-80795-8
    - CJIS-5.10.4.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
    - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-SC-12
    - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
    - ensure_redhat_gpgkey_installed
    - high_severity
    - medium_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Read signatures in GPG key
  command: gpg --show-keys --with-fingerprint --with-colons "/etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-redhat-release"
  args:
    warn: false
  changed_when: false
  register: gpg_fingerprints
  check_mode: false
  tags:
    - CCE-80795-8
    - CJIS-5.10.4.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
    - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-SC-12
    - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
    - ensure_redhat_gpgkey_installed
    - high_severity
    - medium_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Set Fact - Installed GPG Fingerprints
  set_fact:
    gpg_installed_fingerprints: |-
      {{ gpg_fingerprints.stdout | regex_findall('^pub.*
      (?:^fpr[:]*)([0-9A-Fa-f]*)', '\1') | list }}
  tags:
    - CCE-80795-8
    - CJIS-5.10.4.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
    - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-SC-12
    - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
    - ensure_redhat_gpgkey_installed
    - high_severity
    - medium_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Set Fact - Valid fingerprints
  set_fact:
    gpg_valid_fingerprints: ("567E347AD0044ADE55BA8A5F199E2F91FD431D51" "6A6AA7C97C8890AEC6AEBFE2F76F66C3D4082792")
  tags:
    - CCE-80795-8
    - CJIS-5.10.4.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
    - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-SC-12
    - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
    - ensure_redhat_gpgkey_installed
    - high_severity
    - medium_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Import RedHat GPG key
  rpm_key:
    state: present
    key: /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-redhat-release
  when:
    - gpg_key_directory_permission.stat.mode <= '0755'
    - (gpg_installed_fingerprints | difference(gpg_valid_fingerprints)) | length ==
      0
    - gpg_installed_fingerprints | length > 0
    - ansible_distribution == "RedHat"
  tags:
    - CCE-80795-8
    - CJIS-5.10.4.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
    - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-SC-12
    - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
    - ensure_redhat_gpgkey_installed
    - high_severity
    - medium_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

# The two fingerprints below are retrieved from https://access.redhat.com/security/team/key
readonly REDHAT_RELEASE_FINGERPRINT="567E347AD0044ADE55BA8A5F199E2F91FD431D51"
readonly REDHAT_AUXILIARY_FINGERPRINT="6A6AA7C97C8890AEC6AEBFE2F76F66C3D4082792"

# Location of the key we would like to import (once it's integrity verified)
readonly REDHAT_RELEASE_KEY="/etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-redhat-release"

RPM_GPG_DIR_PERMS=$(stat -c %a "$(dirname "$REDHAT_RELEASE_KEY")")

# Verify /etc/pki/rpm-gpg directory permissions are safe
if [ "${RPM_GPG_DIR_PERMS}" -le "755" ]
then
  # If they are safe, try to obtain fingerprints from the key file
  # (to ensure there won't be e.g. CRC error).

  readarray -t GPG_OUT < <(gpg --show-keys --with-fingerprint --with-colons "$REDHAT_RELEASE_KEY" | grep -A1 "^pub" | grep "^fpr" | cut -d ":" -f 10)

  GPG_RESULT=$?
  # No CRC error, safe to proceed
  if [ "${GPG_RESULT}" -eq "0" ]
  then
    echo "${GPG_OUT[*]}" | grep -vE "${REDHAT_RELEASE_FINGERPRINT}|${REDHAT_AUXILIARY_FINGERPRINT}" || {
      # If $REDHAT_RELEASE_KEY file doesn't contain any keys with unknown fingerprint, import it
      rpm --import "${REDHAT_RELEASE_KEY}"
    }
  fi
fi

Rule   Ensure Software Patches Installed   [ref]

If the system is joined to the Red Hat Network, a Red Hat Satellite Server, or a yum server, run the following command to install updates:
$ sudo yum update
If the system is not configured to use one of these sources, updates (in the form of RPM packages) can be manually downloaded from the Red Hat Network and installed using rpm.

NOTE: U.S. Defense systems are required to be patched within 30 days or sooner as local policy dictates.
Warning:  The OVAL feed of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 is not a XML file, which may not be understood by all scanners.
Rationale:
Installing software updates is a fundamental mitigation against the exploitation of publicly-known vulnerabilities. If the most recent security patches and updates are not installed, unauthorized users may take advantage of weaknesses in the unpatched software. The lack of prompt attention to patching could result in a system compromise.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_security_patches_up_to_date
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80865-9

References:  BP28(R08), 18, 20, 4, 5.10.4.1, APO12.01, APO12.02, APO12.03, APO12.04, BAI03.10, DSS05.01, DSS05.02, CCI-000366, CCI-001227, 4.2.3, 4.2.3.12, 4.2.3.7, 4.2.3.9, A.12.6.1, A.14.2.3, A.16.1.3, A.18.2.2, A.18.2.3, SI-2(5), SI-2(c), CM-6(a), ID.RA-1, PR.IP-12, FMT_MOF_EXT.1, Req-6.2, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, SRG-OS-000480-VMM-002000, RHEL-08-010010, 1.9, SV-230222r627750_rule


Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Reboot:true
Strategy:patch
- name: Security patches are up to date
  package:
    name: '*'
    state: latest
  tags:
    - CCE-80865-9
    - CJIS-5.10.4.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-010010
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-2(5)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-2(c)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
    - high_disruption
    - low_complexity
    - medium_severity
    - patch_strategy
    - reboot_required
    - security_patches_up_to_date
    - skip_ansible_lint

Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Reboot:true
Strategy:patch


yum -y update

Rule   Enable dnf-automatic Timer   [ref]

The dnf-automatic timer can be enabled with the following command:
$ sudo systemctl enable dnf-automatic.timer
Rationale:
The dnf-automatic is an alternative command line interface (CLI) to dnf upgrade with specific facilities to make it suitable to be executed automatically and regularly from systemd timers, cron jobs and similar. The tool is controlled by dnf-automatic.timer SystemD timer.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_timer_dnf-automatic_enabled
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-82360-9

References:  BP28(R8), SI-2(5), CM-6(a), SI-2(c), FMT_SMF_EXT.1, SRG-OS-000191-GPOS-00080


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
- name: Enable timer dnf-automatic
  block:

    - name: Gather the package facts
      package_facts:
        manager: auto

    - name: Enable timer dnf-automatic
      systemd:
        name: dnf-automatic.timer
        enabled: 'yes'
        state: started
      when:
        - '"dnf-automatic" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
    - CCE-82360-9
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-2(5)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-2(c)
    - enable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - timer_dnf-automatic_enabled

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable

SYSTEMCTL_EXEC='/usr/bin/systemctl'
"$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" start 'dnf-automatic.timer'
"$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" enable 'dnf-automatic.timer'

Rule   Prefer to use a 64-bit Operating System when supported   [ref]

Prefer installation of 64-bit operating systems when the CPU supports it.
Warning:  There is no remediation besides installing a 64-bit operating system.
Rationale:
Use of a 64-bit operating system offers a few advantages, like a larger address space range for Address Space Layout Randomization (ASLR) and systematic presence of No eXecute and Execute Disable (NX/XD) protection bits.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_prefer_64bit_os
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-83694-0

References:  BP28(R10)

Group   Account and Access Control   Group contains 11 groups and 23 rules
[ref]   In traditional Unix security, if an attacker gains shell access to a certain login account, they can perform any action or access any file to which that account has access. Therefore, making it more difficult for unauthorized people to gain shell access to accounts, particularly to privileged accounts, is a necessary part of securing a system. This section introduces mechanisms for restricting access to accounts under Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.
Group   Protect Accounts by Configuring PAM   Group contains 4 groups and 12 rules
[ref]   PAM, or Pluggable Authentication Modules, is a system which implements modular authentication for Linux programs. PAM provides a flexible and configurable architecture for authentication, and it should be configured to minimize exposure to unnecessary risk. This section contains guidance on how to accomplish that.

PAM is implemented as a set of shared objects which are loaded and invoked whenever an application wishes to authenticate a user. Typically, the application must be running as root in order to take advantage of PAM, because PAM's modules often need to be able to access sensitive stores of account information, such as /etc/shadow. Traditional privileged network listeners (e.g. sshd) or SUID programs (e.g. sudo) already meet this requirement. An SUID root application, userhelper, is provided so that programs which are not SUID or privileged themselves can still take advantage of PAM.

PAM looks in the directory /etc/pam.d for application-specific configuration information. For instance, if the program login attempts to authenticate a user, then PAM's libraries follow the instructions in the file /etc/pam.d/login to determine what actions should be taken.

One very important file in /etc/pam.d is /etc/pam.d/system-auth. This file, which is included by many other PAM configuration files, defines 'default' system authentication measures. Modifying this file is a good way to make far-reaching authentication changes, for instance when implementing a centralized authentication service.
Warning:  Be careful when making changes to PAM's configuration files. The syntax for these files is complex, and modifications can have unexpected consequences. The default configurations shipped with applications should be sufficient for most users.
Warning:  Running authconfig or system-config-authentication will re-write the PAM configuration files, destroying any manually made changes and replacing them with a series of system defaults. One reference to the configuration file syntax can be found at http://www.linux-pam.org/Linux-PAM-html/sag-configuration-file.html.
Group   Set Lockouts for Failed Password Attempts   Group contains 5 rules
[ref]   The pam_faillock PAM module provides the capability to lock out user accounts after a number of failed login attempts. Its documentation is available in /usr/share/doc/pam-VERSION/txts/README.pam_faillock.

Warning:  Locking out user accounts presents the risk of a denial-of-service attack. The lockout policy must weigh whether the risk of such a denial-of-service attack outweighs the benefits of thwarting password guessing attacks.

Rule   Limit Password Reuse   [ref]

Do not allow users to reuse recent passwords. This can be accomplished by using the remember option for the pam_unix or pam_pwhistory PAM modules.
Warning:  If the system relies on authselect tool to manage PAM settings, the remediation will also use authselect tool. However, if any manual modification was made in PAM files, the authselect integrity check will fail and the remediation will be aborted in order to preserve intentional changes. In this case, an informative message will be shown in the remediation report.
Rationale:
Preventing re-use of previous passwords helps ensure that a compromised password is not re-used by a user.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80666-1

References:  BP28(R18), 1, 12, 15, 16, 5, 5.6.2.1.1, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, 3.5.8, CCI-000200, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, IA-5(f), IA-5(1)(e), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, Req-8.2.5, SRG-OS-000077-GPOS-00045, SRG-OS-000077-VMM-000440, 5.4.3


Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Strategy:configure
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
    - CCE-80666-1
    - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.5.8
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(e)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.5
    - accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
- name: XCCDF Value var_password_pam_unix_remember # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_password_pam_unix_remember: !!str 2
  tags:
    - always

- name: Check if system relies on authselect
  ansible.builtin.stat:
    path: /usr/bin/authselect
  register: result_authselect_present
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
    - CCE-80666-1
    - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.5.8
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(e)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.5
    - accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed

- name: Check the integrity of the current authselect profile
  ansible.builtin.command:
    cmd: authselect check
  register: result_authselect_check_cmd
  changed_when: false
  ignore_errors: true
  when:
    - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
  tags:
    - CCE-80666-1
    - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.5.8
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(e)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.5
    - accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed

- name: Informative message based on the authselect integrity check result
  ansible.builtin.assert:
    that:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
    fail_msg:
      - authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
      - This remediation could not be applied because the authselect profile is not
        intact.
      - It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect is available
      - In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand,
        a custom authselect profile is recommended.
    success_msg:
      - authselect integrity check passed
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
    - CCE-80666-1
    - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.5.8
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(e)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.5
    - accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed

- name: Get authselect current profile
  ansible.builtin.shell:
    cmd: authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }'
  register: result_authselect_profile
  changed_when: false
  when:
    - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
    - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
  tags:
    - CCE-80666-1
    - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.5.8
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(e)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.5
    - accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed

- name: Define the current authselect profile as a local fact
  ansible.builtin.set_fact:
    authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
    authselect_custom_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
  when:
    - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
    - result_authselect_profile.stdout is match("custom/")
  tags:
    - CCE-80666-1
    - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.5.8
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(e)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.5
    - accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed

- name: Define the new authselect custom profile as a local fact
  ansible.builtin.set_fact:
    authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
    authselect_custom_profile: custom/hardening
  when:
    - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
    - result_authselect_profile.stdout is not match("custom/")
  tags:
    - CCE-80666-1
    - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.5.8
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(e)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.5
    - accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed

- name: Get authselect current features to also enable them in the custom profile
  ansible.builtin.shell:
    cmd: authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }'
  register: result_authselect_features
  changed_when: false
  when:
    - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
    - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
  tags:
    - CCE-80666-1
    - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.5.8
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(e)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.5
    - accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed

- name: Check if any custom profile with the same name was already created in the
    past
  ansible.builtin.stat:
    path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}
  register: result_authselect_custom_profile_present
  changed_when: false
  when:
    - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
    - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
  tags:
    - CCE-80666-1
    - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.5.8
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(e)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.5
    - accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed

- name: Create a custom profile based on the current profile
  ansible.builtin.command:
    cmd: authselect create-profile hardening -b sssd
  register: result_authselect_create_profile
  when:
    - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
    - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
    - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
    - not result_authselect_custom_profile_present.stat.exists
  tags:
    - CCE-80666-1
    - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.5.8
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(e)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.5
    - accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed

- name: Ensure the desired configuration is updated in the custom profile
  ansible.builtin.replace:
    dest: '{{ item }}'
    regexp: (.*pam_pwhistory.so.*remember=)(\S+)(.*)$
    replace: \g<1>{{ var_password_pam_unix_remember }}\g<3>
  loop:
    - /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}/system-auth
    - /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}/password-auth
  when:
    - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
    - authselect_custom_profile is match("custom/")
  tags:
    - CCE-80666-1
    - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.5.8
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(e)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.5
    - accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed

- name: Ensure the desired configuration in present in the custom profile
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    dest: '{{ item }}'
    insertafter: ^password.*requisite.*pam_pwquality.so.*
    line: password    requisite     pam_pwhistory.so remember={{ var_password_pam_unix_remember
      }} use_authtok
  loop:
    - /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}/system-auth
    - /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}/password-auth
  when:
    - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
    - authselect_custom_profile is match("custom/")
  tags:
    - CCE-80666-1
    - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.5.8
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(e)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.5
    - accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed

- name: Ensure a backup of current authselect profile before select the custom profile
  ansible.builtin.command:
    cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-pwhistory-hardening.backup
  register: result_authselect_backup
  when:
    - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
    - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
    - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
    - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)
  tags:
    - CCE-80666-1
    - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.5.8
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(e)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.5
    - accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed

- name: Ensure the custom profile is selected
  ansible.builtin.command:
    cmd: authselect select {{ authselect_custom_profile }} --force
  register: result_pam_authselect_select_profile
  when:
    - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
    - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
    - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
    - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)
  tags:
    - CCE-80666-1
    - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.5.8
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(e)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.5
    - accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed

- name: Restore the authselect features in the custom profile
  ansible.builtin.command:
    cmd: authselect enable-feature {{ item }}
  register: result_pam_authselect_select_features
  loop: '{{ result_authselect_features.stdout_lines }}'
  when:
    - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
    - result_authselect_features is not skipped
    - result_pam_authselect_select_profile is not skipped
  tags:
    - CCE-80666-1
    - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.5.8
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(e)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.5
    - accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed

- name: Ensure the custom profile changes are applied
  ansible.builtin.command:
    cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-pwhistory-hardening.backup
  when:
    - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
    - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
  tags:
    - CCE-80666-1
    - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.5.8
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(e)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.5
    - accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed

- name: Do not allow users to reuse recent passwords - system-auth (change)
  replace:
    dest: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    regexp: ^(password\s+sufficient\s+pam_unix\.so\s.*remember\s*=\s*)(\S+)(.*)$
    replace: \g<1>{{ var_password_pam_unix_remember }}\g<3>
  when:
    - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - not result_authselect_present.stat.exists
  tags:
    - CCE-80666-1
    - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.5.8
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(e)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.5
    - accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed

- name: Do not allow users to reuse recent passwords - system-auth (add)
  replace:
    dest: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    regexp: ^password\s+sufficient\s+pam_unix\.so\s(?!.*remember\s*=\s*).*$
    replace: \g<0> remember={{ var_password_pam_unix_remember }}
  when:
    - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - not result_authselect_present.stat.exists
  tags:
    - CCE-80666-1
    - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.5.8
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(e)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.5
    - accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed

- name: Do not allow users to reuse recent passwords - system-auth (change)
  replace:
    dest: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    regexp: ^(password\s+(?:(?:requisite)|(?:required))\s+pam_pwhistory\.so\s.*remember\s*=\s*)(\S+)(.*)$
    replace: \g<1>{{ var_password_pam_unix_remember }}\g<3>
  when:
    - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - not result_authselect_present.stat.exists
  tags:
    - CCE-80666-1
    - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.5.8
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(e)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.5
    - accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed

- name: Do not allow users to reuse recent passwords - system-auth (add)
  replace:
    dest: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    regexp: ^password\s+(?:(?:requisite)|(?:required))\s+pam_pwhistory\.so\s(?!.*remember\s*=\s*).*$
    replace: \g<0> remember={{ var_password_pam_unix_remember }}
  when:
    - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - not result_authselect_present.stat.exists
  tags:
    - CCE-80666-1
    - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.5.8
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(e)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.5
    - accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q pam; then

var_password_pam_unix_remember='2'


if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
    if authselect check; then
        CURRENT_PROFILE=$(authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }')
        # Standard profiles delivered with authselect should not be modified.
        # If not already in use, a custom profile is created preserving the enabled features.
        if [[ ! $CURRENT_PROFILE == custom/* ]]; then
            ENABLED_FEATURES=$(authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }')
            authselect create-profile hardening -b $CURRENT_PROFILE
            CURRENT_PROFILE="custom/hardening"
            # Ensure a backup before changing the profile
            authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-pwhistory-hardening.backup
            authselect select $CURRENT_PROFILE
            for feature in $ENABLED_FEATURES; do
                authselect enable-feature $feature;
            done
        fi
        # Include the desired configuration in the custom profile
        CUSTOM_SYSTEM_AUTH="/etc/authselect/$CURRENT_PROFILE/system-auth"
        CUSTOM_PASSWORD_AUTH="/etc/authselect/$CURRENT_PROFILE/password-auth"
        for custom_pam_file in $CUSTOM_SYSTEM_AUTH $CUSTOM_PASSWORD_AUTH; do
            if ! grep -q "^[^#].*pam_pwhistory.so.*remember=" $custom_pam_file; then
                sed -i --follow-symlinks "/^password.*requisite.*pam_pwquality.so/a password    requisite     pam_pwhistory.so remember=$var_password_pam_unix_remember use_authtok" $custom_pam_file
            else
                sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/\(.*pam_pwhistory.so.*remember=\)[[:digit:]]\+\s\(.*\)/\1$var_password_pam_unix_remember \2/g" $custom_pam_file
            fi
        done
        authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-pwhistory-hardening.backup
    else
        echo "
authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
This remediation could not be applied because the authselect profile is not intact.
It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect is available
In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended."
        false
    fi
else
    
    AUTH_FILES[0]="/etc/pam.d/system-auth"
    
    AUTH_FILES[1]="/etc/pam.d/password-auth"

    for pamFile in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"; do
        if grep -q "pam_unix.so.*" $pamFile; then
            if [ -e "$pamFile" ] ; then
    valueRegex="$var_password_pam_unix_remember" defaultValue="$var_password_pam_unix_remember"
    # non-empty values need to be preceded by an equals sign
    [ -n "${valueRegex}" ] && valueRegex="=${valueRegex}"
    # add an equals sign to non-empty values
    [ -n "${defaultValue}" ] && defaultValue="=${defaultValue}"

    # fix the value for 'option' if one exists but does not match 'valueRegex'
    if grep -q -P "^\\s*password\\s+sufficient\\s+pam_unix.so(\\s.+)?\\s+remember(?"'!'"${valueRegex}(\\s|\$))" < "$pamFile" ; then
        sed --follow-symlinks -i -E -e "s/^(\\s*password\\s+sufficient\\s+pam_unix.so(\\s.+)?\\s)remember=[^[:space:]]*/\\1remember${defaultValue}/" "$pamFile"

    # add 'option=default' if option is not set
    elif grep -q -E "^\\s*password\\s+sufficient\\s+pam_unix.so" < "$pamFile" &&
            grep    -E "^\\s*password\\s+sufficient\\s+pam_unix.so" < "$pamFile" | grep -q -E -v "\\sremember(=|\\s|\$)" ; then

        sed --follow-symlinks -i -E -e "s/^(\\s*password\\s+sufficient\\s+pam_unix.so[^\\n]*)/\\1 remember${defaultValue}/" "$pamFile"
    # add a new entry if none exists
    elif ! grep -q -P "^\\s*password\\s+sufficient\\s+pam_unix.so(\\s.+)?\\s+remember${valueRegex}(\\s|\$)" < "$pamFile" ; then
        echo "password sufficient pam_unix.so remember${defaultValue}" >> "$pamFile"
    fi
else
    echo "$pamFile doesn't exist" >&2
fi
        fi
        if grep -q "pam_pwhistory.so.*" $pamFile; then
            if [ -e "$pamFile" ] ; then
    valueRegex="$var_password_pam_unix_remember" defaultValue="$var_password_pam_unix_remember"
    # non-empty values need to be preceded by an equals sign
    [ -n "${valueRegex}" ] && valueRegex="=${valueRegex}"
    # add an equals sign to non-empty values
    [ -n "${defaultValue}" ] && defaultValue="=${defaultValue}"

    # fix the value for 'option' if one exists but does not match 'valueRegex'
    if grep -q -P "^\\s*password\\s+required\\s+pam_pwhistory.so(\\s.+)?\\s+remember(?"'!'"${valueRegex}(\\s|\$))" < "$pamFile" ; then
        sed --follow-symlinks -i -E -e "s/^(\\s*password\\s+required\\s+pam_pwhistory.so(\\s.+)?\\s)remember=[^[:space:]]*/\\1remember${defaultValue}/" "$pamFile"

    # add 'option=default' if option is not set
    elif grep -q -E "^\\s*password\\s+required\\s+pam_pwhistory.so" < "$pamFile" &&
            grep    -E "^\\s*password\\s+required\\s+pam_pwhistory.so" < "$pamFile" | grep -q -E -v "\\sremember(=|\\s|\$)" ; then

        sed --follow-symlinks -i -E -e "s/^(\\s*password\\s+required\\s+pam_pwhistory.so[^\\n]*)/\\1 remember${defaultValue}/" "$pamFile"
    # add a new entry if none exists
    elif ! grep -q -P "^\\s*password\\s+required\\s+pam_pwhistory.so(\\s.+)?\\s+remember${valueRegex}(\\s|\$)" < "$pamFile" ; then
        echo "password required pam_pwhistory.so remember${defaultValue}" >> "$pamFile"
    fi
else
    echo "$pamFile doesn't exist" >&2
fi
        fi
    done
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts   [ref]

This rule configures the system to lock out accounts after a number of incorrect login attempts using pam_faillock.so. pam_faillock.so module requires multiple entries in pam files. These entries must be carefully defined to work as expected. In order to avoid errors when manually editing these files, it is recommended to use the appropriate tools, such as authselect or authconfig, depending on the OS version.
Warning:  If the system relies on authselect tool to manage PAM settings, the remediation will also use authselect tool. However, if any manual modification was made in PAM files, the authselect integrity check will fail and the remediation will be aborted in order to preserve intentional changes. In this case, an informative message will be shown in the remediation report. If the system supports the /etc/security/faillock.conf file, the pam_faillock parameters should be defined in faillock.conf file.
Rationale:
Locking out user accounts after a number of incorrect attempts prevents direct password guessing attacks. In combination with the silent option, user enumeration attacks are also mitigated.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80667-9

References:  BP28(R18), 1, 12, 15, 16, 5.5.3, DSS05.04, DSS05.10, DSS06.10, 3.1.8, CCI-000044, CCI-002236, CCI-002237, CCI-002238, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, 0421, 0422, 0431, 0974, 1173, 1401, 1504, 1505, 1546, 1557, 1558, 1559, 1560, 1561, A.18.1.4, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.4, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, CM-6(a), AC-7(a), PR.AC-7, FIA_AFL.1, Req-8.1.6, SRG-OS-000329-GPOS-00128, SRG-OS-000021-GPOS-00005, SRG-OS-000021-VMM-000050, RHEL-08-020010, 5.3.3, 5.4.2, SV-230332r627750_rule


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
    - CCE-80667-9
    - CJIS-5.5.3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020010
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.6
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Check if system relies on authselect
    tool
  ansible.builtin.stat:
    path: /usr/bin/authselect
  register: result_authselect_present
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
    - CCE-80667-9
    - CJIS-5.5.3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020010
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.6
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Remediation where authselect
    tool is present
  block:

    - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Check integrity of authselect
        current profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect check
      register: result_authselect_check_cmd
      changed_when: false
      ignore_errors: true

    - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Informative message based
        on the authselect integrity check result
      ansible.builtin.assert:
        that:
          - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        fail_msg:
          - authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
          - This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was
            not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
          - It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool
            is available.
          - In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific
            demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended.
        success_msg:
          - authselect integrity check passed

    - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Get authselect current
        features
      ansible.builtin.shell:
        cmd: authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }'
      register: result_authselect_features
      changed_when: false
      when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success

    - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Ensure with-faillock feature
        is enabled using authselect tool
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect enable-feature with-faillock
      register: result_authselect_cmd
      when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - result_authselect_features.stdout is not search("with-faillock")
  when:
    - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
  tags:
    - CCE-80667-9
    - CJIS-5.5.3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020010
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.6
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Remediation where authselect
    tool is not present
  block:

    - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Check if pam_faillock.so
        is already enabled
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        regexp: .*auth.*pam_faillock.so (preauth|authfail)
        state: absent
      check_mode: true
      changed_when: false
      register: result_pam_faillock_is_enabled

    - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Enable pam_faillock.so
        preauth editing PAM files
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: '{{ item }}'
        line: auth        required      pam_faillock.so preauth
        insertbefore: ^auth.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so.*
        state: present
      loop:
        - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
      when:
        - result_pam_faillock_is_enabled.found == 0

    - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Enable pam_faillock.so
        authfail editing PAM files
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: '{{ item }}'
        line: auth        required      pam_faillock.so authfail
        insertafter: ^auth.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so.*
        state: present
      loop:
        - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
      when:
        - result_pam_faillock_is_enabled.found == 0

    - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Enable pam_faillock.so
        account section editing PAM files
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: '{{ item }}'
        line: account     required      pam_faillock.so
        insertbefore: ^account.*required.*pam_unix.so.*
        state: present
      loop:
        - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
      when:
        - result_pam_faillock_is_enabled.found == 0
  when:
    - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - not result_authselect_present.stat.exists
  tags:
    - CCE-80667-9
    - CJIS-5.5.3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020010
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.6
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy
- name: XCCDF Value var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny: !!str 3
  tags:
    - always

- name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Check the presence of /etc/security/faillock.conf
    file
  ansible.builtin.stat:
    path: /etc/security/faillock.conf
  register: result_faillock_conf_check
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
    - CCE-80667-9
    - CJIS-5.5.3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020010
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.6
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the pam_faillock.so
    deny parameter in /etc/security/faillock.conf
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    path: /etc/security/faillock.conf
    regexp: ^\s*deny\s*=
    line: deny = {{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny }}
    state: present
  when:
    - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - result_faillock_conf_check.stat.exists
  tags:
    - CCE-80667-9
    - CJIS-5.5.3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020010
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.6
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the pam_faillock.so
    deny parameter in PAM files
  block:

    - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Check if pam_faillock.so
        deny parameter is already enabled in pam files
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        regexp: .*auth.*pam_faillock.so (preauth|authfail).*deny
        state: absent
      check_mode: true
      changed_when: false
      register: result_pam_faillock_deny_parameter_is_present

    - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the inclusion of
        pam_faillock.so preauth deny parameter in auth section
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: '{{ item }}'
        backrefs: true
        regexp: (^\s*auth\s+)([\w\[].*\b)(\s+pam_faillock.so preauth.*)
        line: \1required\3 deny={{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny }}
        state: present
      loop:
        - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
      when:
        - result_pam_faillock_deny_parameter_is_present.found == 0

    - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the inclusion of
        pam_faillock.so authfail deny parameter in auth section
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: '{{ item }}'
        backrefs: true
        regexp: (^\s*auth\s+)([\w\[].*\b)(\s+pam_faillock.so authfail.*)
        line: \1required\3 deny={{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny }}
        state: present
      loop:
        - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
      when:
        - result_pam_faillock_deny_parameter_is_present.found == 0

    - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the desired value
        for pam_faillock.so preauth deny parameter in auth section
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: '{{ item }}'
        backrefs: true
        regexp: (^\s*auth\s+)([\w\[].*\b)(\s+pam_faillock.so preauth.*)(deny)=[0-9]+(.*)
        line: \1required\3\4={{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny }}\5
        state: present
      loop:
        - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
      when:
        - result_pam_faillock_deny_parameter_is_present.found > 0

    - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the desired value
        for pam_faillock.so authfail deny parameter in auth section
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: '{{ item }}'
        backrefs: true
        regexp: (^\s*auth\s+)([\w\[].*\b)(\s+pam_faillock.so authfail.*)(deny)=[0-9]+(.*)
        line: \1required\3\4={{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny }}\5
        state: present
      loop:
        - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
      when:
        - result_pam_faillock_deny_parameter_is_present.found > 0
  when:
    - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - not result_faillock_conf_check.stat.exists
  tags:
    - CCE-80667-9
    - CJIS-5.5.3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020010
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.6
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q pam; then

var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny='3'


if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
    if authselect check; then
    authselect enable-feature with-faillock
    authselect apply-changes
else
    echo "
authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool is available.
In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended."
    false
fi
else
    AUTH_FILES=("/etc/pam.d/system-auth" "/etc/pam.d/password-auth")
for pam_file in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
do
    if ! grep -qE '^\s*auth\s+required\s+pam_faillock\.so\s+(preauth silent|authfail).*$' "$pam_file" ; then
        sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so.*/i auth        required      pam_faillock.so preauth silent' "$pam_file"
        sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so.*/a auth        required      pam_faillock.so authfail' "$pam_file"
        sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^account.*required.*pam_unix.so.*/i account     required      pam_faillock.so' "$pam_file"
    fi
    sed -Ei 's/(auth.*)(\[default=die\])(.*pam_faillock.so)/\1required     \3/g' "$pam_file"
done
fi
FAILLOCK_CONF="/etc/security/faillock.conf"
if [ -f $FAILLOCK_CONF ]; then
    regex="^\s*deny\s*="
    line="deny = $var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny"
    if ! grep -q $regex $FAILLOCK_CONF; then
        echo $line >> $FAILLOCK_CONF
    else
        sed -i --follow-symlinks 's/^\s*\(deny\s*=\s*\)\([0-9]\+\)/\1'"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny"'/g' $FAILLOCK_CONF
    fi
else
    AUTH_FILES=("/etc/pam.d/system-auth" "/etc/pam.d/password-auth")
    for pam_file in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
    do
        if ! grep -qE '^\s*auth.*pam_faillock.so (preauth|authfail).*deny' "$pam_file"; then
            sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*required.*pam_faillock.so.*preauth.*silent.*/ s/$/ deny='"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny"'/' "$pam_file"
            sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*required.*pam_faillock.so.*authfail.*/ s/$/ deny='"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny"'/' "$pam_file"
        else
            sed -i --follow-symlinks 's/\(^auth.*required.*pam_faillock.so.*preauth.*silent.*\)\('"deny"'=\)[0-9]\+\(.*\)/\1\2'"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny"'\3/' "$pam_file"
            sed -i --follow-symlinks 's/\(^auth.*required.*pam_faillock.so.*authfail.*\)\('"deny"'=\)[0-9]\+\(.*\)/\1\2'"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny"'\3/' "$pam_file"
        fi
    done
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts   [ref]

This rule configures the system to lock out the root account after a number of incorrect login attempts using pam_faillock.so. pam_faillock.so module requires multiple entries in pam files. These entries must be carefully defined to work as expected. In order to avoid errors when manually editing these files, it is recommended to use the appropriate tools, such as authselect or authconfig, depending on the OS version.
Warning:  If the system relies on authselect tool to manage PAM settings, the remediation will also use authselect tool. However, if any manual modification was made in PAM files, the authselect integrity check will fail and the remediation will be aborted in order to preserve intentional changes. In this case, an informative message will be shown in the remediation report. If the system supports the /etc/security/faillock.conf file, the pam_faillock parameters should be defined in faillock.conf file.
Rationale:
By limiting the number of failed logon attempts, the risk of unauthorized system access via user password guessing, also known as brute-forcing, is reduced. Limits are imposed by locking the account.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny_root
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80668-7

References:  BP28(R18), 1, 12, 15, 16, DSS05.04, DSS05.10, DSS06.10, CCI-002238, CCI-000044, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, 0421, 0422, 0431, 0974, 1173, 1401, 1504, 1505, 1546, 1557, 1558, 1559, 1560, 1561, A.18.1.4, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.4, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, CM-6(a), AC-7(b), IA-5(c), PR.AC-7, FMT_MOF_EXT.1, SRG-OS-000329-GPOS-00128, SRG-OS-000021-GPOS-00005, RHEL-08-020022, SV-230344r646874_rule


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
    - CCE-80668-7
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020022
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny_root
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Check if system
    relies on authselect tool
  ansible.builtin.stat:
    path: /usr/bin/authselect
  register: result_authselect_present
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
    - CCE-80668-7
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020022
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny_root
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Remediation where
    authselect tool is present
  block:

    - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Check integrity
        of authselect current profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect check
      register: result_authselect_check_cmd
      changed_when: false
      ignore_errors: true

    - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Informative
        message based on the authselect integrity check result
      ansible.builtin.assert:
        that:
          - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        fail_msg:
          - authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
          - This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was
            not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
          - It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool
            is available.
          - In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific
            demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended.
        success_msg:
          - authselect integrity check passed

    - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Get authselect
        current features
      ansible.builtin.shell:
        cmd: authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }'
      register: result_authselect_features
      changed_when: false
      when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success

    - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure with-faillock
        feature is enabled using authselect tool
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect enable-feature with-faillock
      register: result_authselect_cmd
      when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - result_authselect_features.stdout is not search("with-faillock")
  when:
    - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
  tags:
    - CCE-80668-7
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020022
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny_root
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Remediation where
    authselect tool is not present
  block:

    - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Check if pam_faillock.so
        is already enabled
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        regexp: .*auth.*pam_faillock.so (preauth|authfail)
        state: absent
      check_mode: true
      changed_when: false
      register: result_pam_faillock_is_enabled

    - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Enable pam_faillock.so
        preauth editing PAM files
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: '{{ item }}'
        line: auth        required      pam_faillock.so preauth
        insertbefore: ^auth.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so.*
        state: present
      loop:
        - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
      when:
        - result_pam_faillock_is_enabled.found == 0

    - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Enable pam_faillock.so
        authfail editing PAM files
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: '{{ item }}'
        line: auth        required      pam_faillock.so authfail
        insertafter: ^auth.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so.*
        state: present
      loop:
        - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
      when:
        - result_pam_faillock_is_enabled.found == 0

    - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Enable pam_faillock.so
        account section editing PAM files
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: '{{ item }}'
        line: account     required      pam_faillock.so
        insertbefore: ^account.*required.*pam_unix.so.*
        state: present
      loop:
        - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
      when:
        - result_pam_faillock_is_enabled.found == 0
  when:
    - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - not result_authselect_present.stat.exists
  tags:
    - CCE-80668-7
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020022
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny_root
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Check the presence
    of /etc/security/faillock.conf file
  ansible.builtin.stat:
    path: /etc/security/faillock.conf
  register: result_faillock_conf_check
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
    - CCE-80668-7
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020022
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny_root
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the pam_faillock.so
    even_deny_root parameter in /etc/security/faillock.conf
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    path: /etc/security/faillock.conf
    regexp: ^\s*even_deny_root
    line: even_deny_root
    state: present
  when:
    - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - result_faillock_conf_check.stat.exists
  tags:
    - CCE-80668-7
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020022
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny_root
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the pam_faillock.so
    even_deny_root parameter in PAM files
  block:

    - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Check if pam_faillock.so
        even_deny_root parameter is already enabled in pam files
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        regexp: .*auth.*pam_faillock.so (preauth|authfail).*even_deny_root
        state: absent
      check_mode: true
      changed_when: false
      register: result_pam_faillock_even_deny_root_parameter_is_present

    - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the inclusion
        of pam_faillock.so preauth even_deny_root parameter in auth section
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: '{{ item }}'
        backrefs: true
        regexp: (^\s*auth\s+)([\w\[].*\b)(\s+pam_faillock.so preauth.*)
        line: \1required\3 even_deny_root
        state: present
      loop:
        - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
      when:
        - result_pam_faillock_even_deny_root_parameter_is_present.found == 0

    - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the inclusion
        of pam_faillock.so authfail even_deny_root parameter in auth section
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: '{{ item }}'
        backrefs: true
        regexp: (^\s*auth\s+)([\w\[].*\b)(\s+pam_faillock.so authfail.*)
        line: \1required\3 even_deny_root
        state: present
      loop:
        - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
      when:
        - result_pam_faillock_even_deny_root_parameter_is_present.found == 0
  when:
    - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - not result_faillock_conf_check.stat.exists
  tags:
    - CCE-80668-7
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020022
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny_root
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q pam; then

if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
    if authselect check; then
    authselect enable-feature with-faillock
    authselect apply-changes
else
    echo "
authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool is available.
In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended."
    false
fi
else
    AUTH_FILES=("/etc/pam.d/system-auth" "/etc/pam.d/password-auth")
for pam_file in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
do
    if ! grep -qE '^\s*auth\s+required\s+pam_faillock\.so\s+(preauth silent|authfail).*$' "$pam_file" ; then
        sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so.*/i auth        required      pam_faillock.so preauth silent' "$pam_file"
        sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so.*/a auth        required      pam_faillock.so authfail' "$pam_file"
        sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^account.*required.*pam_unix.so.*/i account     required      pam_faillock.so' "$pam_file"
    fi
    sed -Ei 's/(auth.*)(\[default=die\])(.*pam_faillock.so)/\1required     \3/g' "$pam_file"
done
fi
FAILLOCK_CONF="/etc/security/faillock.conf"
if [ -f $FAILLOCK_CONF ]; then
    regex="^\s*even_deny_root"
    line="even_deny_root"
    if ! grep -q $regex $FAILLOCK_CONF; then
        echo $line >> $FAILLOCK_CONF
    fi
else
    AUTH_FILES=("/etc/pam.d/system-auth" "/etc/pam.d/password-auth")
    for pam_file in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
    do
        if ! grep -qE '^\s*auth.*pam_faillock.so (preauth|authfail).*even_deny_root' "$pam_file"; then
            sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*required.*pam_faillock.so.*preauth.*silent.*/ s/$/ even_deny_root/' "$pam_file"
            sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*required.*pam_faillock.so.*authfail.*/ s/$/ even_deny_root/' "$pam_file"
        fi
    done
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts   [ref]

Utilizing pam_faillock.so, the fail_interval directive configures the system to lock out an account after a number of incorrect login attempts within a specified time period.
Warning:  If the system relies on authselect tool to manage PAM settings, the remediation will also use authselect tool. However, if any manual modification was made in PAM files, the authselect integrity check will fail and the remediation will be aborted in order to preserve intentional changes. In this case, an informative message will be shown in the remediation report. If the system supports the /etc/security/faillock.conf file, the pam_faillock parameters should be defined in faillock.conf file.
Rationale:
By limiting the number of failed logon attempts the risk of unauthorized system access via user password guessing, otherwise known as brute-forcing, is reduced. Limits are imposed by locking the account.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_interval
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80669-5

References:  BP28(R18), 1, 12, 15, 16, DSS05.04, DSS05.10, DSS06.10, CCI-000044, CCI-002236, CCI-002237, CCI-002238, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, 0421, 0422, 0431, 0974, 1173, 1401, 1504, 1505, 1546, 1557, 1558, 1559, 1560, 1561, A.18.1.4, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.4, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, CM-6(a), AC-7(a), PR.AC-7, FIA_AFL.1, SRG-OS-000329-GPOS-00128, SRG-OS-000021-GPOS-00005, SRG-OS-000021-VMM-000050, RHEL-08-020012, SV-230334r627750_rule


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
    - CCE-80669-5
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020012
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_interval
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Check if system relies
    on authselect tool
  ansible.builtin.stat:
    path: /usr/bin/authselect
  register: result_authselect_present
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
    - CCE-80669-5
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020012
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_interval
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Remediation where authselect
    tool is present
  block:

    - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Check integrity of
        authselect current profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect check
      register: result_authselect_check_cmd
      changed_when: false
      ignore_errors: true

    - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Informative message
        based on the authselect integrity check result
      ansible.builtin.assert:
        that:
          - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        fail_msg:
          - authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
          - This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was
            not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
          - It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool
            is available.
          - In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific
            demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended.
        success_msg:
          - authselect integrity check passed

    - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Get authselect current
        features
      ansible.builtin.shell:
        cmd: authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }'
      register: result_authselect_features
      changed_when: false
      when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success

    - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Ensure with-faillock
        feature is enabled using authselect tool
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect enable-feature with-faillock
      register: result_authselect_cmd
      when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - result_authselect_features.stdout is not search("with-faillock")
  when:
    - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
  tags:
    - CCE-80669-5
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020012
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_interval
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Remediation where authselect
    tool is not present
  block:

    - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Check if pam_faillock.so
        is already enabled
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        regexp: .*auth.*pam_faillock.so (preauth|authfail)
        state: absent
      check_mode: true
      changed_when: false
      register: result_pam_faillock_is_enabled

    - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Enable pam_faillock.so
        preauth editing PAM files
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: '{{ item }}'
        line: auth        required      pam_faillock.so preauth
        insertbefore: ^auth.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so.*
        state: present
      loop:
        - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
      when:
        - result_pam_faillock_is_enabled.found == 0

    - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Enable pam_faillock.so
        authfail editing PAM files
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: '{{ item }}'
        line: auth        required      pam_faillock.so authfail
        insertafter: ^auth.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so.*
        state: present
      loop:
        - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
      when:
        - result_pam_faillock_is_enabled.found == 0

    - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Enable pam_faillock.so
        account section editing PAM files
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: '{{ item }}'
        line: account     required      pam_faillock.so
        insertbefore: ^account.*required.*pam_unix.so.*
        state: present
      loop:
        - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
      when:
        - result_pam_faillock_is_enabled.found == 0
  when:
    - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - not result_authselect_present.stat.exists
  tags:
    - CCE-80669-5
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020012
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_interval
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy
- name: XCCDF Value var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval: !!str 900
  tags:
    - always

- name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Check the presence of
    /etc/security/faillock.conf file
  ansible.builtin.stat:
    path: /etc/security/faillock.conf
  register: result_faillock_conf_check
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
    - CCE-80669-5
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020012
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_interval
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the pam_faillock.so
    fail_interval parameter in /etc/security/faillock.conf
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    path: /etc/security/faillock.conf
    regexp: ^\s*fail_interval\s*=
    line: fail_interval = {{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval }}
    state: present
  when:
    - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - result_faillock_conf_check.stat.exists
  tags:
    - CCE-80669-5
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020012
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_interval
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the pam_faillock.so
    fail_interval parameter in PAM files
  block:

    - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Check if pam_faillock.so
        fail_interval parameter is already enabled in pam files
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        regexp: .*auth.*pam_faillock.so (preauth|authfail).*fail_interval
        state: absent
      check_mode: true
      changed_when: false
      register: result_pam_faillock_fail_interval_parameter_is_present

    - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the inclusion
        of pam_faillock.so preauth fail_interval parameter in auth section
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: '{{ item }}'
        backrefs: true
        regexp: (^\s*auth\s+)([\w\[].*\b)(\s+pam_faillock.so preauth.*)
        line: \1required\3 fail_interval={{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval
          }}
        state: present
      loop:
        - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
      when:
        - result_pam_faillock_fail_interval_parameter_is_present.found == 0

    - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the inclusion
        of pam_faillock.so authfail fail_interval parameter in auth section
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: '{{ item }}'
        backrefs: true
        regexp: (^\s*auth\s+)([\w\[].*\b)(\s+pam_faillock.so authfail.*)
        line: \1required\3 fail_interval={{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval
          }}
        state: present
      loop:
        - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
      when:
        - result_pam_faillock_fail_interval_parameter_is_present.found == 0

    - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the desired
        value for pam_faillock.so preauth fail_interval parameter in auth section
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: '{{ item }}'
        backrefs: true
        regexp: (^\s*auth\s+)([\w\[].*\b)(\s+pam_faillock.so preauth.*)(fail_interval)=[0-9]+(.*)
        line: \1required\3\4={{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval
          }}\5
        state: present
      loop:
        - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
      when:
        - result_pam_faillock_fail_interval_parameter_is_present.found > 0

    - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the desired
        value for pam_faillock.so authfail fail_interval parameter in auth section
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: '{{ item }}'
        backrefs: true
        regexp: (^\s*auth\s+)([\w\[].*\b)(\s+pam_faillock.so authfail.*)(fail_interval)=[0-9]+(.*)
        line: \1required\3\4={{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval
          }}\5
        state: present
      loop:
        - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
      when:
        - result_pam_faillock_fail_interval_parameter_is_present.found > 0
  when:
    - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - not result_faillock_conf_check.stat.exists
  tags:
    - CCE-80669-5
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020012
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_interval
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q pam; then

var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval='900'


if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
    if authselect check; then
    authselect enable-feature with-faillock
    authselect apply-changes
else
    echo "
authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool is available.
In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended."
    false
fi
else
    AUTH_FILES=("/etc/pam.d/system-auth" "/etc/pam.d/password-auth")
for pam_file in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
do
    if ! grep -qE '^\s*auth\s+required\s+pam_faillock\.so\s+(preauth silent|authfail).*$' "$pam_file" ; then
        sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so.*/i auth        required      pam_faillock.so preauth silent' "$pam_file"
        sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so.*/a auth        required      pam_faillock.so authfail' "$pam_file"
        sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^account.*required.*pam_unix.so.*/i account     required      pam_faillock.so' "$pam_file"
    fi
    sed -Ei 's/(auth.*)(\[default=die\])(.*pam_faillock.so)/\1required     \3/g' "$pam_file"
done
fi
FAILLOCK_CONF="/etc/security/faillock.conf"
if [ -f $FAILLOCK_CONF ]; then
    regex="^\s*fail_interval\s*="
    line="fail_interval = $var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval"
    if ! grep -q $regex $FAILLOCK_CONF; then
        echo $line >> $FAILLOCK_CONF
    else
        sed -i --follow-symlinks 's/^\s*\(fail_interval\s*=\s*\)\([0-9]\+\)/\1'"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval"'/g' $FAILLOCK_CONF
    fi
else
    AUTH_FILES=("/etc/pam.d/system-auth" "/etc/pam.d/password-auth")
    for pam_file in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
    do
        if ! grep -qE '^\s*auth.*pam_faillock.so (preauth|authfail).*fail_interval' "$pam_file"; then
            sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*required.*pam_faillock.so.*preauth.*silent.*/ s/$/ fail_interval='"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval"'/' "$pam_file"
            sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*required.*pam_faillock.so.*authfail.*/ s/$/ fail_interval='"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval"'/' "$pam_file"
        else
            sed -i --follow-symlinks 's/\(^auth.*required.*pam_faillock.so.*preauth.*silent.*\)\('"fail_interval"'=\)[0-9]\+\(.*\)/\1\2'"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval"'\3/' "$pam_file"
            sed -i --follow-symlinks 's/\(^auth.*required.*pam_faillock.so.*authfail.*\)\('"fail_interval"'=\)[0-9]\+\(.*\)/\1\2'"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval"'\3/' "$pam_file"
        fi
    done
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts   [ref]

This rule configures the system to lock out accounts during a specified time period after a number of incorrect login attempts using pam_faillock.so. pam_faillock.so module requires multiple entries in pam files. These entries must be carefully defined to work as expected. In order to avoid any errors when manually editing these files, it is recommended to use the appropriate tools, such as authselect or authconfig, depending on the OS version.
Warning:  If the system supports the new /etc/security/faillock.conf file but the pam_faillock.so parameters are defined directly in /etc/pam.d/system-auth and /etc/pam.d/password-auth, the remediation will migrate the unlock_time parameter to /etc/security/faillock.conf to ensure compatibility with authselect tool. The parameters deny and fail_interval, if used, also have to be migrated by their respective remediation.
Warning:  If the system relies on authselect tool to manage PAM settings, the remediation will also use authselect tool. However, if any manual modification was made in PAM files, the authselect integrity check will fail and the remediation will be aborted in order to preserve intentional changes. In this case, an informative message will be shown in the remediation report. If the system supports the /etc/security/faillock.conf file, the pam_faillock parameters should be defined in faillock.conf file.
Rationale:
Locking out user accounts after a number of incorrect attempts prevents direct password guessing attacks. Ensuring that an administrator is involved in unlocking locked accounts draws appropriate attention to such situations.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80670-3

References:  BP28(R18), 1, 12, 15, 16, 5.5.3, DSS05.04, DSS05.10, DSS06.10, 3.1.8, CCI-000044, CCI-002236, CCI-002237, CCI-002238, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, 0421, 0422, 0431, 0974, 1173, 1401, 1504, 1505, 1546, 1557, 1558, 1559, 1560, 1561, A.18.1.4, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.4, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, CM-6(a), AC-7(b), PR.AC-7, FIA_AFL.1, Req-8.1.7, SRG-OS-000329-GPOS-00128, SRG-OS-000021-GPOS-00005, SRG-OS-000329-VMM-001180, RHEL-08-020016, 5.4.2, SV-230338r627750_rule


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
    - CCE-80670-3
    - CJIS-5.5.3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020016
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.7
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Check if system relies on
    authselect tool
  ansible.builtin.stat:
    path: /usr/bin/authselect
  register: result_authselect_present
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
    - CCE-80670-3
    - CJIS-5.5.3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020016
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.7
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Remediation where authselect
    tool is present
  block:

    - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Check integrity of authselect
        current profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect check
      register: result_authselect_check_cmd
      changed_when: false
      ignore_errors: true

    - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Informative message based
        on the authselect integrity check result
      ansible.builtin.assert:
        that:
          - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        fail_msg:
          - authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
          - This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was
            not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
          - It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool
            is available.
          - In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific
            demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended.
        success_msg:
          - authselect integrity check passed

    - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Get authselect current
        features
      ansible.builtin.shell:
        cmd: authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }'
      register: result_authselect_features
      changed_when: false
      when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success

    - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure with-faillock feature
        is enabled using authselect tool
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect enable-feature with-faillock
      register: result_authselect_cmd
      when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - result_authselect_features.stdout is not search("with-faillock")
  when:
    - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
  tags:
    - CCE-80670-3
    - CJIS-5.5.3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020016
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.7
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Remediation where authselect
    tool is not present
  block:

    - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Check if pam_faillock.so
        is already enabled
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        regexp: .*auth.*pam_faillock.so (preauth|authfail)
        state: absent
      check_mode: true
      changed_when: false
      register: result_pam_faillock_is_enabled

    - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Enable pam_faillock.so
        preauth editing PAM files
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: '{{ item }}'
        line: auth        required      pam_faillock.so preauth
        insertbefore: ^auth.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so.*
        state: present
      loop:
        - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
      when:
        - result_pam_faillock_is_enabled.found == 0

    - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Enable pam_faillock.so
        authfail editing PAM files
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: '{{ item }}'
        line: auth        required      pam_faillock.so authfail
        insertafter: ^auth.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so.*
        state: present
      loop:
        - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
      when:
        - result_pam_faillock_is_enabled.found == 0

    - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Enable pam_faillock.so
        account section editing PAM files
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: '{{ item }}'
        line: account     required      pam_faillock.so
        insertbefore: ^account.*required.*pam_unix.so.*
        state: present
      loop:
        - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
      when:
        - result_pam_faillock_is_enabled.found == 0
  when:
    - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - not result_authselect_present.stat.exists
  tags:
    - CCE-80670-3
    - CJIS-5.5.3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020016
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.7
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy
- name: XCCDF Value var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time: !!str 900
  tags:
    - always

- name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Check the presence of /etc/security/faillock.conf
    file
  ansible.builtin.stat:
    path: /etc/security/faillock.conf
  register: result_faillock_conf_check
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
    - CCE-80670-3
    - CJIS-5.5.3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020016
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.7
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the pam_faillock.so
    unlock_time parameter in /etc/security/faillock.conf
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    path: /etc/security/faillock.conf
    regexp: ^\s*unlock_time\s*=
    line: unlock_time = {{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time }}
    state: present
  when:
    - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - result_faillock_conf_check.stat.exists
  tags:
    - CCE-80670-3
    - CJIS-5.5.3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020016
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.7
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the pam_faillock.so
    unlock_time parameter in PAM files
  block:

    - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Check if pam_faillock.so
        unlock_time parameter is already enabled in pam files
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        regexp: .*auth.*pam_faillock.so (preauth|authfail).*unlock_time
        state: absent
      check_mode: true
      changed_when: false
      register: result_pam_faillock_unlock_time_parameter_is_present

    - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the inclusion of
        pam_faillock.so preauth unlock_time parameter in auth section
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: '{{ item }}'
        backrefs: true
        regexp: (^\s*auth\s+)([\w\[].*\b)(\s+pam_faillock.so preauth.*)
        line: \1required\3 unlock_time={{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time
          }}
        state: present
      loop:
        - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
      when:
        - result_pam_faillock_unlock_time_parameter_is_present.found == 0

    - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the inclusion of
        pam_faillock.so authfail unlock_time parameter in auth section
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: '{{ item }}'
        backrefs: true
        regexp: (^\s*auth\s+)([\w\[].*\b)(\s+pam_faillock.so authfail.*)
        line: \1required\3 unlock_time={{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time
          }}
        state: present
      loop:
        - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
      when:
        - result_pam_faillock_unlock_time_parameter_is_present.found == 0

    - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the desired value
        for pam_faillock.so preauth unlock_time parameter in auth section
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: '{{ item }}'
        backrefs: true
        regexp: (^\s*auth\s+)([\w\[].*\b)(\s+pam_faillock.so preauth.*)(unlock_time)=[0-9]+(.*)
        line: \1required\3\4={{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time }}\5
        state: present
      loop:
        - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
      when:
        - result_pam_faillock_unlock_time_parameter_is_present.found > 0

    - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the desired value
        for pam_faillock.so authfail unlock_time parameter in auth section
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: '{{ item }}'
        backrefs: true
        regexp: (^\s*auth\s+)([\w\[].*\b)(\s+pam_faillock.so authfail.*)(unlock_time)=[0-9]+(.*)
        line: \1required\3\4={{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time }}\5
        state: present
      loop:
        - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
      when:
        - result_pam_faillock_unlock_time_parameter_is_present.found > 0
  when:
    - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - not result_faillock_conf_check.stat.exists
  tags:
    - CCE-80670-3
    - CJIS-5.5.3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020016
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.7
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q pam; then

var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time='900'


if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
    if authselect check; then
    authselect enable-feature with-faillock
    authselect apply-changes
else
    echo "
authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool is available.
In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended."
    false
fi
else
    AUTH_FILES=("/etc/pam.d/system-auth" "/etc/pam.d/password-auth")
for pam_file in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
do
    if ! grep -qE '^\s*auth\s+required\s+pam_faillock\.so\s+(preauth silent|authfail).*$' "$pam_file" ; then
        sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so.*/i auth        required      pam_faillock.so preauth silent' "$pam_file"
        sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so.*/a auth        required      pam_faillock.so authfail' "$pam_file"
        sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^account.*required.*pam_unix.so.*/i account     required      pam_faillock.so' "$pam_file"
    fi
    sed -Ei 's/(auth.*)(\[default=die\])(.*pam_faillock.so)/\1required     \3/g' "$pam_file"
done
fi
FAILLOCK_CONF="/etc/security/faillock.conf"
if [ -f $FAILLOCK_CONF ]; then
    regex="^\s*unlock_time\s*="
    line="unlock_time = $var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time"
    if ! grep -q $regex $FAILLOCK_CONF; then
        echo $line >> $FAILLOCK_CONF
    else
        sed -i --follow-symlinks 's/^\s*\(unlock_time\s*=\s*\)\([0-9]\+\)/\1'"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time"'/g' $FAILLOCK_CONF
    fi
else
    AUTH_FILES=("/etc/pam.d/system-auth" "/etc/pam.d/password-auth")
    for pam_file in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
    do
        if ! grep -qE '^\s*auth.*pam_faillock.so (preauth|authfail).*unlock_time' "$pam_file"; then
            sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*required.*pam_faillock.so.*preauth.*silent.*/ s/$/ unlock_time='"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time"'/' "$pam_file"
            sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*required.*pam_faillock.so.*authfail.*/ s/$/ unlock_time='"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time"'/' "$pam_file"
        else
            sed -i --follow-symlinks 's/\(^auth.*required.*pam_faillock.so.*preauth.*silent.*\)\('"unlock_time"'=\)[0-9]\+\(.*\)/\1\2'"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time"'\3/' "$pam_file"
            sed -i --follow-symlinks 's/\(^auth.*required.*pam_faillock.so.*authfail.*\)\('"unlock_time"'=\)[0-9]\+\(.*\)/\1\2'"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time"'\3/' "$pam_file"
        fi
    done
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi
Group   Set Password Quality Requirements   Group contains 1 group and 5 rules
[ref]   The default pam_pwquality PAM module provides strength checking for passwords. It performs a number of checks, such as making sure passwords are not similar to dictionary words, are of at least a certain length, are not the previous password reversed, and are not simply a change of case from the previous password. It can also require passwords to be in certain character classes. The pam_pwquality module is the preferred way of configuring password requirements.

The man pages pam_pwquality(8) provide information on the capabilities and configuration of each.
Group   Set Password Quality Requirements with pam_pwquality   Group contains 5 rules
[ref]   The pam_pwquality PAM module can be configured to meet requirements for a variety of policies.

For example, to configure pam_pwquality to require at least one uppercase character, lowercase character, digit, and other (special) character, make sure that pam_pwquality exists in /etc/pam.d/system-auth:
password    requisite     pam_pwquality.so try_first_pass local_users_only retry=3 authtok_type=
If no such line exists, add one as the first line of the password section in /etc/pam.d/system-auth. Next, modify the settings in /etc/security/pwquality.conf to match the following:
difok = 4
minlen = 14
dcredit = -1
ucredit = -1
lcredit = -1
ocredit = -1
maxrepeat = 3
The arguments can be modified to ensure compliance with your organization's security policy. Discussion of each parameter follows.

Rule   Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Digit Characters   [ref]

The pam_pwquality module's dcredit parameter controls requirements for usage of digits in a password. When set to a negative number, any password will be required to contain that many digits. When set to a positive number, pam_pwquality will grant +1 additional length credit for each digit. Modify the dcredit setting in /etc/security/pwquality.conf to require the use of a digit in passwords.
Rationale:
Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks.

Password complexity is one factor of several that determines how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Requiring digits makes password guessing attacks more difficult by ensuring a larger search space.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_password_pam_dcredit
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80653-9

References:  BP28(R18), 1, 12, 15, 16, 5, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, CCI-000194, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, 0421, 0422, 0431, 0974, 1173, 1401, 1504, 1505, 1546, 1557, 1558, 1559, 1560, 1561, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, IA-5(c), IA-5(1)(a), CM-6(a), IA-5(4), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, FMT_MOF_EXT.1, Req-8.2.3, SRG-OS-000071-GPOS-00039, SRG-OS-000071-VMM-000380, RHEL-08-020130, SV-230359r627750_rule


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
    - CCE-80653-9
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020130
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
    - accounts_password_pam_dcredit
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy
- name: XCCDF Value var_password_pam_dcredit # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_password_pam_dcredit: !!str -1
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure PAM variable dcredit is set accordingly
  lineinfile:
    create: true
    dest: /etc/security/pwquality.conf
    regexp: ^#?\s*dcredit
    line: dcredit = {{ var_password_pam_dcredit }}
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
    - CCE-80653-9
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020130
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
    - accounts_password_pam_dcredit
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q pam; then

var_password_pam_dcredit='-1'


# Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
# Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
sed_command=('sed' '-i')
if test -L "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
fi

# Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^dcredit")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s = %s" "$stripped_key" "$var_password_pam_dcredit"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^dcredit\\>" "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/^dcredit\\>.*/$formatted_output/gi" "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    cce="CCE-80653-9"
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "/etc/security/pwquality.conf" >> "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Lowercase Characters   [ref]

The pam_pwquality module's lcredit parameter controls requirements for usage of lowercase letters in a password. When set to a negative number, any password will be required to contain that many lowercase characters. When set to a positive number, pam_pwquality will grant +1 additional length credit for each lowercase character. Modify the lcredit setting in /etc/security/pwquality.conf to require the use of a lowercase character in passwords.
Rationale:
Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks.
Password complexity is one factor of several that determines how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possble combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Requiring a minimum number of lowercase characters makes password guessing attacks more difficult by ensuring a larger search space.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_password_pam_lcredit
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80655-4

References:  BP28(R18), 1, 12, 15, 16, 5, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, CCI-000193, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, 0421, 0422, 0431, 0974, 1173, 1401, 1504, 1505, 1546, 1557, 1558, 1559, 1560, 1561, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, IA-5(c), IA-5(1)(a), CM-6(a), IA-5(4), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, FMT_MOF_EXT.1, Req-8.2.3, SRG-OS-000070-GPOS-00038, SRG-OS-000070-VMM-000370, RHEL-08-020120, SV-230358r627750_rule


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
    - CCE-80655-4
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020120
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
    - accounts_password_pam_lcredit
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy
- name: XCCDF Value var_password_pam_lcredit # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_password_pam_lcredit: !!str -1
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure PAM variable lcredit is set accordingly
  lineinfile:
    create: true
    dest: /etc/security/pwquality.conf
    regexp: ^#?\s*lcredit
    line: lcredit = {{ var_password_pam_lcredit }}
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
    - CCE-80655-4
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020120
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
    - accounts_password_pam_lcredit
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q pam; then

var_password_pam_lcredit='-1'


# Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
# Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
sed_command=('sed' '-i')
if test -L "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
fi

# Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^lcredit")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s = %s" "$stripped_key" "$var_password_pam_lcredit"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^lcredit\\>" "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/^lcredit\\>.*/$formatted_output/gi" "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    cce="CCE-80655-4"
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "/etc/security/pwquality.conf" >> "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Length   [ref]

The pam_pwquality module's minlen parameter controls requirements for minimum characters required in a password. Add minlen=18 after pam_pwquality to set minimum password length requirements.
Rationale:
The shorter the password, the lower the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised.
Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password length is one factor of several that helps to determine strength and how long it takes to crack a password. Use of more characters in a password helps to exponentially increase the time and/or resources required to compromose the password.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_password_pam_minlen
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80656-2

References:  BP28(R18), 1, 12, 15, 16, 5, 5.6.2.1.1, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, CCI-000205, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, 0421, 0422, 0431, 0974, 1173, 1401, 1504, 1505, 1546, 1557, 1558, 1559, 1560, 1561, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, IA-5(c), IA-5(1)(a), CM-6(a), IA-5(4), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, FMT_MOF_EXT.1, Req-8.2.3, SRG-OS-000078-GPOS-00046, SRG-OS-000072-VMM-000390, SRG-OS-000078-VMM-000450, RHEL-08-020230, 5.4.1, SV-230369r627750_rule


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
    - CCE-80656-2
    - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020230
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
    - accounts_password_pam_minlen
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy
- name: XCCDF Value var_password_pam_minlen # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_password_pam_minlen: !!str 18
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure PAM variable minlen is set accordingly
  lineinfile:
    create: true
    dest: /etc/security/pwquality.conf
    regexp: ^#?\s*minlen
    line: minlen = {{ var_password_pam_minlen }}
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
    - CCE-80656-2
    - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020230
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
    - accounts_password_pam_minlen
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q pam; then

var_password_pam_minlen='18'


# Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
# Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
sed_command=('sed' '-i')
if test -L "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
fi

# Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^minlen")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s = %s" "$stripped_key" "$var_password_pam_minlen"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^minlen\\>" "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/^minlen\\>.*/$formatted_output/gi" "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    cce="CCE-80656-2"
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "/etc/security/pwquality.conf" >> "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Special Characters   [ref]

The pam_pwquality module's ocredit= parameter controls requirements for usage of special (or "other") characters in a password. When set to a negative number, any password will be required to contain that many special characters. When set to a positive number, pam_pwquality will grant +1 additional length credit for each special character. Modify the ocredit setting in /etc/security/pwquality.conf to equal -1 to require use of a special character in passwords.
Rationale:
Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks.

Password complexity is one factor of several that determines how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Requiring a minimum number of special characters makes password guessing attacks more difficult by ensuring a larger search space.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_password_pam_ocredit
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80663-8

References:  BP28(R18), 1, 12, 15, 16, 5, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, CCI-001619, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, 0421, 0422, 0431, 0974, 1173, 1401, 1504, 1505, 1546, 1557, 1558, 1559, 1560, 1561, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, IA-5(c), IA-5(1)(a), CM-6(a), IA-5(4), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, FMT_MOF_EXT.1, SRG-OS-000266-GPOS-00101, SRG-OS-000266-VMM-000940, RHEL-08-020280, SV-230375r627750_rule


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
    - CCE-80663-8
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020280
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
    - accounts_password_pam_ocredit
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy
- name: XCCDF Value var_password_pam_ocredit # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_password_pam_ocredit: !!str -1
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure PAM variable ocredit is set accordingly
  lineinfile:
    create: true
    dest: /etc/security/pwquality.conf
    regexp: ^#?\s*ocredit
    line: ocredit = {{ var_password_pam_ocredit }}
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
    - CCE-80663-8
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020280
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
    - accounts_password_pam_ocredit
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q pam; then

var_password_pam_ocredit='-1'


# Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
# Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
sed_command=('sed' '-i')
if test -L "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
fi

# Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^ocredit")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s = %s" "$stripped_key" "$var_password_pam_ocredit"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^ocredit\\>" "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/^ocredit\\>.*/$formatted_output/gi" "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    cce="CCE-80663-8"
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "/etc/security/pwquality.conf" >> "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Uppercase Characters   [ref]

The pam_pwquality module's ucredit= parameter controls requirements for usage of uppercase letters in a password. When set to a negative number, any password will be required to contain that many uppercase characters. When set to a positive number, pam_pwquality will grant +1 additional length credit for each uppercase character. Modify the ucredit setting in /etc/security/pwquality.conf to require the use of an uppercase character in passwords.
Rationale:
Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks.

Password complexity is one factor of several that determines how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_password_pam_ucredit
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80665-3

References:  BP28(R18), 1, 12, 15, 16, 5, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, CCI-000192, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, 0421, 0422, 0431, 0974, 1173, 1401, 1504, 1505, 1546, 1557, 1558, 1559, 1560, 1561, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, IA-5(c), IA-5(1)(a), CM-6(a), IA-5(4), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, FMT_MOF_EXT.1, Req-8.2.3, SRG-OS-000069-GPOS-00037, SRG-OS-000069-VMM-000360, RHEL-08-020110, SV-230357r627750_rule


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
    - CCE-80665-3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020110
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
    - accounts_password_pam_ucredit
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy
- name: XCCDF Value var_password_pam_ucredit # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_password_pam_ucredit: !!str -1
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure PAM variable ucredit is set accordingly
  lineinfile:
    create: true
    dest: /etc/security/pwquality.conf
    regexp: ^#?\s*ucredit
    line: ucredit = {{ var_password_pam_ucredit }}
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
    - CCE-80665-3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020110
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
    - accounts_password_pam_ucredit
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q pam; then

var_password_pam_ucredit='-1'


# Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
# Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
sed_command=('sed' '-i')
if test -L "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
fi

# Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^ucredit")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s = %s" "$stripped_key" "$var_password_pam_ucredit"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^ucredit\\>" "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/^ucredit\\>.*/$formatted_output/gi" "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    cce="CCE-80665-3"
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "/etc/security/pwquality.conf" >> "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi
Group   Set Password Hashing Algorithm   Group contains 1 rule
[ref]   The system's default algorithm for storing password hashes in /etc/shadow is SHA-512. This can be configured in several locations.

Rule   Set PAM's Password Hashing Algorithm   [ref]

The PAM system service can be configured to only store encrypted representations of passwords. In "/etc/pam.d/password-auth", the password section of the file controls which PAM modules execute during a password change. Set the pam_unix.so module in the password section to include the argument sha512, as shown below:
password    sufficient    pam_unix.so sha512 other arguments...

This will help ensure when local users change their passwords, hashes for the new passwords will be generated using the SHA-512 algorithm. This is the default.
Rationale:
Passwords need to be protected at all times, and encryption is the standard method for protecting passwords. If passwords are not encrypted, they can be plainly read (i.e., clear text) and easily compromised. Passwords that are encrypted with a weak algorithm are no more protected than if they are kepy in plain text.

This setting ensures user and group account administration utilities are configured to store only encrypted representations of passwords. Additionally, the crypt_style configuration option ensures the use of a strong hashing algorithm that makes password cracking attacks more difficult.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_set_password_hashing_algorithm_systemauth
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80893-1

References:  BP28(R32), 1, 12, 15, 16, 5, 5.6.2.2, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, 3.13.11, CCI-000196, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, 0418, 1055, 1402, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, IA-5(c), IA-5(1)(c), CM-6(a), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, Req-8.2.1, SRG-OS-000073-GPOS-00041, SRG-OS-000480-VMM-002000, RHEL-08-010159, 5.4.4, SV-244524r809331_rule


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q pam; then

AUTH_FILES[0]="/etc/pam.d/system-auth"
for pamFile in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
do
	if ! grep -q "^password.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so.*sha512" $pamFile; then
		sed -i --follow-symlinks "/^password.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so/ s/$/ sha512/" $pamFile
	fi
done

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Set Up a Private Namespace in PAM Configuration   [ref]

To setup a private namespace add the following line to /etc/pam.d/login:
session    required     pam_namespace.so
Rationale:
The pam_namespace PAM module sets up a private namespace for a session with polyinstantiated directories. A polyinstantiated directory provides a different instance of itself based on user name, or when using SELinux, user name, security context or both. The polyinstatied directories can be used to dedicate separate temporary directories to each account.
Severity: 
low
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_enable_pam_namespace
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-83744-3

References:  BP28(R39)


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
    - CCE-83744-3
    - enable_pam_namespace
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - low_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Make changes to /etc/pam.d/login
  lineinfile:
    path: /etc/pam.d/login
    create: false
    regexp: ^\s*session\s+required\s+pam_namespace.so\s*$
    line: session    required     pam_namespace.so
    state: present
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
    - CCE-83744-3
    - enable_pam_namespace
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - low_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q pam; then

if ! grep -Eq '^\s*session\s+required\s+pam_namespace.so\s*$' '/etc/pam.d/login' ; then
    echo "session    required     pam_namespace.so" >> "/etc/pam.d/login"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi
Group   Protect Accounts by Restricting Password-Based Login   Group contains 3 groups and 5 rules
[ref]   Conventionally, Unix shell accounts are accessed by providing a username and password to a login program, which tests these values for correctness using the /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow files. Password-based login is vulnerable to guessing of weak passwords, and to sniffing and man-in-the-middle attacks against passwords entered over a network or at an insecure console. Therefore, mechanisms for accessing accounts by entering usernames and passwords should be restricted to those which are operationally necessary.
Group   Set Password Expiration Parameters   Group contains 2 rules
[ref]   The file /etc/login.defs controls several password-related settings. Programs such as passwd, su, and login consult /etc/login.defs to determine behavior with regard to password aging, expiration warnings, and length. See the man page login.defs(5) for more information.

Users should be forced to change their passwords, in order to decrease the utility of compromised passwords. However, the need to change passwords often should be balanced against the risk that users will reuse or write down passwords if forced to change them too often. Forcing password changes every 90-360 days, depending on the environment, is recommended. Set the appropriate value as PASS_MAX_DAYS and apply it to existing accounts with the -M flag.

The PASS_MIN_DAYS (-m) setting prevents password changes for 7 days after the first change, to discourage password cycling. If you use this setting, train users to contact an administrator for an emergency password change in case a new password becomes compromised. The PASS_WARN_AGE (-W) setting gives users 7 days of warnings at login time that their passwords are about to expire.

For example, for each existing human user USER, expiration parameters could be adjusted to a 180 day maximum password age, 7 day minimum password age, and 7 day warning period with the following command:
$ sudo chage -M 180 -m 7 -W 7 USER
Group   Verify Proper Storage and Existence of Password Hashes   Group contains 2 rules
[ref]   By default, password hashes for local accounts are stored in the second field (colon-separated) in /etc/shadow. This file should be readable only by processes running with root credentials, preventing users from casually accessing others' password hashes and attempting to crack them. However, it remains possible to misconfigure the system and store password hashes in world-readable files such as /etc/passwd, or to even store passwords themselves in plaintext on the system. Using system-provided tools for password change/creation should allow administrators to avoid such misconfiguration.

Rule   Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - password-auth   [ref]

Configure the number or rounds for the password hashing algorithm. This can be accomplished by using the rounds option for the pam_unix PAM module.

In file /etc/pam.d/password-auth append rounds=65536 to the pam_unix.so entry, as shown below:
password sufficient pam_unix.so ...existing_options... rounds=65536
The system's default number of rounds is 5000.
Warning:  Setting a high number of hashing rounds makes it more difficult to brute force the password, but requires more CPU resources to authenticate users.
Rationale:
Using a higher number of rounds makes password cracking attacks more difficult.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_password_pam_unix_rounds_password_auth
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-83403-6

References:  BP28(R32), CCI-000196, SRG-OS-000073-GPOS-00041


Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Strategy:configure
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
    - CCE-83403-6
    - accounts_password_pam_unix_rounds_password_auth
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
- name: XCCDF Value var_password_pam_unix_rounds # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_password_pam_unix_rounds: !!str 65536
  tags:
    - always

- name: Check for existing rounds parameter
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    path: /etc/pam.d/password-auth
    create: false
    regexp: ^password.*pam_unix.so.*rounds=
    state: absent
  check_mode: true
  changed_when: false
  register: result_pam_unix_rounds_present
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
    - CCE-83403-6
    - accounts_password_pam_unix_rounds_password_auth
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed

- name: Check if system relies on authselect
  ansible.builtin.stat:
    path: /usr/bin/authselect
  register: result_authselect_present
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
    - CCE-83403-6
    - accounts_password_pam_unix_rounds_password_auth
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed

- name: Remediation where authselect tool is present
  block:

    - name: Check the integrity of the current authselect profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect check
      register: result_authselect_check_cmd
      changed_when: false
      ignore_errors: true

    - name: Informative message based on the authselect integrity check result
      ansible.builtin.assert:
        that:
          - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        fail_msg:
          - authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
          - This remediation could not be applied because the authselect profile is
            not intact.
          - It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect is
            available.
          - In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific
            demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended.
        success_msg:
          - authselect integrity check passed

    - name: Get authselect current profile
      ansible.builtin.shell:
        cmd: authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }'
      register: result_authselect_profile
      changed_when: false
      when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success

    - name: Define the current authselect profile as a local fact
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
        authselect_custom_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
      when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_authselect_profile.stdout is match("custom/")

    - name: Define the new authselect custom profile as a local fact
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
        authselect_custom_profile: custom/hardening
      when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_authselect_profile.stdout is not match("custom/")

    - name: Get authselect current features to also enable them in the custom profile
      ansible.builtin.shell:
        cmd: authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }'
      register: result_authselect_features
      changed_when: false
      when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

    - name: Check if any custom profile with the same name was already created in
        the past
      ansible.builtin.stat:
        path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}
      register: result_authselect_custom_profile_present
      changed_when: false
      when:
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

    - name: Create a custom profile based on the current profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect create-profile hardening -b sssd
      when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
        - not result_authselect_custom_profile_present.stat.exists

    - name: Ensure the desired rounds value is updated in the custom profile
      ansible.builtin.replace:
        dest: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}/password-auth
        regexp: (^\s*password.*pam_unix.so.*rounds=)(\S+)(.*)$
        replace: \g<1>{{ var_password_pam_unix_rounds }}\g<3>
      when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_pam_unix_rounds_present.found == 1

    - name: Ensure the rounds parameter is included in the custom profile
      ansible.builtin.replace:
        dest: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}/password-auth
        regexp: (^\s*password.*pam_unix.so.*)(?! rounds=\S+)(.*)$
        replace: \g<1> \g<2> rounds={{ var_password_pam_unix_rounds }}
      when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_pam_unix_rounds_present.found == 0

    - name: Ensure a backup of current authselect profile before selecting the custom
        profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-rounds-hardening.backup
      when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
        - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

    - name: Ensure the custom profile is selected
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect select {{ authselect_custom_profile }} --force
      register: result_pam_authselect_select_profile
      when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
        - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

    - name: Restore the authselect features in the custom profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect enable-feature {{ item }}
      loop: '{{ result_authselect_features.stdout_lines }}'
      when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_authselect_features is not skipped
        - result_pam_authselect_select_profile is not skipped

    - name: Ensure the custom profile changes are applied
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-rounds-hardening.backup
      when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
  when:
    - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
  tags:
    - CCE-83403-6
    - accounts_password_pam_unix_rounds_password_auth
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed

- name: Remediation where authselect tool is not present and PAM files are directly
    edited
  block:

    - name: Ensure the desired rounds value is updated in the custom profile
      ansible.builtin.replace:
        dest: /etc/pam.d/password-auth
        regexp: (^\s*password.*pam_unix.so.*rounds=)(\S+)(.*)$
        replace: \g<1>{{ var_password_pam_unix_rounds }}\g<3>

    - name: Ensure the remember parameter is included in the custom profile
      ansible.builtin.replace:
        dest: /etc/pam.d/password-auth
        regexp: (^\s*password.*pam_unix.so.*)(?! rounds=\S+)(.*)$
        replace: \g<1> \g<2> rounds={{ var_password_pam_unix_rounds }}
      when:
        - result_pam_unix_rounds_present.found == 0
  when:
    - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - not result_authselect_present.stat.exists
  tags:
    - CCE-83403-6
    - accounts_password_pam_unix_rounds_password_auth
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q pam; then

var_password_pam_unix_rounds='65536'


if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
    if authselect check; then
        CURRENT_PROFILE=$(authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }')
        # Standard profiles delivered with authselect should not be modified.
        # If not already in use, a custom profile is created preserving the enabled features.
        if [[ ! $CURRENT_PROFILE == custom/* ]]; then
            ENABLED_FEATURES=$(authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }')
            authselect create-profile hardening -b $CURRENT_PROFILE
            CURRENT_PROFILE="custom/hardening"
            # Ensure a backup before changing the profile
            authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-rounds-hardening.backup
            authselect select $CURRENT_PROFILE
            for feature in $ENABLED_FEATURES; do
                authselect enable-feature $feature;
            done
        fi
        # Include the desired configuration in the custom profile
        CUSTOM_PASSWORD_AUTH="/etc/authselect/$CURRENT_PROFILE/password-auth"
		if ! grep -q "^\s*password.*pam_unix.so.*rounds=" $CUSTOM_PASSWORD_AUTH; then
			sed -i --follow-symlinks "/^\s*password.*pam_unix.so/ s/$/ rounds=$var_password_pam_unix_rounds/" $CUSTOM_PASSWORD_AUTH
		else
			sed -r -i --follow-symlinks "s/(^\s*password.*pam_unix.so.*)(rounds=[[:digit:]]+)(.*)/\1rounds=$var_password_pam_unix_rounds \3/g" $CUSTOM_PASSWORD_AUTH
		fi
        authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-rounds-hardening.backup
    else
        echo "
authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
This remediation could not be applied because the authselect profile is not intact.
It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect is available.
In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended."
        false
    fi
else

    pamFile="/etc/pam.d/password-auth"

    if grep -q "rounds=" $pamFile; then
        sed -iP --follow-symlinks "/password[[:space:]]\+sufficient[[:space:]]\+pam_unix\.so/ \
                                        s/rounds=[[:digit:]]\+/rounds=$var_password_pam_unix_rounds/" $pamFile
    else
        sed -iP --follow-symlinks "/password[[:space:]]\+sufficient[[:space:]]\+pam_unix\.so/ s/$/ rounds=$var_password_pam_unix_rounds/" $pamFile
    fi
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - system-auth   [ref]

Configure the number or rounds for the password hashing algorithm. This can be accomplished by using the rounds option for the pam_unix PAM module.

In file /etc/pam.d/system-auth append rounds=65536 to the pam_unix.so entry, as shown below:
password sufficient pam_unix.so ...existing_options... rounds=65536
The system's default number of rounds is 5000.
Warning:  Setting a high number of hashing rounds makes it more difficult to brute force the password, but requires more CPU resources to authenticate users.
Rationale:
Using a higher number of rounds makes password cracking attacks more difficult.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_password_pam_unix_rounds_system_auth
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-83386-3

References:  BP28(R32), CCI-000196, SRG-OS-000073-GPOS-00041


Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Strategy:configure
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
    - CCE-83386-3
    - accounts_password_pam_unix_rounds_system_auth
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
- name: XCCDF Value var_password_pam_unix_rounds # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_password_pam_unix_rounds: !!str 65536
  tags:
    - always

- name: Check for existing rounds parameter
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    create: false
    regexp: ^password.*pam_unix.so.*rounds=
    state: absent
  check_mode: true
  changed_when: false
  register: result_pam_unix_rounds_present
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
    - CCE-83386-3
    - accounts_password_pam_unix_rounds_system_auth
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed

- name: Check if system relies on authselect
  ansible.builtin.stat:
    path: /usr/bin/authselect
  register: result_authselect_present
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
    - CCE-83386-3
    - accounts_password_pam_unix_rounds_system_auth
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed

- name: Remediation where authselect tool is present
  block:

    - name: Check the integrity of the current authselect profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect check
      register: result_authselect_check_cmd
      changed_when: false
      ignore_errors: true

    - name: Informative message based on the authselect integrity check result
      ansible.builtin.assert:
        that:
          - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        fail_msg:
          - authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
          - This remediation could not be applied because the authselect profile is
            not intact.
          - It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect is
            available.
          - In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific
            demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended.
        success_msg:
          - authselect integrity check passed

    - name: Get authselect current profile
      ansible.builtin.shell:
        cmd: authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }'
      register: result_authselect_profile
      changed_when: false
      when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success

    - name: Define the current authselect profile as a local fact
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
        authselect_custom_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
      when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_authselect_profile.stdout is match("custom/")

    - name: Define the new authselect custom profile as a local fact
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
        authselect_custom_profile: custom/hardening
      when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_authselect_profile.stdout is not match("custom/")

    - name: Get authselect current features to also enable them in the custom profile
      ansible.builtin.shell:
        cmd: authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }'
      register: result_authselect_features
      changed_when: false
      when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

    - name: Check if any custom profile with the same name was already created in
        the past
      ansible.builtin.stat:
        path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}
      register: result_authselect_custom_profile_present
      changed_when: false
      when:
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

    - name: Create a custom profile based on the current profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect create-profile hardening -b sssd
      when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
        - not result_authselect_custom_profile_present.stat.exists

    - name: Ensure the desired rounds value is updated in the custom profile
      ansible.builtin.replace:
        dest: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}/system-auth
        regexp: (^\s*password.*pam_unix.so.*rounds=)(\S+)(.*)$
        replace: \g<1>{{ var_password_pam_unix_rounds }}\g<3>
      when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_pam_unix_rounds_present.found == 1

    - name: Ensure the rounds parameter is included in the custom profile
      ansible.builtin.replace:
        dest: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}/system-auth
        regexp: (^\s*password.*pam_unix.so.*)(?! rounds=\S+)(.*)$
        replace: \g<1> \g<2> rounds={{ var_password_pam_unix_rounds }}
      when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_pam_unix_rounds_present.found == 0

    - name: Ensure a backup of current authselect profile before selecting the custom
        profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-rounds-hardening.backup
      when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
        - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

    - name: Ensure the custom profile is selected
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect select {{ authselect_custom_profile }} --force
      register: result_pam_authselect_select_profile
      when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
        - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

    - name: Restore the authselect features in the custom profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect enable-feature {{ item }}
      loop: '{{ result_authselect_features.stdout_lines }}'
      when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_authselect_features is not skipped
        - result_pam_authselect_select_profile is not skipped

    - name: Ensure the custom profile changes are applied
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-rounds-hardening.backup
      when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
  when:
    - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
  tags:
    - CCE-83386-3
    - accounts_password_pam_unix_rounds_system_auth
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed

- name: Remediation where authselect tool is not present and PAM files are directly
    edited
  block:

    - name: Ensure the desired rounds value is updated in the custom profile
      ansible.builtin.replace:
        dest: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        regexp: (^\s*password.*pam_unix.so.*rounds=)(\S+)(.*)$
        replace: \g<1>{{ var_password_pam_unix_rounds }}\g<3>

    - name: Ensure the remember parameter is included in the custom profile
      ansible.builtin.replace:
        dest: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        regexp: (^\s*password.*pam_unix.so.*)(?! rounds=\S+)(.*)$
        replace: \g<1> \g<2> rounds={{ var_password_pam_unix_rounds }}
      when:
        - result_pam_unix_rounds_present.found == 0
  when:
    - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - not result_authselect_present.stat.exists
  tags:
    - CCE-83386-3
    - accounts_password_pam_unix_rounds_system_auth
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q pam; then

var_password_pam_unix_rounds='65536'


if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
    if authselect check; then
        CURRENT_PROFILE=$(authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }')
        # Standard profiles delivered with authselect should not be modified.
        # If not already in use, a custom profile is created preserving the enabled features.
        if [[ ! $CURRENT_PROFILE == custom/* ]]; then
            ENABLED_FEATURES=$(authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }')
            authselect create-profile hardening -b $CURRENT_PROFILE
            CURRENT_PROFILE="custom/hardening"
            # Ensure a backup before changing the profile
            authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-rounds-hardening.backup
            authselect select $CURRENT_PROFILE
            for feature in $ENABLED_FEATURES; do
                authselect enable-feature $feature;
            done
        fi
        # Include the desired configuration in the custom profile
        CUSTOM_SYSTEM_AUTH="/etc/authselect/$CURRENT_PROFILE/system-auth"
		if ! grep -q "^\s*password.*pam_unix.so.*rounds=" $CUSTOM_SYSTEM_AUTH; then
			sed -i --follow-symlinks "/^\s*password.*pam_unix.so/ s/$/ rounds=$var_password_pam_unix_rounds/" $CUSTOM_SYSTEM_AUTH
		else
			sed -r -i --follow-symlinks "s/(^\s*password.*pam_unix.so.*)(rounds=[[:digit:]]+)(.*)/\1rounds=$var_password_pam_unix_rounds \3/g" $CUSTOM_SYSTEM_AUTH
		fi
        authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-rounds-hardening.backup
    else
        echo "
authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
This remediation could not be applied because the authselect profile is not intact.
It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect is available.
In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended."
        false
    fi
else
    pamFile="/etc/pam.d/system-auth"
    if grep -q "rounds=" $pamFile; then
        sed -iP --follow-symlinks "/password[[:space:]]\+sufficient[[:space:]]\+pam_unix\.so/ \
                                        s/rounds=[[:digit:]]\+/rounds=$var_password_pam_unix_rounds/" $pamFile
    else
        sed -iP --follow-symlinks "/password[[:space:]]\+sufficient[[:space:]]\+pam_unix\.so/ s/$/ rounds=$var_password_pam_unix_rounds/" $pamFile
    fi
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi
Group   Restrict Root Logins   Group contains 1 rule
[ref]   Direct root logins should be allowed only for emergency use. In normal situations, the administrator should access the system via a unique unprivileged account, and then use su or sudo to execute privileged commands. Discouraging administrators from accessing the root account directly ensures an audit trail in organizations with multiple administrators. Locking down the channels through which root can connect directly also reduces opportunities for password-guessing against the root account. The login program uses the file /etc/securetty to determine which interfaces should allow root logins. The virtual devices /dev/console and /dev/tty* represent the system consoles (accessible via the Ctrl-Alt-F1 through Ctrl-Alt-F6 keyboard sequences on a default installation). The default securetty file also contains /dev/vc/*. These are likely to be deprecated in most environments, but may be retained for compatibility. Root should also be prohibited from connecting via network protocols. Other sections of this document include guidance describing how to prevent root from logging in via SSH.

Rule   Direct root Logins Not Allowed   [ref]

To further limit access to the root account, administrators can disable root logins at the console by editing the /etc/securetty file. This file lists all devices the root user is allowed to login to. If the file does not exist at all, the root user can login through any communication device on the system, whether via the console or via a raw network interface. This is dangerous as user can login to the system as root via Telnet, which sends the password in plain text over the network. By default, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8's /etc/securetty file only allows the root user to login at the console physically attached to the system. To prevent root from logging in, remove the contents of this file. To prevent direct root logins, remove the contents of this file by typing the following command:
$ sudo echo > /etc/securetty
Rationale:
Disabling direct root logins ensures proper accountability and multifactor authentication to privileged accounts. Users will first login, then escalate to privileged (root) access via su / sudo. This is required for FISMA Low and FISMA Moderate systems.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_no_direct_root_logins
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80840-2

References:  BP28(R19), 1, 12, 15, 16, 5, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, 3.1.1, 3.1.6, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B), 164.308(a)(7)(i), 164.308(a)(7)(ii)(A), 164.310(a)(1), 164.310(a)(2)(i), 164.310(a)(2)(ii), 164.310(a)(2)(iii), 164.310(b), 164.310(c), 164.310(d)(1), 164.310(d)(2)(iii), 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, CIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 R2.2.3, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2, CIP-007-3 R5.2, CIP-007-3 R5.3.1, CIP-007-3 R5.3.2, CIP-007-3 R5.3.3, IA-2, CM-6(a), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, 5.6


---
apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
kind: MachineConfig
spec:
  config:
    ignition:
      version: 3.1.0
    storage:
      files:
      - contents:
          source: data:,
        mode: 0600
        path: /etc/securetty
        overwrite: true

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: Direct root Logins Not Allowed
  copy:
    dest: /etc/securetty
    content: ''
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
    - CCE-80840-2
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.6
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-2
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_direct_root_logins
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

echo > /etc/securetty

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi
Group   Secure Session Configuration Files for Login Accounts   Group contains 1 group and 6 rules
[ref]   When a user logs into a Unix account, the system configures the user's session by reading a number of files. Many of these files are located in the user's home directory, and may have weak permissions as a result of user error or misconfiguration. If an attacker can modify or even read certain types of account configuration information, they can often gain full access to the affected user's account. Therefore, it is important to test and correct configuration file permissions for interactive accounts, particularly those of privileged users such as root or system administrators.
Group   Ensure that Users Have Sensible Umask Values   Group contains 3 rules
[ref]   The umask setting controls the default permissions for the creation of new files. With a default umask setting of 077, files and directories created by users will not be readable by any other user on the system. Users who wish to make specific files group- or world-readable can accomplish this by using the chmod command. Additionally, users can make all their files readable to their group by default by setting a umask of 027 in their shell configuration files. If default per-user groups exist (that is, if every user has a default group whose name is the same as that user's username and whose only member is the user), then it may even be safe for users to select a umask of 007, making it very easy to intentionally share files with groups of which the user is a member.

Rule   Ensure the Default Bash Umask is Set Correctly   [ref]

To ensure the default umask for users of the Bash shell is set properly, add or correct the umask setting in /etc/bashrc to read as follows:
umask 077
Rationale:
The umask value influences the permissions assigned to files when they are created. A misconfigured umask value could result in files with excessive permissions that can be read or written to by unauthorized users.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_umask_etc_bashrc
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-81036-6

References:  BP28(R35), 18, APO13.01, BAI03.01, BAI03.02, BAI03.03, CCI-000366, 4.3.4.3.3, A.14.1.1, A.14.2.1, A.14.2.5, A.6.1.5, CIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R2.1, CIP-007-3 R2.2, CIP-007-3 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2, AC-6(1), CM-6(a), PR.IP-2, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00228, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, RHEL-08-020353, 5.5.4, SV-230385r792902_rule


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value var_accounts_user_umask # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_accounts_user_umask: !!str 077
  tags:
    - always

- name: Replace user umask in /etc/bashrc
  replace:
    path: /etc/bashrc
    regexp: umask.*
    replace: umask {{ var_accounts_user_umask }}
  register: umask_replace
  tags:
    - CCE-81036-6
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020353
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - accounts_umask_etc_bashrc
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Append user umask in /etc/bashrc
  lineinfile:
    create: true
    path: /etc/bashrc
    line: umask {{ var_accounts_user_umask }}
  when: umask_replace is not changed
  tags:
    - CCE-81036-6
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020353
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - accounts_umask_etc_bashrc
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy


var_accounts_user_umask='077'






grep -q umask /etc/bashrc && \
  sed -i "s/umask.*/umask $var_accounts_user_umask/g" /etc/bashrc
if ! [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
    echo "umask $var_accounts_user_umask" >> /etc/bashrc
fi

Rule   Ensure the Default Umask is Set Correctly in /etc/profile   [ref]

To ensure the default umask controlled by /etc/profile is set properly, add or correct the umask setting in /etc/profile to read as follows:
umask 077
Rationale:
The umask value influences the permissions assigned to files when they are created. A misconfigured umask value could result in files with excessive permissions that can be read or written to by unauthorized users.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_umask_etc_profile
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-81035-8

References:  BP28(R35), 18, APO13.01, BAI03.01, BAI03.02, BAI03.03, CCI-000366, 4.3.4.3.3, A.14.1.1, A.14.2.1, A.14.2.5, A.6.1.5, CIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R2.1, CIP-007-3 R2.2, CIP-007-3 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2, AC-6(1), CM-6(a), PR.IP-2, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00228, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, RHEL-08-020353, 5.5.4, SV-230385r792902_rule


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value var_accounts_user_umask # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_accounts_user_umask: !!str 077
  tags:
    - always

- name: Replace user umask in /etc/profile
  replace:
    path: /etc/profile
    regexp: ^[^#]*umask
    replace: umask {{ var_accounts_user_umask }}
  register: umask_replace
  tags:
    - CCE-81035-8
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020353
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - accounts_umask_etc_profile
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Append user umask in /etc/profile
  lineinfile:
    create: true
    path: /etc/profile
    line: umask {{ var_accounts_user_umask }}
  when: umask_replace is not changed
  tags:
    - CCE-81035-8
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-020353
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - accounts_umask_etc_profile
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy


var_accounts_user_umask='077'


grep -qE '^[^#]*umask' /etc/profile && \
  sed -i "s/umask.*/umask $var_accounts_user_umask/g" /etc/profile
if ! [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
    echo "umask $var_accounts_user_umask" >> /etc/profile
fi

Rule   Configure Polyinstantiation of /tmp Directories   [ref]

To configure polyinstantiated /tmp directories, first create the parent directories which will hold the polyinstantiation child directories. Use the following command:
$ sudo mkdir --mode 000 /tmp/tmp-inst
Then, add the following entry to /etc/security/namespace.conf:
/tmp     /tmp/tmp-inst/            level      root,adm
Rationale:
Polyinstantiation of temporary directories is a proactive security measure which reduces chances of attacks that are made possible by /tmp directories being world-writable.
Severity: 
low
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_polyinstantiated_tmp
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-83732-8

References:  BP28(R39)


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: Create /tmp/tmp-inst directory
  file:
    path: /tmp/tmp-inst
    state: directory
    mode: '000'
    seuser: system_u
    serole: object_r
    setype: tmp_t
  tags:
    - CCE-83732-8
    - accounts_polyinstantiated_tmp
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - low_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Make changes to /etc/security/namespace.conf
  lineinfile:
    path: /etc/security/namespace.conf
    create: false
    regexp: ^\s*/tmp\s+/tmp/tmp-inst/\s+level\s+root,adm$
    line: /tmp     /tmp/tmp-inst/        level      root,adm
    state: present
  tags:
    - CCE-83732-8
    - accounts_polyinstantiated_tmp
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - low_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

if ! [ -d /tmp/tmp-inst ] ; then
    mkdir --mode 000 /tmp/tmp-inst
fi
chmod 000 /tmp/tmp-inst
chcon --reference=/tmp /tmp/tmp-inst

if ! grep -Eq '^\s*/tmp\s+/tmp/tmp-inst/\s+level\s+root,adm$' /etc/security/namespace.conf ; then
    if grep -Eq '^\s*/tmp\s+' /etc/security/namespace.conf ; then
        sed -i '/^\s*\/tmp/d' /etc/security/namespace.conf
    fi
    echo "/tmp     /tmp/tmp-inst/        level      root,adm" >> /etc/security/namespace.conf
fi

Rule   Configure Polyinstantiation of /var/tmp Directories   [ref]

To configure polyinstantiated /tmp directories, first create the parent directories which will hold the polyinstantiation child directories. Use the following command:
$ sudo mkdir --mode 000 /var/tmp/tmp-inst
Then, add the following entry to /etc/security/namespace.conf:
/var/tmp /var/tmp/tmp-inst/    level      root,adm
Rationale:
Polyinstantiation of temporary directories is a proactive security measure which reduces chances of attacks that are made possible by /var/tmp directories being world-writable.
Severity: 
low
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_polyinstantiated_var_tmp
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-83778-1

References:  BP28(R39)


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: Create /var/tmp/tmp-inst directory
  file:
    path: /var/tmp/tmp-inst
    state: directory
    mode: '000'
    seuser: system_u
    serole: object_r
    setype: tmp_t
  tags:
    - CCE-83778-1
    - accounts_polyinstantiated_var_tmp
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - low_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Make changes to /etc/security/namespace.conf
  lineinfile:
    path: /etc/security/namespace.conf
    create: false
    regexp: ^\s*/var/tmp\s+/var/tmp/tmp-inst/\s+level\s+root,adm$
    line: /var/tmp /var/tmp/tmp-inst/    level      root,adm
    state: present
  tags:
    - CCE-83778-1
    - accounts_polyinstantiated_var_tmp
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - low_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

if ! [ -d /tmp-inst ] ; then
    mkdir --mode 000 /var/tmp/tmp-inst
fi
chmod 000 /var/tmp/tmp-inst
chcon --reference=/var/tmp/ /var/tmp/tmp-inst

if ! grep -Eq '^\s*/var/tmp\s+/var/tmp/tmp-inst/\s+level\s+root,adm$' /etc/security/namespace.conf ; then
    if grep -Eq '^\s*/var/tmp\s+' /etc/security/namespace.conf ; then
        sed -i '/^\s*\/var\/tmp/d' /etc/security/namespace.conf
    fi
    echo "/var/tmp /var/tmp/tmp-inst/    level      root,adm" >> /etc/security/namespace.conf
fi

Rule   Set Interactive Session Timeout   [ref]

Setting the TMOUT option in /etc/profile ensures that all user sessions will terminate based on inactivity. The TMOUT setting in a file loaded by /etc/profile, e.g. /etc/profile.d/tmout.sh should read as follows:
TMOUT=600
Rationale:
Terminating an idle session within a short time period reduces the window of opportunity for unauthorized personnel to take control of a management session enabled on the console or console port that has been left unattended.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_tmout
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80673-7

References:  BP28(R29), 1, 12, 15, 16, DSS05.04, DSS05.10, DSS06.10, 3.1.11, CCI-000057, CCI-001133, CCI-002361, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, A.18.1.4, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.4, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, CIP-004-6 R2.2.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.2, CIP-007-3 R5.3.1, CIP-007-3 R5.3.2, CIP-007-3 R5.3.3, AC-12, SC-10, AC-2(5), CM-6(a), PR.AC-7, FMT_MOF_EXT.1, SRG-OS-000163-GPOS-00072, SRG-OS-000029-GPOS-00010, SRG-OS-000163-VMM-000700, SRG-OS-000279-VMM-001010, 5.5.3


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value var_accounts_tmout # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_accounts_tmout: !!str 600
  tags:
    - always

- name: Set Interactive Session Timeout
  block:

    - name: Check for duplicate values
      lineinfile:
        path: /etc/profile.d/tmout.sh
        create: false
        regexp: ^\s*TMOUT=
        state: absent
      check_mode: true
      changed_when: false
      register: dupes

    - name: Deduplicate values from /etc/profile.d/tmout.sh
      lineinfile:
        path: /etc/profile.d/tmout.sh
        create: false
        regexp: ^\s*TMOUT=
        state: absent
      when: dupes.found is defined and dupes.found > 1

    - name: Insert correct line to /etc/profile.d/tmout.sh
      lineinfile:
        path: /etc/profile.d/tmout.sh
        create: true
        regexp: ^\s*TMOUT=
        line: TMOUT={{ var_accounts_tmout }}
        state: present
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
    - CCE-80673-7
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.11
    - NIST-800-53-AC-12
    - NIST-800-53-AC-2(5)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-SC-10
    - accounts_tmout
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

var_accounts_tmout='600'


# if 0, no occurence of tmout found, if 1, occurence found
tmout_found=0

for f in /etc/profile /etc/profile.d/*.sh; do
    if grep --silent '^\s*TMOUT' $f; then
        sed -i -E "s/^(\s*)TMOUT\s*=\s*(\w|\$)*(.*)$/\1TMOUT=$var_accounts_tmout\3/g" $f
        tmout_found=1
    fi
done

if [ $tmout_found -eq 0 ]; then
        echo -e "\n# Set TMOUT to $var_accounts_tmout per security requirements" >> /etc/profile.d/tmout.sh
        echo "TMOUT=$var_accounts_tmout" >> /etc/profile.d/tmout.sh
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi
Group   System Accounting with auditd   Group contains 2 groups and 1 rule
[ref]   The audit service provides substantial capabilities for recording system activities. By default, the service audits about SELinux AVC denials and certain types of security-relevant events such as system logins, account modifications, and authentication events performed by programs such as sudo. Under its default configuration, auditd has modest disk space requirements, and should not noticeably impact system performance.

NOTE: The Linux Audit daemon auditd can be configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules files (*.rules) located in /etc/audit/rules.d location and compile them to create the resulting form of the /etc/audit/audit.rules configuration file during the daemon startup (default configuration). Alternatively, the auditd daemon can use the auditctl utility to read audit rules from the /etc/audit/audit.rules configuration file during daemon startup, and load them into the kernel. The expected behavior is configured via the appropriate ExecStartPost directive setting in the /usr/lib/systemd/system/auditd.service configuration file. To instruct the auditd daemon to use the augenrules program to read audit rules (default configuration), use the following setting:
ExecStartPost=-/sbin/augenrules --load
in the /usr/lib/systemd/system/auditd.service configuration file. In order to instruct the auditd daemon to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules, use the following setting:
ExecStartPost=-/sbin/auditctl -R /etc/audit/audit.rules
in the /usr/lib/systemd/system/auditd.service configuration file. Refer to [Service] section of the /usr/lib/systemd/system/auditd.service configuration file for further details.

Government networks often have substantial auditing requirements and auditd can be configured to meet these requirements. Examining some example audit records demonstrates how the Linux audit system satisfies common requirements. The following example from Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Documentation available at https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-us/red_hat_enterprise_linux/7/html-single/selinux_users_and_administrators_guide/index#sect-Security-Enhanced_Linux-Fixing_Problems-Raw_Audit_Messages shows the substantial amount of information captured in a two typical "raw" audit messages, followed by a breakdown of the most important fields. In this example the message is SELinux-related and reports an AVC denial (and the associated system call) that occurred when the Apache HTTP Server attempted to access the /var/www/html/file1 file (labeled with the samba_share_t type):
type=AVC msg=audit(1226874073.147:96): avc:  denied  { getattr } for pid=2465 comm="httpd"
path="/var/www/html/file1" dev=dm-0 ino=284133 scontext=unconfined_u:system_r:httpd_t:s0
tcontext=unconfined_u:object_r:samba_share_t:s0 tclass=file

type=SYSCALL msg=audit(1226874073.147:96): arch=40000003 syscall=196 success=no exit=-13
a0=b98df198 a1=bfec85dc a2=54dff4 a3=2008171 items=0 ppid=2463 pid=2465 auid=502 uid=48
gid=48 euid=48 suid=48 fsuid=48 egid=48 sgid=48 fsgid=48 tty=(none) ses=6 comm="httpd"
exe="/usr/sbin/httpd" subj=unconfined_u:system_r:httpd_t:s0 key=(null)
  • msg=audit(1226874073.147:96)
    • The number in parentheses is the unformatted time stamp (Epoch time) for the event, which can be converted to standard time by using the date command.
  • { getattr }
    • The item in braces indicates the permission that was denied. getattr indicates the source process was trying to read the target file's status information. This occurs before reading files. This action is denied due to the file being accessed having the wrong label. Commonly seen permissions include getattr, read, and write.
  • comm="httpd"
    • The executable that launched the process. The full path of the executable is found in the exe= section of the system call (SYSCALL) message, which in this case, is exe="/usr/sbin/httpd".
  • path="/var/www/html/file1"
    • The path to the object (target) the process attempted to access.
  • scontext="unconfined_u:system_r:httpd_t:s0"
    • The SELinux context of the process that attempted the denied action. In this case, it is the SELinux context of the Apache HTTP Server, which is running in the httpd_t domain.
  • tcontext="unconfined_u:object_r:samba_share_t:s0"
    • The SELinux context of the object (target) the process attempted to access. In this case, it is the SELinux context of file1. Note: the samba_share_t type is not accessible to processes running in the httpd_t domain.
  • From the system call (SYSCALL) message, two items are of interest:
    • success=no: indicates whether the denial (AVC) was enforced or not. success=no indicates the system call was not successful (SELinux denied access). success=yes indicates the system call was successful - this can be seen for permissive domains or unconfined domains, such as initrc_t and kernel_t.
    • exe="/usr/sbin/httpd": the full path to the executable that launched the process, which in this case, is exe="/usr/sbin/httpd".
Group   Configure auditd Rules for Comprehensive Auditing   Group contains 1 group and 1 rule
[ref]   The auditd program can perform comprehensive monitoring of system activity. This section describes recommended configuration settings for comprehensive auditing, but a full description of the auditing system's capabilities is beyond the scope of this guide. The mailing list linux-audit@redhat.com exists to facilitate community discussion of the auditing system.

The audit subsystem supports extensive collection of events, including:
  • Tracing of arbitrary system calls (identified by name or number) on entry or exit.
  • Filtering by PID, UID, call success, system call argument (with some limitations), etc.
  • Monitoring of specific files for modifications to the file's contents or metadata.

Auditing rules at startup are controlled by the file /etc/audit/audit.rules. Add rules to it to meet the auditing requirements for your organization. Each line in /etc/audit/audit.rules represents a series of arguments that can be passed to auditctl and can be individually tested during runtime. See documentation in /usr/share/doc/audit-VERSION and in the related man pages for more details.

If copying any example audit rulesets from /usr/share/doc/audit-VERSION, be sure to comment out the lines containing arch= which are not appropriate for your system's architecture. Then review and understand the following rules, ensuring rules are activated as needed for the appropriate architecture.

After reviewing all the rules, reading the following sections, and editing as needed, the new rules can be activated as follows:
$ sudo service auditd restart
Group   Record Information on the Use of Privileged Commands   Group contains 1 rule
[ref]   At a minimum, the audit system should collect the execution of privileged commands for all users and root.

Rule   Ensure auditd Collects Information on the Use of Privileged Commands - sudo   [ref]

At a minimum, the audit system should collect the execution of privileged commands for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add a line of the following form to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/bin/sudo -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=privileged
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add a line of the following form to /etc/audit/audit.rules:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/bin/sudo -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=privileged
Rationale:
Misuse of privileged functions, either intentionally or unintentionally by authorized users, or by unauthorized external entities that have compromised system accounts, is a serious and ongoing concern and can have significant adverse impacts on organizations. Auditing the use of privileged functions is one way to detect such misuse and identify the risk from insider and advanced persistent threats.

Privileged programs are subject to escalation-of-privilege attacks, which attempt to subvert their normal role of providing some necessary but limited capability. As such, motivation exists to monitor these programs for unusual activity.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_privileged_commands_sudo
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80737-0

References:  BP28(R19), 1, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, BAI03.05, DSS01.03, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01, 3.1.7, CCI-000130, CCI-000135, CCI-000169, CCI-000172, CCI-002884, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.312(a)(2)(i), 164.312(b), 164.312(d), 164.312(e), 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, AU-2(d), AU-12(c), AC-6(9), CM-6(a), DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.PT-1, FAU_GEN.1.1.c, SRG-OS-000037-GPOS-00015, SRG-OS-000042-GPOS-00020, SRG-OS-000062-GPOS-00031, SRG-OS-000392-GPOS-00172, SRG-OS-000462-GPOS-00206, SRG-OS-000471-GPOS-00215, SRG-OS-000466-GPOS-00210, SRG-OS-000471-VMM-001910, RHEL-08-030550, SV-230462r627750_rule


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
    - CCE-80737-0
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-030550
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6(9)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - audit_rules_privileged_commands_sudo
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for /usr/bin/sudo
  block:

    - name: Declare list of syscalls
      set_fact:
        syscalls: []
        syscall_grouping: []

    - name: Check existence of  in /etc/audit/rules.d/
      find:
        paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
        contains: -a always,exit(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S |,)\w+)*
          -F path=/usr/bin/sudo -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
        patterns: '*.rules'
      register: find_command
      loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

    - name: Reset syscalls found per file
      set_fact:
        syscalls_per_file: {}
        found_paths_dict: {}

    - name: Declare syscalls found per file
      set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
        :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
      loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

    - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
      set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
        | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

    - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
      set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
        0) }) }}"
      loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
        | list }}'

    - name: Get path with most syscalls
      set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
        | last).key }}"
      when: found_paths | length >= 1

    - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules
      set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules"
      when: found_paths | length == 0

    - name: Declare found syscalls
      set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') |
        map(attribute='item') | list }}"

    - name: Declare missing syscalls
      set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

    - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
      lineinfile:
        path: '{{ audit_file }}'
        regexp: (-a always,exit)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
          | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F path=/usr/bin/sudo -F perm=x -F
          auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F key=)\w+)
        line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
        backrefs: true
        state: present
      when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

    - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
      lineinfile:
        path: '{{ audit_file }}'
        line: -a always,exit{{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F path=/usr/bin/sudo -F perm=x
          -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=privileged
        create: true
        mode: o-rwx
        state: present
      when: syscalls_found | length == 0

    - name: Declare list of syscalls
      set_fact:
        syscalls: []
        syscall_grouping: []

    - name: Check existence of  in /etc/audit/audit.rules
      find:
        paths: /etc/audit
        contains: -a always,exit(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S |,)\w+)*
          -F path=/usr/bin/sudo -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
        patterns: audit.rules
      register: find_command
      loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

    - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
      set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

    - name: Declare found syscalls
      set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') |
        map(attribute='item') | list }}"

    - name: Declare missing syscalls
      set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

    - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
      lineinfile:
        path: '{{ audit_file }}'
        regexp: (-a always,exit)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found | join("|")
          }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F path=/usr/bin/sudo -F perm=x -F auid>=1000
          -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F key=)\w+)
        line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
        backrefs: true
        state: present
      when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

    - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
      lineinfile:
        path: '{{ audit_file }}'
        line: -a always,exit{{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F path=/usr/bin/sudo -F perm=x
          -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=privileged
        create: true
        mode: o-rwx
        state: present
      when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when: '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
    - CCE-80737-0
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-030550
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6(9)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - audit_rules_privileged_commands_sudo
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q audit; then

ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS="-a always,exit"
OTHER_FILTERS="-F path=/usr/bin/sudo -F perm=x"
AUID_FILTERS="-F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset"
SYSCALL=""
KEY="privileged"
SYSCALL_GROUPING=""
# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()


# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
default_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
# As other_filters may include paths, lets use a different delimiter for it
# The "F" script expression tells sed to print the filenames where the expressions matched
readarray -t files_to_inspect < <(sed -s -n -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d" -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" -e "F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules)
# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
then
    file_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
    files_to_inspect=("$file_to_inspect")
    if [ ! -e "$file_to_inspect" ]
    then
        touch "$file_to_inspect"
        chmod 0640 "$file_to_inspect"
    fi
fi

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()



# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
default_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"
files_to_inspect+=('/etc/audit/audit.rules' )

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi
Group   GRUB2 bootloader configuration   Group contains 2 groups and 3 rules
[ref]   During the boot process, the boot loader is responsible for starting the execution of the kernel and passing options to it. The boot loader allows for the selection of different kernels - possibly on different partitions or media. The default Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 boot loader for x86 systems is called GRUB2. Options it can pass to the kernel include single-user mode, which provides root access without any authentication, and the ability to disable SELinux. To prevent local users from modifying the boot parameters and endangering security, protect the boot loader configuration with a password and ensure its configuration file's permissions are set properly.
Group   Non-UEFI GRUB2 bootloader configuration   Group contains 1 rule
[ref]   Non-UEFI GRUB2 bootloader configuration

Rule   Set Boot Loader Password in grub2   [ref]

The grub2 boot loader should have a superuser account and password protection enabled to protect boot-time settings.

Since plaintext passwords are a security risk, generate a hash for the password by running the following command:
# grub2-setpassword
When prompted, enter the password that was selected.

Warning:  To prevent hard-coded passwords, automatic remediation of this control is not available. Remediation must be automated as a component of machine provisioning, or followed manually as outlined above. Also, do NOT manually add the superuser account and password to the grub.cfg file as the grub2-mkconfig command overwrites this file.
Rationale:
Password protection on the boot loader configuration ensures users with physical access cannot trivially alter important bootloader settings. These include which kernel to use, and whether to enter single-user mode.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_grub2_password
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80828-7

References:  BP28(R17), 1, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, DSS05.02, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.06, DSS06.10, 3.4.5, CCI-000213, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B), 164.308(a)(7)(i), 164.308(a)(7)(ii)(A), 164.310(a)(1), 164.310(a)(2)(i), 164.310(a)(2)(ii), 164.310(a)(2)(iii), 164.310(b), 164.310(c), 164.310(d)(1), 164.310(d)(2)(iii), 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, A.18.1.4, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, CM-6(a), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-4, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, PR.PT-3, FIA_UAU.1, SRG-OS-000080-GPOS-00048, RHEL-08-010150, 1.5.2, SV-230235r743925_rule

Group   UEFI GRUB2 bootloader configuration   Group contains 1 rule
[ref]   UEFI GRUB2 bootloader configuration

Rule   Set the UEFI Boot Loader Password   [ref]

The grub2 boot loader should have a superuser account and password protection enabled to protect boot-time settings.

Since plaintext passwords are a security risk, generate a hash for the password by running the following command:
# grub2-setpassword
When prompted, enter the password that was selected.

Warning:  To prevent hard-coded passwords, automatic remediation of this control is not available. Remediation must be automated as a component of machine provisioning, or followed manually as outlined above. Also, do NOT manually add the superuser account and password to the grub.cfg file as the grub2-mkconfig command overwrites this file.
Rationale:
Password protection on the boot loader configuration ensures users with physical access cannot trivially alter important bootloader settings. These include which kernel to use, and whether to enter single-user mode.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_grub2_uefi_password
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80829-5

References:  BP28(R17), 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, DSS05.02, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS06.03, DSS06.06, 3.4.5, CCI-000213, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B), 164.308(a)(7)(i), 164.308(a)(7)(ii)(A), 164.310(a)(1), 164.310(a)(2)(i), 164.310(a)(2)(ii), 164.310(a)(2)(iii), 164.310(b), 164.310(c), 164.310(d)(1), 164.310(d)(2)(iii), 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, CM-6(a), PR.AC-4, PR.AC-6, PR.PT-3, FIA_UAU.1, SRG-OS-000080-GPOS-00048, RHEL-08-010140, 1.5.2, SV-230234r743922_rule

Rule   IOMMU configuration directive   [ref]

On x86 architecture supporting VT-d, the IOMMU manages the access control policy between the hardware devices and some of the system critical units such as the memory. To ensure that iommu=force is added as a kernel command line argument to newly installed kernels, add iommu=force to the default Grub2 command line for Linux operating systems. Modify the line within /etc/default/grub as shown below:
GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX="... iommu=force ..."
Run the following command to update command line for already installed kernels:
# grubby --update-kernel=ALL --args="iommu=force"
Warning:  Depending on the hardware, devices and operating system used, enabling IOMMU can cause hardware instabilities. Proper function and stability should be assessed before applying remediation to production systems.
Rationale:
On x86 architectures, activating the I/OMMU prevents the system from arbitrary accesses potentially made by hardware devices.
Severity: 
unknown
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_grub2_enable_iommu_force
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-83920-9

References:  BP28(R11)


Complexity:medium
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
    - CCE-83920-9
    - grub2_enable_iommu_force
    - low_disruption
    - medium_complexity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy
    - unknown_severity

- name: Update grub defaults and the bootloader menu
  command: /sbin/grubby --update-kernel=ALL --args="iommu=force"
  when:
    - '"grub2-common" in ansible_facts.packages'
    - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
    - CCE-83920-9
    - grub2_enable_iommu_force
    - low_disruption
    - medium_complexity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy
    - unknown_severity

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q grub2-common && { [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; }; then

grubby --update-kernel=ALL --args=iommu=force --env=/boot/grub2/grubenv

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

[customizations.kernel]
append = "iommu=force"
Group   Configure Syslog   Group contains 3 groups and 10 rules
[ref]   The syslog service has been the default Unix logging mechanism for many years. It has a number of downsides, including inconsistent log format, lack of authentication for received messages, and lack of authentication, encryption, or reliable transport for messages sent over a network. However, due to its long history, syslog is a de facto standard which is supported by almost all Unix applications.

In Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8, rsyslog has replaced ksyslogd as the syslog daemon of choice, and it includes some additional security features such as reliable, connection-oriented (i.e. TCP) transmission of logs, the option to log to database formats, and the encryption of log data en route to a central logging server. This section discusses how to configure rsyslog for best effect, and how to use tools provided with the system to maintain and monitor logs.
Group   Ensure Proper Configuration of Log Files   Group contains 3 rules
[ref]   The file /etc/rsyslog.conf controls where log message are written. These are controlled by lines called rules, which consist of a selector and an action. These rules are often customized depending on the role of the system, the requirements of the environment, and whatever may enable the administrator to most effectively make use of log data. The default rules in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 are:
*.info;mail.none;authpriv.none;cron.none                /var/log/messages
authpriv.*                                              /var/log/secure
mail.*                                                  -/var/log/maillog
cron.*                                                  /var/log/cron
*.emerg                                                 *
uucp,news.crit                                          /var/log/spooler
local7.*                                                /var/log/boot.log
See the man page rsyslog.conf(5) for more information. Note that the rsyslog daemon can be configured to use a timestamp format that some log processing programs may not understand. If this occurs, edit the file /etc/rsyslog.conf and add or edit the following line:
$ ActionFileDefaultTemplate RSYSLOG_TraditionalFileFormat

Rule   Ensure Log Files Are Owned By Appropriate Group   [ref]

The group-owner of all log files written by rsyslog should be root. These log files are determined by the second part of each Rule line in /etc/rsyslog.conf and typically all appear in /var/log. For each log file LOGFILE referenced in /etc/rsyslog.conf, run the following command to inspect the file's group owner:
$ ls -l LOGFILE
If the owner is not root, run the following command to correct this:
$ sudo chgrp root LOGFILE
Rationale:
The log files generated by rsyslog contain valuable information regarding system configuration, user authentication, and other such information. Log files should be protected from unauthorized access.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_rsyslog_files_groupownership
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80860-0

References:  BP28(R46), BP28(R5), 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, APO01.06, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, CCI-001314, 4.3.3.7.3, SR 2.1, SR 5.2, 0988, 1405, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, CIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R2.1, CIP-007-3 R2.2, CIP-007-3 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2, CM-6(a), AC-6(1), PR.AC-4, PR.DS-5, Req-10.5.1, Req-10.5.2

Rule   Ensure Log Files Are Owned By Appropriate User   [ref]

The owner of all log files written by rsyslog should be root. These log files are determined by the second part of each Rule line in /etc/rsyslog.conf and typically all appear in /var/log. For each log file LOGFILE referenced in /etc/rsyslog.conf, run the following command to inspect the file's owner:
$ ls -l LOGFILE
If the owner is not root, run the following command to correct this:
$ sudo chown root LOGFILE
Rationale:
The log files generated by rsyslog contain valuable information regarding system configuration, user authentication, and other such information. Log files should be protected from unauthorized access.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_rsyslog_files_ownership
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80861-8

References:  BP28(R46), BP28(R5), 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, APO01.06, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, CCI-001314, 4.3.3.7.3, SR 2.1, SR 5.2, 0988, 1405, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, CIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R2.1, CIP-007-3 R2.2, CIP-007-3 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2, CM-6(a), AC-6(1), PR.AC-4, PR.DS-5, Req-10.5.1, Req-10.5.2

Rule   Ensure System Log Files Have Correct Permissions   [ref]

The file permissions for all log files written by rsyslog should be set to 600, or more restrictive. These log files are determined by the second part of each Rule line in /etc/rsyslog.conf and typically all appear in /var/log. For each log file LOGFILE referenced in /etc/rsyslog.conf, run the following command to inspect the file's permissions:
$ ls -l LOGFILE
If the permissions are not 600 or more restrictive, run the following command to correct this:
$ sudo chmod 0600 LOGFILE
"
Rationale:
Log files can contain valuable information regarding system configuration. If the system log files are not protected unauthorized users could change the logged data, eliminating their forensic value.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_rsyslog_files_permissions
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80862-6

References:  BP28(R36), CCI-001314, 0988, 1405, CIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R2.1, CIP-007-3 R2.2, CIP-007-3 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2, CM-6(a), AC-6(1), Req-10.5.1, Req-10.5.2, 4.2.1.3


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

# List of log file paths to be inspected for correct permissions
# * Primarily inspect log file paths listed in /etc/rsyslog.conf
RSYSLOG_ETC_CONFIG="/etc/rsyslog.conf"
# * And also the log file paths listed after rsyslog's $IncludeConfig directive
#   (store the result into array for the case there's shell glob used as value of IncludeConfig)
readarray -t RSYSLOG_INCLUDE_CONFIG < <(grep -e "\$IncludeConfig[[:space:]]\+[^[:space:];]\+" /etc/rsyslog.conf | cut -d ' ' -f 2)
readarray -t RSYSLOG_INCLUDE < <(awk '/)/{f=0} /include\(/{f=1} f{nf=gensub("^(include\\(|\\s*)file=\"(\\S+)\".*","\\2",1); if($0!=nf){print nf}}' /etc/rsyslog.conf)

# Declare an array to hold the final list of different log file paths
declare -a LOG_FILE_PATHS

RSYSLOG_CONFIGS=()
RSYSLOG_CONFIGS=("${RSYSLOG_ETC_CONFIG}" "${RSYSLOG_INCLUDE_CONFIG[@]}" "${RSYSLOG_INCLUDE[@]}")

# Get full list of files to be checked
# RSYSLOG_CONFIGS may contain globs such as 
# /etc/rsyslog.d/*.conf /etc/rsyslog.d/*.frule
# So, loop over the entries in RSYSLOG_CONFIGS and use find to get the list of included files.
RSYSLOG_FILES=()
for ENTRY in "${RSYSLOG_CONFIGS[@]}"
do
     mapfile -t FINDOUT < <(find "$(dirname "${ENTRY}")" -maxdepth 1 -name "$(basename "${ENTRY}")")
     RSYSLOG_FILES+=("${FINDOUT[@]}")
done

# Check file and fix if needed.
for LOG_FILE in "${RSYSLOG_FILES[@]}"
do
	# From each of these files extract just particular log file path(s), thus:
	# * Ignore lines starting with space (' '), comment ('#"), or variable syntax ('$') characters,
	# * Ignore empty lines,
	# * Strip quotes and closing brackets from paths.
	# * Ignore paths that match /dev|/etc.*\.conf, as those are paths, but likely not log files
	# * From the remaining valid rows select only fields constituting a log file path
	# Text file column is understood to represent a log file path if and only if all of the following are met:
	# * it contains at least one slash '/' character,
	# * it is preceded by space
	# * it doesn't contain space (' '), colon (':'), and semicolon (';') characters
	# Search log file for path(s) only in case it exists!
	if [[ -f "${LOG_FILE}" ]]
	then
		NORMALIZED_CONFIG_FILE_LINES=$(sed -e "/^[#|$]/d" "${LOG_FILE}")
		LINES_WITH_PATHS=$(grep '[^/]*\s\+\S*/\S\+$' <<< "${NORMALIZED_CONFIG_FILE_LINES}")
		FILTERED_PATHS=$(sed -e 's/[^\/]*[[:space:]]*\([^:;[:space:]]*\)/\1/g' <<< "${LINES_WITH_PATHS}")
		CLEANED_PATHS=$(sed -e "s/[\"')]//g; /\\/etc.*\.conf/d; /\\/dev\\//d" <<< "${FILTERED_PATHS}")
		MATCHED_ITEMS=$(sed -e "/^$/d" <<< "${CLEANED_PATHS}")
		# Since above sed command might return more than one item (delimited by newline), split the particular
		# matches entries into new array specific for this log file
		readarray -t ARRAY_FOR_LOG_FILE <<< "$MATCHED_ITEMS"
		# Concatenate the two arrays - previous content of $LOG_FILE_PATHS array with
		# items from newly created array for this log file
		LOG_FILE_PATHS+=("${ARRAY_FOR_LOG_FILE[@]}")
		# Delete the temporary array
		unset ARRAY_FOR_LOG_FILE
	fi
done

DESIRED_PERM_MOD=600

# Correct the form o
for LOG_FILE_PATH in "${LOG_FILE_PATHS[@]}"
do
	# Sanity check - if particular $LOG_FILE_PATH is empty string, skip it from further processing
	if [ -z "$LOG_FILE_PATH" ]
	then
		continue
	fi

	# Also for each log file check if its permissions differ from 600. If so, correct them
	if [ -f "$LOG_FILE_PATH" ] && [ "$(/usr/bin/stat -c %a "$LOG_FILE_PATH")" -ne $DESIRED_PERM_MOD ]
	then
		/bin/chmod $DESIRED_PERM_MOD "$LOG_FILE_PATH"
	fi
done

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi
Group   Ensure All Logs are Rotated by logrotate   Group contains 1 rule
[ref]   Edit the file /etc/logrotate.d/syslog. Find the first line, which should look like this (wrapped for clarity):
/var/log/messages /var/log/secure /var/log/maillog /var/log/spooler \
  /var/log/boot.log /var/log/cron {
Edit this line so that it contains a one-space-separated listing of each log file referenced in /etc/rsyslog.conf.

All logs in use on a system must be rotated regularly, or the log files will consume disk space over time, eventually interfering with system operation. The file /etc/logrotate.d/syslog is the configuration file used by the logrotate program to maintain all log files written by syslog. By default, it rotates logs weekly and stores four archival copies of each log. These settings can be modified by editing /etc/logrotate.conf, but the defaults are sufficient for purposes of this guide.

Note that logrotate is run nightly by the cron job /etc/cron.daily/logrotate. If particularly active logs need to be rotated more often than once a day, some other mechanism must be used.

Rule   Ensure Logrotate Runs Periodically   [ref]

The logrotate utility allows for the automatic rotation of log files. The frequency of rotation is specified in /etc/logrotate.conf, which triggers a cron task. To configure logrotate to run daily, add or correct the following line in /etc/logrotate.conf:
# rotate log files frequency
daily
Rationale:
Log files that are not properly rotated run the risk of growing so large that they fill up the /var/log partition. Valuable logging information could be lost if the /var/log partition becomes full.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_ensure_logrotate_activated
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80794-1

References:  BP28(R43), NT12(R18), 1, 14, 15, 16, 3, 5, 6, APO11.04, BAI03.05, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, MEA02.01, CCI-000366, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, CM-6(a), PR.PT-1, Req-10.7, 4.3


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
---
apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
kind: MachineConfig
spec:
  config:
    ignition:
      version: 3.1.0
    storage:
      files:
      - contents:
          source: data:,{{ %23%20see%20%22man%20logrotate%22%20for%20details%0A%23%20rotate%20log%20files%20daily%0Adaily%0A%0A%23%20keep%204%20weeks%20worth%20of%20backlogs%0Arotate%2030%0A%0A%23%20create%20new%20%28empty%29%20log%20files%20after%20rotating%20old%20ones%0Acreate%0A%0A%23%20use%20date%20as%20a%20suffix%20of%20the%20rotated%20file%0Adateext%0A%0A%23%20uncomment%20this%20if%20you%20want%20your%20log%20files%20compressed%0A%23compress%0A%0A%23%20RPM%20packages%20drop%20log%20rotation%20information%20into%20this%20directory%0Ainclude%20/etc/logrotate.d%0A%0A%23%20system-specific%20logs%20may%20be%20also%20be%20configured%20here. }}
        mode: 0644
        path: /etc/logrotate.conf
        overwrite: true

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure
- name: Configure daily log rotation in /etc/logrotate.conf
  lineinfile:
    create: true
    dest: /etc/logrotate.conf
    regexp: ^daily$
    line: daily
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
    - CCE-80794-1
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.7
    - configure_strategy
    - ensure_logrotate_activated
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed

- name: Make sure daily log rotation setting is not overriden in /etc/logrotate.conf
  lineinfile:
    create: false
    dest: /etc/logrotate.conf
    regexp: ^[\s]*(weekly|monthly|yearly)$
    state: absent
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
    - CCE-80794-1
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.7
    - configure_strategy
    - ensure_logrotate_activated
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed

- name: Configure cron.daily if not already
  block:

    - name: Add shebang
      lineinfile:
        path: /etc/cron.daily/logrotate
        line: '#!/bin/sh'
        insertbefore: BOF
        create: true

    - name: Add logrotate call
      lineinfile:
        path: /etc/cron.daily/logrotate
        line: /usr/sbin/logrotate /etc/logrotate.conf
        regexp: ^[\s]*/usr/sbin/logrotate[\s\S]*/etc/logrotate.conf$
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
    - CCE-80794-1
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.7
    - configure_strategy
    - ensure_logrotate_activated
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

LOGROTATE_CONF_FILE="/etc/logrotate.conf"
CRON_DAILY_LOGROTATE_FILE="/etc/cron.daily/logrotate"

# daily rotation is configured
grep -q "^daily$" $LOGROTATE_CONF_FILE|| echo "daily" >> $LOGROTATE_CONF_FILE

# remove any line configuring weekly, monthly or yearly rotation
sed -i '/^\s*\(weekly\|monthly\|yearly\).*$/d' $LOGROTATE_CONF_FILE

# configure cron.daily if not already
if ! grep -q "^[[:space:]]*/usr/sbin/logrotate[[:alnum:][:blank:][:punct:]]*$LOGROTATE_CONF_FILE$" $CRON_DAILY_LOGROTATE_FILE; then
	echo "#!/bin/sh" > $CRON_DAILY_LOGROTATE_FILE
	echo "/usr/sbin/logrotate $LOGROTATE_CONF_FILE" >> $CRON_DAILY_LOGROTATE_FILE
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi
Group   Rsyslog Logs Sent To Remote Host   Group contains 3 rules
[ref]   If system logs are to be useful in detecting malicious activities, it is necessary to send logs to a remote server. An intruder who has compromised the root account on a system may delete the log entries which indicate that the system was attacked before they are seen by an administrator.

However, it is recommended that logs be stored on the local host in addition to being sent to the loghost, especially if rsyslog has been configured to use the UDP protocol to send messages over a network. UDP does not guarantee reliable delivery, and moderately busy sites will lose log messages occasionally, especially in periods of high traffic which may be the result of an attack. In addition, remote rsyslog messages are not authenticated in any way by default, so it is easy for an attacker to introduce spurious messages to the central log server. Also, some problems cause loss of network connectivity, which will prevent the sending of messages to the central server. For all of these reasons, it is better to store log messages both centrally and on each host, so that they can be correlated if necessary.

Rule   Ensure Logs Sent To Remote Host   [ref]

To configure rsyslog to send logs to a remote log server, open /etc/rsyslog.conf and read and understand the last section of the file, which describes the multiple directives necessary to activate remote logging. Along with these other directives, the system can be configured to forward its logs to a particular log server by adding or correcting one of the following lines, substituting logcollector appropriately. The choice of protocol depends on the environment of the system; although TCP and RELP provide more reliable message delivery, they may not be supported in all environments.
To use UDP for log message delivery:
*.* @logcollector

To use TCP for log message delivery:
*.* @@logcollector

To use RELP for log message delivery:
*.* :omrelp:logcollector

There must be a resolvable DNS CNAME or Alias record set to "logcollector" for logs to be sent correctly to the centralized logging utility.
Rationale:
A log server (loghost) receives syslog messages from one or more systems. This data can be used as an additional log source in the event a system is compromised and its local logs are suspect. Forwarding log messages to a remote loghost also provides system administrators with a centralized place to view the status of multiple hosts within the enterprise.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_rsyslog_remote_loghost
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80863-4

References:  BP28(R7), NT28(R43), NT12(R5), 1, 13, 14, 15, 16, 2, 3, 5, 6, APO11.04, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI04.04, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, MEA02.01, CCI-000366, CCI-001348, CCI-000136, CCI-001851, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(B), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.308(a)(6)(ii), 164.308(a)(8), 164.310(d)(2)(iii), 164.312(b), 164.314(a)(2)(i)(C), 164.314(a)(2)(iii), 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 7.1, SR 7.2, 0988, 1405, A.12.1.3, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.17.2.1, CIP-003-8 R5.2, CIP-004-6 R3.3, CM-6(a), AU-4(1), AU-9(2), PR.DS-4, PR.PT-1, FAU_GEN.1.1.c, SRG-OS-000479-GPOS-00224, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, SRG-OS-000342-GPOS-00133, SRG-OS-000032-VMM-000130, RHEL-08-030690, 4.2.1.5, SV-230479r627750_rule


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value rsyslog_remote_loghost_address # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    rsyslog_remote_loghost_address: !!str logcollector
  tags:
    - always

- name: Set rsyslog remote loghost
  lineinfile:
    dest: /etc/rsyslog.conf
    regexp: ^\*\.\*
    line: '*.* @@{{ rsyslog_remote_loghost_address }}'
    create: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
    - CCE-80863-4
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-030690
    - NIST-800-53-AU-4(1)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-9(2)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy
    - rsyslog_remote_loghost

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

rsyslog_remote_loghost_address='logcollector'


# Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
# Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
sed_command=('sed' '-i')
if test -L "/etc/rsyslog.conf"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
fi

# Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^\*\.\*")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s %s" "$stripped_key" "@@$rsyslog_remote_loghost_address"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^\*\.\*\\>" "/etc/rsyslog.conf"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/^\*\.\*\\>.*/$formatted_output/gi" "/etc/rsyslog.conf"
else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    cce="CCE-80863-4"
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "/etc/rsyslog.conf" >> "/etc/rsyslog.conf"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "/etc/rsyslog.conf"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Configure TLS for rsyslog remote logging   [ref]

Configure rsyslog to use Transport Layer Security (TLS) support for logging to remote server for the Forwarding Output Module in /etc/rsyslog.conf using action. You can use the following command:
echo 'action(type="omfwd" protocol="tcp" Target="<remote system>" port="6514"
    StreamDriver="gtls" StreamDriverMode="1" StreamDriverAuthMode="x509/name" streamdriver.CheckExtendedKeyPurpose="on")' >> /etc/rsyslog.conf
Replace the <remote system> in the above command with an IP address or a host name of the remote logging server.
Rationale:
For protection of data being logged, the connection to the remote logging server needs to be authenticated and encrypted.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_rsyslog_remote_tls
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-82457-3

References:  BP28(R43), 0988, 1405, AU-9(3), CM-6(a), FCS_TLSC_EXT.1, FTP_ITC_EXT.1.1, FIA_X509_EXT.1.1, FMT_SMF_EXT.1.1, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, SRG-OS-000120-GPOS-00061

Rule   Configure CA certificate for rsyslog remote logging   [ref]

Configure CA certificate for rsyslog logging to remote server using Transport Layer Security (TLS) using correct path for the DefaultNetstreamDriverCAFile global option in /etc/rsyslog.conf, for example with the following command:
echo 'global(DefaultNetstreamDriverCAFile="/etc/pki/tls/cert.pem")' >> /etc/rsyslog.conf
Replace the /etc/pki/tls/cert.pem in the above command with the path to the file with CA certificate generated for the purpose of remote logging.
Rationale:
The CA certificate needs to be set or rsyslog.service fails to start with
error: ca certificate is not set, cannot continue
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_rsyslog_remote_tls_cacert
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-82458-1

References:  BP28(R43), 0988, 1405, FCS_TLSC_EXT.1, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227

Rule   Ensure rsyslog-gnutls is installed   [ref]

TLS protocol support for rsyslog is installed. The rsyslog-gnutls package can be installed with the following command:
$ sudo yum install rsyslog-gnutls
Rationale:
The rsyslog-gnutls package provides Transport Layer Security (TLS) support for the rsyslog daemon, which enables secure remote logging.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_package_rsyslog-gnutls_installed
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-82859-0

References:  BP28(R43), CCI-000366, FTP_ITC_EXT.1.1, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, SRG-OS-000120-GPOS-00061, RHEL-08-030680, SV-230478r744011_rule


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable

package --add=rsyslog-gnutls

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
- name: Ensure rsyslog-gnutls is installed
  package:
    name: rsyslog-gnutls
    state: present
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
    - CCE-82859-0
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-030680
    - enable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - package_rsyslog-gnutls_installed

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

if ! rpm -q --quiet "rsyslog-gnutls" ; then
    yum install -y "rsyslog-gnutls"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi


[[packages]]
name = "rsyslog-gnutls"
version = "*"

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
include install_rsyslog-gnutls

class install_rsyslog-gnutls {
  package { 'rsyslog-gnutls':
    ensure => 'installed',
  }
}

Rule   Ensure rsyslog is Installed   [ref]

Rsyslog is installed by default. The rsyslog package can be installed with the following command:
 $ sudo yum install rsyslog
Rationale:
The rsyslog package provides the rsyslog daemon, which provides system logging services.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_package_rsyslog_installed
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80847-7

References:  BP28(R5), NT28(R46), 1, 14, 15, 16, 3, 5, 6, APO11.04, BAI03.05, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, MEA02.01, CCI-001311, CCI-001312, CCI-000366, 164.312(a)(2)(ii), 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, CM-6(a), PR.PT-1, FTP_ITC_EXT.1.1, SRG-OS-000479-GPOS-00224, SRG-OS-000051-GPOS-00024, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, RHEL-08-030670, 4.2.1.1, SV-230477r627750_rule


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable

package --add=rsyslog

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
- name: Ensure rsyslog is installed
  package:
    name: rsyslog
    state: present
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
    - CCE-80847-7
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-030670
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - enable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - package_rsyslog_installed

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

if ! rpm -q --quiet "rsyslog" ; then
    yum install -y "rsyslog"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi


[[packages]]
name = "rsyslog"
version = "*"

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
include install_rsyslog

class install_rsyslog {
  package { 'rsyslog':
    ensure => 'installed',
  }
}

Rule   Enable rsyslog Service   [ref]

The rsyslog service provides syslog-style logging by default on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8. The rsyslog service can be enabled with the following command:
$ sudo systemctl enable rsyslog.service
Rationale:
The rsyslog service must be running in order to provide logging services, which are essential to system administration.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_service_rsyslog_enabled
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80886-5

References:  BP28(R5), NT28(R46), 1, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI04.04, DSS01.03, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01, CCI-001311, CCI-001312, CCI-001557, CCI-001851, CCI-000366, 164.312(a)(2)(ii), 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.2, A.12.1.3, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.17.2.1, CM-6(a), AU-4(1), DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.DS-4, PR.PT-1, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, RHEL-08-010561, 4.2.1.2, SV-230298r627750_rule


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
- name: Enable service rsyslog
  block:

    - name: Gather the package facts
      package_facts:
        manager: auto

    - name: Enable service rsyslog
      service:
        name: rsyslog
        enabled: 'yes'
        state: started
        masked: 'no'
      when:
        - '"rsyslog" in ansible_facts.packages'
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
    - CCE-80886-5
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-010561
    - NIST-800-53-AU-4(1)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - enable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - service_rsyslog_enabled

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

SYSTEMCTL_EXEC='/usr/bin/systemctl'
"$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" unmask 'rsyslog.service'
"$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" start 'rsyslog.service'
"$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" enable 'rsyslog.service'

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi


[customizations.services]
enabled = ["rsyslog"]

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
include enable_rsyslog

class enable_rsyslog {
  service {'rsyslog':
    enable => true,
    ensure => 'running',
  }
}
Group   Network Configuration and Firewalls   Group contains 5 groups and 32 rules
[ref]   Most systems must be connected to a network of some sort, and this brings with it the substantial risk of network attack. This section discusses the security impact of decisions about networking which must be made when configuring a system.

This section also discusses firewalls, network access controls, and other network security frameworks, which allow system-level rules to be written that can limit an attackers' ability to connect to your system. These rules can specify that network traffic should be allowed or denied from certain IP addresses, hosts, and networks. The rules can also specify which of the system's network services are available to particular hosts or networks.
Group   IPv6   Group contains 1 group and 16 rules
[ref]   The system includes support for Internet Protocol version 6. A major and often-mentioned improvement over IPv4 is its enormous increase in the number of available addresses. Another important feature is its support for automatic configuration of many network settings.
Group   Configure IPv6 Settings if Necessary   Group contains 16 rules
[ref]   A major feature of IPv6 is the extent to which systems implementing it can automatically configure their networking devices using information from the network. From a security perspective, manually configuring important configuration information is preferable to accepting it from the network in an unauthenticated fashion.

Rule   Configure Accepting Default Router in Router Advertisements on All IPv6 Interfaces   [ref]

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_defrtr kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_defrtr=0
To make sure that the setting is persistent, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d:
net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_defrtr = 0
Rationale:
An illicit router advertisement message could result in a man-in-the-middle attack.
Severity: 
unknown
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_ra_defrtr
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-84272-4

References:  BP28(R22)


Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: List /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf files
  find:
    paths:
      - /etc/sysctl.d/
      - /run/sysctl.d/
    contains: ^[\s]*net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_defrtr.*$
    patterns: '*.conf'
    file_type: any
  register: find_sysctl_d
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
    - CCE-84272-4
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - reboot_required
    - sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_ra_defrtr
    - unknown_severity

- name: Comment out any occurrences of net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_defrtr from /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf
    files
  replace:
    path: '{{ item.path }}'
    regexp: ^[\s]*net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_defrtr
    replace: '#net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_defrtr'
  loop: '{{ find_sysctl_d.files }}'
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
    - CCE-84272-4
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - reboot_required
    - sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_ra_defrtr
    - unknown_severity
- name: XCCDF Value sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_ra_defrtr_value # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_ra_defrtr_value: !!str 0
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure sysctl net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_defrtr is set
  sysctl:
    name: net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_defrtr
    value: '{{ sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_ra_defrtr_value }}'
    state: present
    reload: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
    - CCE-84272-4
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - reboot_required
    - sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_ra_defrtr
    - unknown_severity

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

# Comment out any occurrences of net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_defrtr from /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf files
for f in /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf /run/sysctl.d/*.conf; do
  matching_list=$(grep -P '^(?!#).*[\s]*net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_defrtr.*$' $f | uniq )
  if ! test -z "$matching_list"; then
    while IFS= read -r entry; do
      # comment out "net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_defrtr" matches to preserve user data
      sed -i "s/^${entry}$/# &/g" $f
    done <<< "$matching_list"
  fi
done
sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_ra_defrtr_value='0'


#
# Set runtime for net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_defrtr
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_defrtr="$sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_ra_defrtr_value"

#
# If net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_defrtr present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to appropriate value
#	else, add "net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_defrtr = value" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#
# Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
# Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
sed_command=('sed' '-i')
if test -L "/etc/sysctl.conf"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
fi

# Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_defrtr")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s = %s" "$stripped_key" "$sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_ra_defrtr_value"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_defrtr\\>" "/etc/sysctl.conf"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/^net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_defrtr\\>.*/$formatted_output/gi" "/etc/sysctl.conf"
else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    cce="CCE-84272-4"
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "/etc/sysctl.conf" >> "/etc/sysctl.conf"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "/etc/sysctl.conf"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Configure Accepting Prefix Information in Router Advertisements on All IPv6 Interfaces   [ref]

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_pinfo kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_pinfo=0
To make sure that the setting is persistent, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d:
net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_pinfo = 0
Rationale:
An illicit router advertisement message could result in a man-in-the-middle attack.
Severity: 
unknown
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_ra_pinfo
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-84280-7

References:  BP28(R22)


Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: List /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf files
  find:
    paths:
      - /etc/sysctl.d/
      - /run/sysctl.d/
    contains: ^[\s]*net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_pinfo.*$
    patterns: '*.conf'
    file_type: any
  register: find_sysctl_d
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
    - CCE-84280-7
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - reboot_required
    - sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_ra_pinfo
    - unknown_severity

- name: Comment out any occurrences of net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_pinfo from /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf
    files
  replace:
    path: '{{ item.path }}'
    regexp: ^[\s]*net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_pinfo
    replace: '#net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_pinfo'
  loop: '{{ find_sysctl_d.files }}'
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
    - CCE-84280-7
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - reboot_required
    - sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_ra_pinfo
    - unknown_severity
- name: XCCDF Value sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_ra_pinfo_value # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_ra_pinfo_value: !!str 0
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure sysctl net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_pinfo is set
  sysctl:
    name: net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_pinfo
    value: '{{ sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_ra_pinfo_value }}'
    state: present
    reload: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
    - CCE-84280-7
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - reboot_required
    - sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_ra_pinfo
    - unknown_severity

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

# Comment out any occurrences of net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_pinfo from /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf files
for f in /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf /run/sysctl.d/*.conf; do
  matching_list=$(grep -P '^(?!#).*[\s]*net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_pinfo.*$' $f | uniq )
  if ! test -z "$matching_list"; then
    while IFS= read -r entry; do
      # comment out "net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_pinfo" matches to preserve user data
      sed -i "s/^${entry}$/# &/g" $f
    done <<< "$matching_list"
  fi
done
sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_ra_pinfo_value='0'


#
# Set runtime for net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_pinfo
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_pinfo="$sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_ra_pinfo_value"

#
# If net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_pinfo present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to appropriate value
#	else, add "net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_pinfo = value" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#
# Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
# Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
sed_command=('sed' '-i')
if test -L "/etc/sysctl.conf"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
fi

# Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_pinfo")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s = %s" "$stripped_key" "$sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_ra_pinfo_value"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_pinfo\\>" "/etc/sysctl.conf"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/^net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_pinfo\\>.*/$formatted_output/gi" "/etc/sysctl.conf"
else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    cce="CCE-84280-7"
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "/etc/sysctl.conf" >> "/etc/sysctl.conf"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "/etc/sysctl.conf"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Configure Accepting Router Preference in Router Advertisements on All IPv6 Interfaces   [ref]

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_rtr_pref kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_rtr_pref=0
To make sure that the setting is persistent, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d:
net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_rtr_pref = 0
Rationale:
An illicit router advertisement message could result in a man-in-the-middle attack.
Severity: 
unknown
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_ra_rtr_pref
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-84288-0

References:  BP28(R22)


Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: List /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf files
  find:
    paths:
      - /etc/sysctl.d/
      - /run/sysctl.d/
    contains: ^[\s]*net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_rtr_pref.*$
    patterns: '*.conf'
    file_type: any
  register: find_sysctl_d
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
    - CCE-84288-0
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - reboot_required
    - sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_ra_rtr_pref
    - unknown_severity

- name: Comment out any occurrences of net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_rtr_pref from /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf
    files
  replace:
    path: '{{ item.path }}'
    regexp: ^[\s]*net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_rtr_pref
    replace: '#net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_rtr_pref'
  loop: '{{ find_sysctl_d.files }}'
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
    - CCE-84288-0
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - reboot_required
    - sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_ra_rtr_pref
    - unknown_severity
- name: XCCDF Value sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_ra_rtr_pref_value # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_ra_rtr_pref_value: !!str 0
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure sysctl net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_rtr_pref is set
  sysctl:
    name: net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_rtr_pref
    value: '{{ sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_ra_rtr_pref_value }}'
    state: present
    reload: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
    - CCE-84288-0
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - reboot_required
    - sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_ra_rtr_pref
    - unknown_severity

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

# Comment out any occurrences of net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_rtr_pref from /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf files
for f in /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf /run/sysctl.d/*.conf; do
  matching_list=$(grep -P '^(?!#).*[\s]*net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_rtr_pref.*$' $f | uniq )
  if ! test -z "$matching_list"; then
    while IFS= read -r entry; do
      # comment out "net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_rtr_pref" matches to preserve user data
      sed -i "s/^${entry}$/# &/g" $f
    done <<< "$matching_list"
  fi
done
sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_ra_rtr_pref_value='0'


#
# Set runtime for net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_rtr_pref
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_rtr_pref="$sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_ra_rtr_pref_value"

#
# If net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_rtr_pref present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to appropriate value
#	else, add "net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_rtr_pref = value" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#
# Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
# Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
sed_command=('sed' '-i')
if test -L "/etc/sysctl.conf"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
fi

# Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_rtr_pref")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s = %s" "$stripped_key" "$sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_ra_rtr_pref_value"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_rtr_pref\\>" "/etc/sysctl.conf"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/^net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra_rtr_pref\\>.*/$formatted_output/gi" "/etc/sysctl.conf"
else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    cce="CCE-84288-0"
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "/etc/sysctl.conf" >> "/etc/sysctl.conf"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "/etc/sysctl.conf"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Disable Accepting ICMP Redirects for All IPv6 Interfaces   [ref]

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_redirects kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_redirects=0
To make sure that the setting is persistent, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d:
net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_redirects = 0
Rationale:
An illicit ICMP redirect message could result in a man-in-the-middle attack.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_redirects
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-81009-3

References:  BP28(R22), 11, 14, 3, 9, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.05, DSS06.06, 3.1.20, CCI-000366, CCI-001551, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 7.6, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.9.1.2, CM-7(a), CM-7(b), CM-6(a), CM-6(b), CM-6.1(iv), PR.IP-1, PR.PT-3, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, RHEL-08-040280, 3.2.2, SV-230544r818887_rule


---
apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
kind: MachineConfig
spec:
  config:
    ignition:
      version: 3.1.0
    storage:
      files:
      - contents:
          source: data:,net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_redirects%3D0%0A
        mode: 0644
        path: /etc/sysctl.d/75-sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_redirects.conf
        overwrite: true

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: List /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf files
  find:
    paths:
      - /etc/sysctl.d/
      - /run/sysctl.d/
    contains: ^[\s]*net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_redirects.*$
    patterns: '*.conf'
    file_type: any
  register: find_sysctl_d
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
    - CCE-81009-3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-040280
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.20
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(b)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6.1(iv)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_redirects

- name: Comment out any occurrences of net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_redirects from /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf
    files
  replace:
    path: '{{ item.path }}'
    regexp: ^[\s]*net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_redirects
    replace: '#net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_redirects'
  loop: '{{ find_sysctl_d.files }}'
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
    - CCE-81009-3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-040280
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.20
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(b)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6.1(iv)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_redirects
- name: XCCDF Value sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_redirects_value # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_redirects_value: !!str 0
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure sysctl net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_redirects is set
  sysctl:
    name: net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_redirects
    value: '{{ sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_redirects_value }}'
    state: present
    reload: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
    - CCE-81009-3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-040280
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.20
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(b)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6.1(iv)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_redirects

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

# Comment out any occurrences of net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_redirects from /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf files
for f in /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf /run/sysctl.d/*.conf; do
  matching_list=$(grep -P '^(?!#).*[\s]*net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_redirects.*$' $f | uniq )
  if ! test -z "$matching_list"; then
    while IFS= read -r entry; do
      # comment out "net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_redirects" matches to preserve user data
      sed -i "s/^${entry}$/# &/g" $f
    done <<< "$matching_list"
  fi
done
sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_redirects_value='0'


#
# Set runtime for net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_redirects
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_redirects="$sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_redirects_value"

#
# If net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_redirects present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to appropriate value
#	else, add "net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_redirects = value" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#
# Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
# Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
sed_command=('sed' '-i')
if test -L "/etc/sysctl.conf"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
fi

# Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_redirects")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s = %s" "$stripped_key" "$sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_redirects_value"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_redirects\\>" "/etc/sysctl.conf"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/^net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_redirects\\>.*/$formatted_output/gi" "/etc/sysctl.conf"
else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    cce="CCE-81009-3"
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "/etc/sysctl.conf" >> "/etc/sysctl.conf"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "/etc/sysctl.conf"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Disable Kernel Parameter for Accepting Source-Routed Packets on all IPv6 Interfaces   [ref]

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_source_route kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_source_route=0
To make sure that the setting is persistent, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d:
net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_source_route = 0
Rationale:
Source-routed packets allow the source of the packet to suggest routers forward the packet along a different path than configured on the router, which can be used to bypass network security measures. This requirement applies only to the forwarding of source-routerd traffic, such as when IPv6 forwarding is enabled and the system is functioning as a router.

Accepting source-routed packets in the IPv6 protocol has few legitimate uses. It should be disabled unless it is absolutely required.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_source_route
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-81013-5

References:  BP28(R22), 1, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 4, 6, 8, 9, APO01.06, APO13.01, DSS01.05, DSS03.01, DSS05.02, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, 3.1.20, CCI-000366, 4.2.3.4, 4.3.3.4, 4.4.3.3, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.12.1.1, A.12.1.2, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.2, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.2, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, CM-7(a), CM-7(b), CM-6(a), DE.AE-1, ID.AM-3, PR.AC-5, PR.DS-5, PR.PT-4, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, RHEL-08-040240, 3.2.1, SV-230538r818860_rule


---
apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
kind: MachineConfig
spec:
  config:
    ignition:
      version: 3.1.0
    storage:
      files:
      - contents:
          source: data:,net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_source_route%3D0%0A
        mode: 0644
        path: /etc/sysctl.d/75-sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_source_route.conf
        overwrite: true

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: List /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf files
  find:
    paths:
      - /etc/sysctl.d/
      - /run/sysctl.d/
    contains: ^[\s]*net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_source_route.*$
    patterns: '*.conf'
    file_type: any
  register: find_sysctl_d
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
    - CCE-81013-5
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-040240
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.20
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_source_route

- name: Comment out any occurrences of net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_source_route from
    /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf files
  replace:
    path: '{{ item.path }}'
    regexp: ^[\s]*net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_source_route
    replace: '#net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_source_route'
  loop: '{{ find_sysctl_d.files }}'
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
    - CCE-81013-5
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-040240
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.20
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_source_route
- name: XCCDF Value sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_source_route_value # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_source_route_value: !!str 0
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure sysctl net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_source_route is set
  sysctl:
    name: net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_source_route
    value: '{{ sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_source_route_value }}'
    state: present
    reload: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
    - CCE-81013-5
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-08-040240
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.20
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_source_route

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

# Comment out any occurrences of net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_source_route from /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf files
for f in /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf /run/sysctl.d/*.conf; do
  matching_list=$(grep -P '^(?!#).*[\s]*net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_source_route.*$' $f | uniq )
  if ! test -z "$matching_list"; then
    while IFS= read -r entry; do
      # comment out "net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_source_route" matches to preserve user data
      sed -i "s/^${entry}$/# &/g" $f
    done <<< "$matching_list"
  fi
done
sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_source_route_value='0'


#
# Set runtime for net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_source_route
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_source_route="$sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_source_route_value"

#
# If net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_source_route present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to appropriate value
#	else, add "net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_source_route = value" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#
# Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
# Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
sed_command=('sed' '-i')
if test -L "/etc/sysctl.conf"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
fi

# Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_source_route")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s = %s" "$stripped_key" "$sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_source_route_value"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_source_route\\>" "/etc/sysctl.conf"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/^net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_source_route\\>.*/$formatted_output/gi" "/etc/sysctl.conf"
else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    cce="CCE-81013-5"
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "/etc/sysctl.conf" >> "/etc/sysctl.conf"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "/etc/sysctl.conf"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Configure Auto Configuration on All IPv6 Interfaces   [ref]

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv6.conf.all.autoconf kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv6.conf.all.autoconf=0
To make sure that the setting is persistent, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d:
net.ipv6.conf.all.autoconf = 0
Rationale:
An illicit router advertisement message could result in a man-in-the-middle attack.
Severity: 
unknown
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ss