Guide to the Secure Configuration of Alibaba Cloud Linux 2

with profile Standard System Security Profile for Alibaba Cloud Linux 2
This profile contains rules to ensure standard security baseline of a Alibaba Cloud Linux 2 system. Regardless of your system's workload all of these checks should pass.
This guide presents a catalog of security-relevant configuration settings for Alibaba Cloud Linux 2. It is a rendering of content structured in the eXtensible Configuration Checklist Description Format (XCCDF) in order to support security automation. The SCAP content is is available in the scap-security-guide package which is developed at https://www.open-scap.org/security-policies/scap-security-guide.

Providing system administrators with such guidance informs them how to securely configure systems under their control in a variety of network roles. Policy makers and baseline creators can use this catalog of settings, with its associated references to higher-level security control catalogs, in order to assist them in security baseline creation. This guide is a catalog, not a checklist, and satisfaction of every item is not likely to be possible or sensible in many operational scenarios. However, the XCCDF format enables granular selection and adjustment of settings, and their association with OVAL and OCIL content provides an automated checking capability. Transformations of this document, and its associated automated checking content, are capable of providing baselines that meet a diverse set of policy objectives. Some example XCCDF Profiles, which are selections of items that form checklists and can be used as baselines, are available with this guide. They can be processed, in an automated fashion, with tools that support the Security Content Automation Protocol (SCAP). The DISA STIG, which provides required settings for US Department of Defense systems, is one example of a baseline created from this guidance.
Do not attempt to implement any of the settings in this guide without first testing them in a non-operational environment. The creators of this guidance assume no responsibility whatsoever for its use by other parties, and makes no guarantees, expressed or implied, about its quality, reliability, or any other characteristic.

Profile Information

Profile TitleStandard System Security Profile for Alibaba Cloud Linux 2
Profile IDxccdf_org.ssgproject.content_profile_standard

CPE Platforms

  • cpe:/o:alinux:alibaba_cloud_linux:2

Revision History

Current version: 0.1.63

  • draft (as of 2022-07-29)

Table of Contents

  1. System Settings
    1. Installing and Maintaining Software
    2. System Accounting with auditd
    3. Network Configuration and Firewalls
    4. File Permissions and Masks
  2. Services
    1. Base Services
    2. Cron and At Daemons
    3. LDAP
    4. Network Time Protocol

Checklist

Group   Guide to the Secure Configuration of Alibaba Cloud Linux 2   Group contains 26 groups and 29 rules
Group   System Settings   Group contains 19 groups and 20 rules
[ref]   Contains rules that check correct system settings.
Group   Installing and Maintaining Software   Group contains 6 groups and 11 rules
[ref]   The following sections contain information on security-relevant choices during the initial operating system installation process and the setup of software updates.
Group   System and Software Integrity   Group contains 4 groups and 9 rules
[ref]   System and software integrity can be gained by installing antivirus, increasing system encryption strength with FIPS, verifying installed software, enabling SELinux, installing an Intrusion Prevention System, etc. However, installing or enabling integrity checking tools cannot prevent intrusions, but they can detect that an intrusion may have occurred. Requirements for integrity checking may be highly dependent on the environment in which the system will be used. Snapshot-based approaches such as AIDE may induce considerable overhead in the presence of frequent software updates.
Group   Software Integrity Checking   Group contains 2 groups and 3 rules
[ref]   Both the AIDE (Advanced Intrusion Detection Environment) software and the RPM package management system provide mechanisms for verifying the integrity of installed software. AIDE uses snapshots of file metadata (such as hashes) and compares these to current system files in order to detect changes.

The RPM package management system can conduct integrity checks by comparing information in its metadata database with files installed on the system.
Group   Verify Integrity with RPM   Group contains 2 rules
[ref]   The RPM package management system includes the ability to verify the integrity of installed packages by comparing the installed files with information about the files taken from the package metadata stored in the RPM database. Although an attacker could corrupt the RPM database (analogous to attacking the AIDE database as described above), this check can still reveal modification of important files. To list which files on the system differ from what is expected by the RPM database:
$ rpm -qVa
See the man page for rpm to see a complete explanation of each column.

Rule   Verify File Hashes with RPM   [ref]

Without cryptographic integrity protections, system executables and files can be altered by unauthorized users without detection. The RPM package management system can check the hashes of installed software packages, including many that are important to system security. To verify that the cryptographic hash of system files and commands matches vendor values, run the following command to list which files on the system have hashes that differ from what is expected by the RPM database:
$ rpm -Va --noconfig | grep '^..5'
A "c" in the second column indicates that a file is a configuration file, which may appropriately be expected to change. If the file was not expected to change, investigate the cause of the change using audit logs or other means. The package can then be reinstalled to restore the file. Run the following command to determine which package owns the file:
$ rpm -qf FILENAME
The package can be reinstalled from a yum repository using the command:
$ sudo yum reinstall PACKAGENAME
Alternatively, the package can be reinstalled from trusted media using the command:
$ sudo rpm -Uvh PACKAGENAME
Rationale:
The hashes of important files like system executables should match the information given by the RPM database. Executables with erroneous hashes could be a sign of nefarious activity on the system.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_rpm_verify_hashes
Identifiers and References

References:  11, 2, 3, 9, 5.10.4.1, APO01.06, BAI03.05, BAI06.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS06.02, 3.3.8, 3.4.1, CCI-000366, CCI-001749, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.312(b), 164.312(c)(1), 164.312(c)(2), 164.312(e)(2)(i), 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.3.4.4.4, SR 3.1, SR 3.3, SR 3.4, SR 3.8, SR 7.6, A.11.2.4, A.12.1.2, A.12.2.1, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, CM-6(d), CM-6(c), SI-7, SI-7(1), SI-7(6), AU-9(3), PR.DS-6, PR.DS-8, PR.IP-1, Req-11.5, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227

Rule   Verify and Correct File Permissions with RPM   [ref]

The RPM package management system can check file access permissions of installed software packages, including many that are important to system security. Verify that the file permissions of system files and commands match vendor values. Check the file permissions with the following command:
$ sudo rpm -Va | awk '{ if (substr($0,2,1)=="M") print $NF }'
Output indicates files that do not match vendor defaults. After locating a file with incorrect permissions, run the following command to determine which package owns it:
$ rpm -qf FILENAME

Next, run the following command to reset its permissions to the correct values:
$ sudo rpm --setperms PACKAGENAME
Warning:  Profiles may require that specific files have stricter file permissions than defined by the vendor. Such files will be reported as a finding and need to be evaluated according to your policy and deployment environment.
Rationale:
Permissions on system binaries and configuration files that are too generous could allow an unauthorized user to gain privileges that they should not have. The permissions set by the vendor should be maintained. Any deviations from this baseline should be investigated.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_rpm_verify_permissions
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, 6, 9, 5.10.4.1, APO01.06, APO11.04, BAI03.05, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, MEA02.01, 3.3.8, 3.4.1, CCI-001493, CCI-001494, CCI-001495, CCI-001496, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.312(b), 164.312(c)(1), 164.312(c)(2), 164.312(e)(2)(i), 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, SR 2.1, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 5.2, SR 7.6, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.12.1.2, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, CIP-003-8 R4.2, CIP-003-8 R6, CIP-007-3 R4, CIP-007-3 R4.1, CIP-007-3 R4.2, CM-6(d), CM-6(c), SI-7, SI-7(1), SI-7(6), AU-9(3), CM-6(a), PR.AC-4, PR.DS-5, PR.IP-1, PR.PT-1, Req-11.5, SRG-OS-000256-GPOS-00097, SRG-OS-000257-GPOS-00098, SRG-OS-000258-GPOS-00099, SRG-OS-000278-GPOS-00108

Group   Verify Integrity with AIDE   Group contains 1 rule
[ref]   AIDE conducts integrity checks by comparing information about files with previously-gathered information. Ideally, the AIDE database is created immediately after initial system configuration, and then again after any software update. AIDE is highly configurable, with further configuration information located in /usr/share/doc/aide-VERSION.

Rule   Build and Test AIDE Database   [ref]

Run the following command to generate a new database:
$ sudo /usr/sbin/aide --init
By default, the database will be written to the file /var/lib/aide/aide.db.new.gz. Storing the database, the configuration file /etc/aide.conf, and the binary /usr/sbin/aide (or hashes of these files), in a secure location (such as on read-only media) provides additional assurance about their integrity. The newly-generated database can be installed as follows:
$ sudo cp /var/lib/aide/aide.db.new.gz /var/lib/aide/aide.db.gz
To initiate a manual check, run the following command:
$ sudo /usr/sbin/aide --check
If this check produces any unexpected output, investigate.
Rationale:
For AIDE to be effective, an initial database of "known-good" information about files must be captured and it should be able to be verified against the installed files.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_aide_build_database
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R51), 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 5.10.1.3, APO01.06, BAI01.06, BAI02.01, BAI03.05, BAI06.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS01.03, DSS03.05, DSS04.07, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, DSS06.06, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.3.4.4.4, SR 3.1, SR 3.3, SR 3.4, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.6, A.11.2.4, A.12.1.2, A.12.2.1, A.12.4.1, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.8.2.3, CM-6(a), DE.CM-1, DE.CM-7, PR.DS-1, PR.DS-6, PR.DS-8, PR.IP-1, PR.IP-3, Req-11.5, 1.3.1


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: Ensure AIDE is installed
  package:
    name: '{{ item }}'
    state: present
  with_items:
  - aide
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.1.3
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - aide_build_database
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Build and Test AIDE Database
  command: /usr/sbin/aide --init
  changed_when: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.1.3
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - aide_build_database
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Check whether the stock AIDE Database exists
  stat:
    path: /var/lib/aide/aide.db.new.gz
  register: aide_database_stat
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.1.3
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - aide_build_database
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Stage AIDE Database
  copy:
    src: /var/lib/aide/aide.db.new.gz
    dest: /var/lib/aide/aide.db.gz
    backup: true
    remote_src: true
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - (aide_database_stat.stat.exists is defined and aide_database_stat.stat.exists)
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.1.3
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - aide_build_database
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
Group   System Cryptographic Policies   Group contains 6 rules
[ref]   Linux has the capability to centrally configure cryptographic polices. The command update-crypto-policies is used to set the policy applicable for the various cryptographic back-ends, such as SSL/TLS libraries. The configured cryptographic policies will be the default policy used by these backends unless the application user configures them otherwise. When the system has been configured to use the centralized cryptographic policies, the administrator is assured that any application that utilizes the supported backends will follow a policy that adheres to the configured profile. Currently the supported backends are:
  • GnuTLS library
  • OpenSSL library
  • NSS library
  • OpenJDK
  • Libkrb5
  • BIND
  • OpenSSH
Applications and languages which rely on any of these backends will follow the system policies as well. Examples are apache httpd, nginx, php, and others.

Rule   Configure BIND to use System Crypto Policy   [ref]

Crypto Policies provide a centralized control over crypto algorithms usage of many packages. BIND is supported by crypto policy, but the BIND configuration may be set up to ignore it. To check that Crypto Policies settings are configured correctly, ensure that the /etc/named.conf includes the appropriate configuration: In the options section of /etc/named.conf, make sure that the following line is not commented out or superseded by later includes: include "/etc/crypto-policies/back-ends/bind.config";
Rationale:
Overriding the system crypto policy makes the behavior of the BIND service violate expectations, and makes system configuration more fragmented.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_configure_bind_crypto_policy
Identifiers and References

References:  CIP-003-8 R4.2, CIP-007-3 R5.1, SC-13, SC-12(2), SC-12(3), SRG-OS-000423-GPOS-00187, SRG-OS-000426-GPOS-00190



function remediate_bind_crypto_policy() {
	CONFIG_FILE="/etc/named.conf"
	if test -f "$CONFIG_FILE"; then
		sed -i 's|options {|&\n\tinclude "/etc/crypto-policies/back-ends/bind.config";|' "$CONFIG_FILE"
		return 0
	else
		echo "Aborting remediation as '$CONFIG_FILE' was not even found." >&2
		return 1
	fi
}

remediate_bind_crypto_policy

Rule   Configure System Cryptography Policy   [ref]

To configure the system cryptography policy to use ciphers only from the DEFAULT policy, run the following command:
$ sudo update-crypto-policies --set DEFAULT
The rule checks if settings for selected crypto policy are configured as expected. Configuration files in the /etc/crypto-policies/back-ends are either symlinks to correct files provided by Crypto-policies package or they are regular files in case crypto policy customizations are applied. Crypto policies may be customized by crypto policy modules, in which case it is delimited from the base policy using a colon.
Warning:  The system needs to be rebooted for these changes to take effect.
Warning:  System Crypto Modules must be provided by a vendor that undergoes FIPS-140 certifications. FIPS-140 is applicable to all Federal agencies that use cryptographic-based security systems to protect sensitive information in computer and telecommunication systems (including voice systems) as defined in Section 5131 of the Information Technology Management Reform Act of 1996, Public Law 104-106. This standard shall be used in designing and implementing cryptographic modules that Federal departments and agencies operate or are operated for them under contract. See https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/FIPS/NIST.FIPS.140-2.pdf To meet this, the system has to have cryptographic software provided by a vendor that has undergone this certification. This means providing documentation, test results, design information, and independent third party review by an accredited lab. While open source software is capable of meeting this, it does not meet FIPS-140 unless the vendor submits to this process.
Rationale:
Centralized cryptographic policies simplify applying secure ciphers across an operating system and the applications that run on that operating system. Use of weak or untested encryption algorithms undermines the purposes of utilizing encryption to protect data.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_configure_crypto_policy
Identifiers and References

References:  164.308(a)(4)(i), 164.308(b)(1), 164.308(b)(3), 164.312(e)(1), 164.312(e)(2)(ii), 1446, CIP-003-8 R4.2, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R7.1, AC-17(a), AC-17(2), CM-6(a), MA-4(6), SC-13, SC-12(2), SC-12(3), FCS_COP.1(1), FCS_COP.1(2), FCS_COP.1(3), FCS_COP.1(4), FCS_CKM.1, FCS_CKM.2, FCS_TLSC_EXT.1, SRG-OS-000396-GPOS-00176, SRG-OS-000393-GPOS-00173, SRG-OS-000394-GPOS-00174


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value var_system_crypto_policy # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_system_crypto_policy: !!str DEFAULT
  tags:
    - always

- name: Configure System Cryptography Policy
  lineinfile:
    path: /etc/crypto-policies/config
    regexp: ^(?!#)(\S+)$
    line: '{{ var_system_crypto_policy }}'
    create: true
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(2)
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-MA-4(6)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(2)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-13
  - configure_crypto_policy
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Verify that Crypto Policy is Set (runtime)
  command: /usr/bin/update-crypto-policies --set {{ var_system_crypto_policy }}
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(2)
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-MA-4(6)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(2)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-13
  - configure_crypto_policy
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy


var_system_crypto_policy='DEFAULT'


stderr_of_call=$(update-crypto-policies --set ${var_system_crypto_policy} 2>&1 > /dev/null)
rc=$?

if test "$rc" = 127; then
	echo "$stderr_of_call" >&2
	echo "Make sure that the script is installed on the remediated system." >&2
	echo "See output of the 'dnf provides update-crypto-policies' command" >&2
	echo "to see what package to (re)install" >&2

	false  # end with an error code
elif test "$rc" != 0; then
	echo "Error invoking the update-crypto-policies script: $stderr_of_call" >&2
	false  # end with an error code
fi

Rule   Configure Kerberos to use System Crypto Policy   [ref]

Crypto Policies provide a centralized control over crypto algorithms usage of many packages. Kerberos is supported by crypto policy, but it's configuration may be set up to ignore it. To check that Crypto Policies settings for Kerberos are configured correctly, examine that there is a symlink at /etc/krb5.conf.d/crypto-policies targeting /etc/cypto-policies/back-ends/krb5.config. If the symlink exists, Kerberos is configured to use the system-wide crypto policy settings.
Rationale:
Overriding the system crypto policy makes the behavior of Kerberos violate expectations, and makes system configuration more fragmented.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_configure_kerberos_crypto_policy
Identifiers and References

References:  0418, 1055, 1402, CIP-003-8 R4.2, CIP-007-3 R5.1, SC-13, SC-12(2), SC-12(3), SRG-OS-000120-GPOS-00061


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:configure
- name: Configure Kerberos to use System Crypto Policy
  file:
    src: /etc/crypto-policies/back-ends/krb5.config
    path: /etc/krb5.conf.d/crypto-policies
    state: link
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(2)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-13
  - configure_kerberos_crypto_policy
  - configure_strategy
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - reboot_required

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:configure

rm -f /etc/krb5.conf.d/crypto-policies
ln -s /etc/crypto-policies/back-ends/krb5.config /etc/krb5.conf.d/crypto-policies

Rule   Configure Libreswan to use System Crypto Policy   [ref]

Crypto Policies provide a centralized control over crypto algorithms usage of many packages. Libreswan is supported by system crypto policy, but the Libreswan configuration may be set up to ignore it. To check that Crypto Policies settings are configured correctly, ensure that the /etc/ipsec.conf includes the appropriate configuration file. In /etc/ipsec.conf, make sure that the following line is not commented out or superseded by later includes: include /etc/crypto-policies/back-ends/libreswan.config
Rationale:
Overriding the system crypto policy makes the behavior of the Libreswan service violate expectations, and makes system configuration more fragmented.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_configure_libreswan_crypto_policy
Identifiers and References

References:  CIP-003-8 R4.2, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CM-6(a), MA-4(6), SC-13, SC-12(2), SC-12(3), FCS_IPSEC_EXT.1.4, FCS_IPSEC_EXT.1.6, SRG-OS-000033-GPOS-00014


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: Configure Libreswan to use System Crypto Policy
  lineinfile:
    path: /etc/ipsec.conf
    line: include /etc/crypto-policies/back-ends/libreswan.config
    create: true
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-MA-4(6)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(2)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-13
  - configure_libreswan_crypto_policy
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy


function remediate_libreswan_crypto_policy() {
    CONFIG_FILE="/etc/ipsec.conf"
    if ! grep -qP "^\s*include\s+/etc/crypto-policies/back-ends/libreswan.config\s*(?:#.*)?$" "$CONFIG_FILE" ; then
        # the file might not end with a new line
        echo -e '\ninclude /etc/crypto-policies/back-ends/libreswan.config' >> "$CONFIG_FILE"
    fi
    return 0
}

remediate_libreswan_crypto_policy

Rule   Configure OpenSSL library to use System Crypto Policy   [ref]

Crypto Policies provide a centralized control over crypto algorithms usage of many packages. OpenSSL is supported by crypto policy, but the OpenSSL configuration may be set up to ignore it. To check that Crypto Policies settings are configured correctly, you have to examine the OpenSSL config file available under /etc/pki/tls/openssl.cnf. This file has the ini format, and it enables crypto policy support if there is a [ crypto_policy ] section that contains the .include /etc/crypto-policies/back-ends/opensslcnf.config directive.
Rationale:
Overriding the system crypto policy makes the behavior of the Java runtime violates expectations, and makes system configuration more fragmented.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_configure_openssl_crypto_policy
Identifiers and References

References:  CCI-001453, CIP-003-8 R4.2, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R7.1, AC-17(a), AC-17(2), CM-6(a), MA-4(6), SC-13, SC-12(2), SC-12(3), SRG-OS-000250-GPOS-00093


Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
- name: Test for crypto_policy group
  command: grep '^\s*\[\s*crypto_policy\s*]' /etc/pki/tls/openssl.cnf
  register: test_crypto_policy_group
  ignore_errors: true
  changed_when: false
  check_mode: false
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(2)
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-MA-4(6)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(2)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-13
  - configure_openssl_crypto_policy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - unknown_strategy

- name: Add .include for opensslcnf.config to crypto_policy section
  lineinfile:
    create: true
    insertafter: ^\s*\[\s*crypto_policy\s*]\s*
    line: .include /etc/crypto-policies/back-ends/opensslcnf.config
    path: /etc/pki/tls/openssl.cnf
  when:
  - test_crypto_policy_group.stdout is defined
  - test_crypto_policy_group.stdout | length > 0
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(2)
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-MA-4(6)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(2)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-13
  - configure_openssl_crypto_policy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - unknown_strategy

- name: Add crypto_policy group and set include opensslcnf.config
  lineinfile:
    create: true
    line: |-
      [crypto_policy]
      .include /etc/crypto-policies/back-ends/opensslcnf.config
    path: /etc/pki/tls/openssl.cnf
  when:
  - test_crypto_policy_group.stdout is defined
  - test_crypto_policy_group.stdout | length < 1
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(2)
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-MA-4(6)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(2)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-13
  - configure_openssl_crypto_policy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - unknown_strategy


OPENSSL_CRYPTO_POLICY_SECTION='[ crypto_policy ]'
OPENSSL_CRYPTO_POLICY_SECTION_REGEX='\[\s*crypto_policy\s*\]'
OPENSSL_CRYPTO_POLICY_INCLUSION='.include /etc/crypto-policies/back-ends/opensslcnf.config'
OPENSSL_CRYPTO_POLICY_INCLUSION_REGEX='^\s*\.include\s*/etc/crypto-policies/back-ends/opensslcnf.config$'


  


function remediate_openssl_crypto_policy() {
	CONFIG_FILE=/etc/pki/tls/openssl.cnf
	if test -f "$CONFIG_FILE"; then
		if ! grep -q "^\\s*$OPENSSL_CRYPTO_POLICY_SECTION_REGEX" "$CONFIG_FILE"; then
			printf '\n%s\n\n%s' "$OPENSSL_CRYPTO_POLICY_SECTION" "$OPENSSL_CRYPTO_POLICY_INCLUSION" >> "$CONFIG_FILE"
			return 0
		elif ! grep -q "^\\s*$OPENSSL_CRYPTO_POLICY_INCLUSION_REGEX" "$CONFIG_FILE"; then
			sed -i "s|$OPENSSL_CRYPTO_POLICY_SECTION_REGEX|&\\n\\n$OPENSSL_CRYPTO_POLICY_INCLUSION\\n|" "$CONFIG_FILE"
			return 0
		fi
	else
		echo "Aborting remediation as '$CONFIG_FILE' was not even found." >&2
		return 1
	fi
}

remediate_openssl_crypto_policy

Rule   Configure SSH to use System Crypto Policy   [ref]

Crypto Policies provide a centralized control over crypto algorithms usage of many packages. SSH is supported by crypto policy, but the SSH configuration may be set up to ignore it. To check that Crypto Policies settings are configured correctly, ensure that the CRYPTO_POLICY variable is either commented or not set at all in the /etc/sysconfig/sshd.
Rationale:
Overriding the system crypto policy makes the behavior of the SSH service violate expectations, and makes system configuration more fragmented.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_configure_ssh_crypto_policy
Identifiers and References

References:  CCI-001453, 164.308(a)(4)(i), 164.308(b)(1), 164.308(b)(3), 164.312(e)(1), 164.312(e)(2)(ii), CIP-003-8 R4.2, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R7.1, AC-17(a), AC-17(2), CM-6(a), MA-4(6), SC-13, FCS_SSH_EXT.1, FCS_SSHS_EXT.1, FCS_SSHC_EXT.1, SRG-OS-000250-GPOS-00093


Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: Configure SSH to use System Crypto Policy
  lineinfile:
    dest: /etc/sysconfig/sshd
    state: absent
    regexp: ^\s*(?i)CRYPTO_POLICY.*$
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(2)
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-MA-4(6)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-13
  - configure_ssh_crypto_policy
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required


SSH_CONF="/etc/sysconfig/sshd"

sed -i "/^\s*CRYPTO_POLICY.*$/Id" $SSH_CONF
Group   Updating Software   Group contains 2 rules
[ref]   The yum command line tool is used to install and update software packages. The system also provides a graphical software update tool in the System menu, in the Administration submenu, called Software Update.

Alibaba Cloud Linux 2 systems contain an installed software catalog called the RPM database, which records metadata of installed packages. Consistently using yum or the graphical Software Update for all software installation allows for insight into the current inventory of installed software on the system.

Rule   Ensure gpgcheck Enabled In Main yum Configuration   [ref]

The gpgcheck option controls whether RPM packages' signatures are always checked prior to installation. To configure yum to check package signatures before installing them, ensure the following line appears in /etc/yum.conf in the [main] section:
gpgcheck=1
Rationale:
Changes to any software components can have significant effects on the overall security of the operating system. This requirement ensures the software has not been tampered with and that it has been provided by a trusted vendor.
Accordingly, patches, service packs, device drivers, or operating system components must be signed with a certificate recognized and approved by the organization.
Verifying the authenticity of the software prior to installation validates the integrity of the patch or upgrade received from a vendor. This ensures the software has not been tampered with and that it has been provided by a trusted vendor. Self-signed certificates are disallowed by this requirement. Certificates used to verify the software must be from an approved Certificate Authority (CA).
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_ensure_gpgcheck_globally_activated
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R15), 11, 2, 3, 9, 5.10.4.1, APO01.06, BAI03.05, BAI06.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS06.02, 3.4.8, CCI-001749, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.312(b), 164.312(c)(1), 164.312(c)(2), 164.312(e)(2)(i), 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.3.4.4.4, SR 3.1, SR 3.3, SR 3.4, SR 3.8, SR 7.6, A.11.2.4, A.12.1.2, A.12.2.1, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, CM-5(3), SI-7, SC-12, SC-12(3), CM-6(a), SA-12, SA-12(10), CM-11(a), CM-11(b), PR.DS-6, PR.DS-8, PR.IP-1, FPT_TUD_EXT.1, FPT_TUD_EXT.2, Req-6.2, SRG-OS-000366-GPOS-00153, SRG-OS-000366-VMM-001430, SRG-OS-000370-VMM-001460, SRG-OS-000404-VMM-001650, 1.2.3


Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Strategy:configure
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.4.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
  - NIST-800-53-CM-11(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-11(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SA-12
  - NIST-800-53-SA-12(10)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
  - configure_strategy
  - ensure_gpgcheck_globally_activated
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Ensure GPG check is globally activated
  ini_file:
    dest: /etc/yum.conf
    section: main
    option: gpgcheck
    value: 1
    no_extra_spaces: true
    create: false
  when: '"yum" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.4.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
  - NIST-800-53-CM-11(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-11(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SA-12
  - NIST-800-53-SA-12(10)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
  - configure_strategy
  - ensure_gpgcheck_globally_activated
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed

Rule   Ensure gpgcheck Enabled for All yum Package Repositories   [ref]

To ensure signature checking is not disabled for any repos, remove any lines from files in /etc/yum.repos.d of the form:
gpgcheck=0
Rationale:
Verifying the authenticity of the software prior to installation validates the integrity of the patch or upgrade received from a vendor. This ensures the software has not been tampered with and that it has been provided by a trusted vendor. Self-signed certificates are disallowed by this requirement. Certificates used to verify the software must be from an approved Certificate Authority (CA)."
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_ensure_gpgcheck_never_disabled
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R15), 11, 2, 3, 9, 5.10.4.1, APO01.06, BAI03.05, BAI06.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS06.02, 3.4.8, CCI-001749, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.312(b), 164.312(c)(1), 164.312(c)(2), 164.312(e)(2)(i), 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.3.4.4.4, SR 3.1, SR 3.3, SR 3.4, SR 3.8, SR 7.6, A.11.2.4, A.12.1.2, A.12.2.1, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, CM-5(3), SI-7, SC-12, SC-12(3), CM-6(a), SA-12, SA-12(10), CM-11(a), CM-11(b), PR.DS-6, PR.DS-8, PR.IP-1, FPT_TUD_EXT.1, FPT_TUD_EXT.2, Req-6.2, SRG-OS-000366-GPOS-00153, SRG-OS-000366-VMM-001430, SRG-OS-000370-VMM-001460, SRG-OS-000404-VMM-001650, 1.2.3

Group   System Accounting with auditd   Group contains 5 groups and 5 rules
[ref]   The audit service provides substantial capabilities for recording system activities. By default, the service audits about SELinux AVC denials and certain types of security-relevant events such as system logins, account modifications, and authentication events performed by programs such as sudo. Under its default configuration, auditd has modest disk space requirements, and should not noticeably impact system performance.

NOTE: The Linux Audit daemon auditd can be configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules files (*.rules) located in /etc/audit/rules.d location and compile them to create the resulting form of the /etc/audit/audit.rules configuration file during the daemon startup (default configuration). Alternatively, the auditd daemon can use the auditctl utility to read audit rules from the /etc/audit/audit.rules configuration file during daemon startup, and load them into the kernel. The expected behavior is configured via the appropriate ExecStartPost directive setting in the /usr/lib/systemd/system/auditd.service configuration file. To instruct the auditd daemon to use the augenrules program to read audit rules (default configuration), use the following setting:
ExecStartPost=-/sbin/augenrules --load
in the /usr/lib/systemd/system/auditd.service configuration file. In order to instruct the auditd daemon to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules, use the following setting:
ExecStartPost=-/sbin/auditctl -R /etc/audit/audit.rules
in the /usr/lib/systemd/system/auditd.service configuration file. Refer to [Service] section of the /usr/lib/systemd/system/auditd.service configuration file for further details.

Government networks often have substantial auditing requirements and auditd can be configured to meet these requirements. Examining some example audit records demonstrates how the Linux audit system satisfies common requirements. The following example from Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Documentation available at https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-us/red_hat_enterprise_linux/7/html-single/selinux_users_and_administrators_guide/index#sect-Security-Enhanced_Linux-Fixing_Problems-Raw_Audit_Messages shows the substantial amount of information captured in a two typical "raw" audit messages, followed by a breakdown of the most important fields. In this example the message is SELinux-related and reports an AVC denial (and the associated system call) that occurred when the Apache HTTP Server attempted to access the /var/www/html/file1 file (labeled with the samba_share_t type):
type=AVC msg=audit(1226874073.147:96): avc:  denied  { getattr } for pid=2465 comm="httpd"
path="/var/www/html/file1" dev=dm-0 ino=284133 scontext=unconfined_u:system_r:httpd_t:s0
tcontext=unconfined_u:object_r:samba_share_t:s0 tclass=file

type=SYSCALL msg=audit(1226874073.147:96): arch=40000003 syscall=196 success=no exit=-13
a0=b98df198 a1=bfec85dc a2=54dff4 a3=2008171 items=0 ppid=2463 pid=2465 auid=502 uid=48
gid=48 euid=48 suid=48 fsuid=48 egid=48 sgid=48 fsgid=48 tty=(none) ses=6 comm="httpd"
exe="/usr/sbin/httpd" subj=unconfined_u:system_r:httpd_t:s0 key=(null)
  • msg=audit(1226874073.147:96)
    • The number in parentheses is the unformatted time stamp (Epoch time) for the event, which can be converted to standard time by using the date command.
  • { getattr }
    • The item in braces indicates the permission that was denied. getattr indicates the source process was trying to read the target file's status information. This occurs before reading files. This action is denied due to the file being accessed having the wrong label. Commonly seen permissions include getattr, read, and write.
  • comm="httpd"
    • The executable that launched the process. The full path of the executable is found in the exe= section of the system call (SYSCALL) message, which in this case, is exe="/usr/sbin/httpd".
  • path="/var/www/html/file1"
    • The path to the object (target) the process attempted to access.
  • scontext="unconfined_u:system_r:httpd_t:s0"
    • The SELinux context of the process that attempted the denied action. In this case, it is the SELinux context of the Apache HTTP Server, which is running in the httpd_t domain.
  • tcontext="unconfined_u:object_r:samba_share_t:s0"
    • The SELinux context of the object (target) the process attempted to access. In this case, it is the SELinux context of file1. Note: the samba_share_t type is not accessible to processes running in the httpd_t domain.
  • From the system call (SYSCALL) message, two items are of interest:
    • success=no: indicates whether the denial (AVC) was enforced or not. success=no indicates the system call was not successful (SELinux denied access). success=yes indicates the system call was successful - this can be seen for permissive domains or unconfined domains, such as initrc_t and kernel_t.
    • exe="/usr/sbin/httpd": the full path to the executable that launched the process, which in this case, is exe="/usr/sbin/httpd".
Group   Configure auditd Rules for Comprehensive Auditing   Group contains 4 groups and 4 rules
[ref]   The auditd program can perform comprehensive monitoring of system activity. This section describes recommended configuration settings for comprehensive auditing, but a full description of the auditing system's capabilities is beyond the scope of this guide. The mailing list linux-audit@redhat.com exists to facilitate community discussion of the auditing system.

The audit subsystem supports extensive collection of events, including:
  • Tracing of arbitrary system calls (identified by name or number) on entry or exit.
  • Filtering by PID, UID, call success, system call argument (with some limitations), etc.
  • Monitoring of specific files for modifications to the file's contents or metadata.

Auditing rules at startup are controlled by the file /etc/audit/audit.rules. Add rules to it to meet the auditing requirements for your organization. Each line in /etc/audit/audit.rules represents a series of arguments that can be passed to auditctl and can be individually tested during runtime. See documentation in /usr/share/doc/audit-VERSION and in the related man pages for more details.

If copying any example audit rulesets from /usr/share/doc/audit-VERSION, be sure to comment out the lines containing arch= which are not appropriate for your system's architecture. Then review and understand the following rules, ensuring rules are activated as needed for the appropriate architecture.

After reviewing all the rules, reading the following sections, and editing as needed, the new rules can be activated as follows:
$ sudo service auditd restart
Group   Record File Deletion Events by User   Group contains 1 rule
[ref]   At a minimum, the audit system should collect file deletion events for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S rmdir,unlink,unlinkat,rename,renameat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S rmdir,unlink,unlinkat,rename,renameat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete

Rule   Ensure auditd Collects File Deletion Events by User   [ref]

At a minimum the audit system should collect file deletion events for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S rmdir,unlink,unlinkat,rename,renameat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S rmdir,unlink,unlinkat,rename -S renameat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete
Warning:  This rule checks for multiple syscalls related to file deletion; it was written with DISA STIG in mind. Other policies should use a separate rule for each syscall that needs to be checked. For example:
  • audit_rules_file_deletion_events_rmdir
  • audit_rules_file_deletion_events_unlink
  • audit_rules_file_deletion_events_unlinkat
Rationale:
Auditing file deletions will create an audit trail for files that are removed from the system. The audit trail could aid in system troubleshooting, as well as, detecting malicious processes that attempt to delete log files to conceal their presence.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_file_deletion_events
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 5.4.1.1, APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01, 3.1.7, CCI-000366, CCI-000172, CCI-002884, 4.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, AU-2(d), AU-12(c), CM-6(a), DE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4, FAU_GEN.1.1.c, Req-10.2.7

Group   Record Unauthorized Access Attempts Events to Files (unsuccessful)   Group contains 1 rule
[ref]   At a minimum, the audit system should collect unauthorized file accesses for all users and root. Note that the "-F arch=b32" lines should be present even on a 64 bit system. These commands identify system calls for auditing. Even if the system is 64 bit it can still execute 32 bit system calls. Additionally, these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. An example of this is that the "-S" calls could be split up and placed on separate lines, however, this is less efficient. Add the following to /etc/audit/audit.rules:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
    -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
If your system is 64 bit then these lines should be duplicated and the arch=b32 replaced with arch=b64 as follows:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
    -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access

Rule   Ensure auditd Collects Unauthorized Access Attempts to Files (unsuccessful)   [ref]

At a minimum the audit system should collect unauthorized file accesses for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following lines:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following lines:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
Warning:  This rule checks for multiple syscalls related to unsuccessful file modification; it was written with DISA STIG in mind. Other policies should use a separate rule for each syscall that needs to be checked. For example:
  • audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_open
  • audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_ftruncate
  • audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_creat
Rationale:
Unsuccessful attempts to access files could be an indicator of malicious activity on a system. Auditing these events could serve as evidence of potential system compromise.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 5.4.1.1, APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01, 3.1.7, CCI-000172, CCI-002884, 4.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, 0582, 0584, 05885, 0586, 0846, 0957, A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, AU-2(d), AU-12(c), CM-6(a), DE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4, Req-10.2.4, Req-10.2.1

Group   Record Information on Kernel Modules Loading and Unloading   Group contains 1 rule
[ref]   To capture kernel module loading and unloading events, use following lines, setting ARCH to either b32 for 32-bit system, or having two lines for both b32 and b64 in case your system is 64-bit:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S init_module,delete_module -F key=modules
Place to add the lines depends on a way auditd daemon is configured. If it is configured to use the augenrules program (the default), add the lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility, add the lines to file /etc/audit/audit.rules.

Rule   Ensure auditd Collects Information on Kernel Module Loading and Unloading   [ref]

To capture kernel module loading and unloading events, use following lines, setting ARCH to either b32 for 32-bit system, or having two lines for both b32 and b64 in case your system is 64-bit:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S init_module,finit_module,delete_module -F key=modules
The place to add the lines depends on a way auditd daemon is configured. If it is configured to use the augenrules program (the default), add the lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility, add the lines to file /etc/audit/audit.rules.
Rationale:
The addition/removal of kernel modules can be used to alter the behavior of the kernel and potentially introduce malicious code into kernel space. It is important to have an audit trail of modules that have been introduced into the kernel.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_kernel_module_loading
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 5.4.1.1, APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01, 3.1.7, CCI-000172, 4.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, AU-2(d), AU-12(c), AC-6(9), CM-6(a), DE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4, Req-10.2.7


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q audit; then

# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
# Note: 32-bit and 64-bit kernel syscall numbers not always line up =>
#       it's required on a 64-bit system to check also for the presence
#       of 32-bit's equivalent of the corresponding rule.
#       (See `man 7 audit.rules` for details )
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
        ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH"
        OTHER_FILTERS=""
        
        AUID_FILTERS=""
        
        SYSCALL="init_module finit_module delete_module"
        KEY="modules"
        SYSCALL_GROUPING="init_module finit_module delete_module"
        # Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
        unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()


# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
default_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
# As other_filters may include paths, lets use a different delimiter for it
# The "F" script expression tells sed to print the filenames where the expressions matched
readarray -t files_to_inspect < <(sed -s -n -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d" -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" -e "F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules)
# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
then
    file_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
    files_to_inspect=("$file_to_inspect")
    if [ ! -e "$file_to_inspect" ]
    then
        touch "$file_to_inspect"
        chmod 0640 "$file_to_inspect"
    fi
fi

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
        unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()



# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
default_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"
files_to_inspect+=('/etc/audit/audit.rules' )

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
done

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi
Group   Record Attempts to Alter Logon and Logout Events   Group contains 1 rule

Rule   Enable Auditing for Processes Which Start Prior to the Audit Daemon   [ref]

To ensure all processes can be audited, even those which start prior to the audit daemon, add the argument audit=1 to the default GRUB 2 command line for the Linux operating system. Configure the default Grub2 kernel command line to contain audit=1 as follows:
# grub2-editenv - set "$(grub2-editenv - list | grep kernelopts) audit=1"
Rationale:
Each process on the system carries an "auditable" flag which indicates whether its activities can be audited. Although auditd takes care of enabling this for all processes which launch after it does, adding the kernel argument ensures it is set for every process during boot.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_grub2_audit_argument
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 5.4.1.1, APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01, 3.3.1, CCI-001464, CCI-000130, CCI-000135, CCI-000169, CCI-000172, CCI-002884, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.310(a)(2)(iv), 164.310(d)(2)(iii), 164.312(b), 4.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, AC-17(1), AU-14(1), AU-10, CM-6(a), IR-5(1), DE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4, FAU_GEN.1, Req-10.3, SRG-OS-000037-GPOS-00015, SRG-OS-000042-GPOS-00020, SRG-OS-000062-GPOS-00031, SRG-OS-000392-GPOS-00172, SRG-OS-000462-GPOS-00206, SRG-OS-000471-GPOS-00215, SRG-OS-000473-GPOS-00218, SRG-OS-000254-GPOS-00095, SRG-OS-000254-VMM-000880, 4.1.3

Group   Network Configuration and Firewalls   Group contains 3 groups and 2 rules
[ref]   Most systems must be connected to a network of some sort, and this brings with it the substantial risk of network attack. This section discusses the security impact of decisions about networking which must be made when configuring a system.

This section also discusses firewalls, network access controls, and other network security frameworks, which allow system-level rules to be written that can limit an attackers' ability to connect to your system. These rules can specify that network traffic should be allowed or denied from certain IP addresses, hosts, and networks. The rules can also specify which of the system's network services are available to particular hosts or networks.
Group   firewalld   Group contains 2 groups and 2 rules
[ref]   The dynamic firewall daemon firewalld provides a dynamically managed firewall with support for network “zones” to assign a level of trust to a network and its associated connections and interfaces. It has support for IPv4 and IPv6 firewall settings. It supports Ethernet bridges and has a separation of runtime and permanent configuration options. It also has an interface for services or applications to add firewall rules directly.
A graphical configuration tool, firewall-config, is used to configure firewalld, which in turn uses iptables tool to communicate with Netfilter in the kernel which implements packet filtering.
The firewall service provided by firewalld is dynamic rather than static because changes to the configuration can be made at anytime and are immediately implemented. There is no need to save or apply the changes. No unintended disruption of existing network connections occurs as no part of the firewall has to be reloaded.
Group   Inspect and Activate Default firewalld Rules   Group contains 1 rule
[ref]   Firewalls can be used to separate networks into different zones based on the level of trust the user has decided to place on the devices and traffic within that network. NetworkManager informs firewalld to which zone an interface belongs. An interface's assigned zone can be changed by NetworkManager or via the firewall-config tool.
The zone settings in /etc/firewalld/ are a range of preset settings which can be quickly applied to a network interface. These are the zones provided by firewalld sorted according to the default trust level of the zones from untrusted to trusted:
  • drop

    Any incoming network packets are dropped, there is no reply. Only outgoing network connections are possible.

  • block

    Any incoming network connections are rejected with an icmp-host-prohibited message for IPv4 and icmp6-adm-prohibited for IPv6. Only network connections initiated from within the system are possible.

  • public

    For use in public areas. You do not trust the other computers on the network to not harm your computer. Only selected incoming connections are accepted.

  • external

    For use on external networks with masquerading enabled especially for routers. You do not trust the other computers on the network to not harm your computer. Only selected incoming connections are accepted.

  • dmz

    For computers in your demilitarized zone that are publicly-accessible with limited access to your internal network. Only selected incoming connections are accepted.

  • work

    For use in work areas. You mostly trust the other computers on networks to not harm your computer. Only selected incoming connections are accepted.

  • home

    For use in home areas. You mostly trust the other computers on networks to not harm your computer. Only selected incoming connections are accepted.

  • internal

    For use on internal networks. You mostly trust the other computers on the networks to not harm your computer. Only selected incoming connections are accepted.

  • trusted

    All network connections are accepted.


It is possible to designate one of these zones to be the default zone. When interface connections are added to NetworkManager, they are assigned to the default zone. On installation, the default zone in firewalld is set to be the public zone.
To find out all the settings of a zone, for example the public zone, enter the following command as root:
# firewall-cmd --zone=public --list-all
Example output of this command might look like the following:
# firewall-cmd --zone=public --list-all
public
  interfaces:
  services: mdns dhcpv6-client ssh
  ports:
  forward-ports:
  icmp-blocks: source-quench
To view the network zones currently active, enter the following command as root:
# firewall-cmd --get-service
The following listing displays the result of this command on common Alibaba Cloud Linux 2 system:
# firewall-cmd --get-service
amanda-client bacula bacula-client dhcp dhcpv6 dhcpv6-client dns ftp
high-availability http https imaps ipp ipp-client ipsec kerberos kpasswd
ldap ldaps libvirt libvirt-tls mdns mountd ms-wbt mysql nfs ntp openvpn
pmcd pmproxy pmwebapi pmwebapis pop3s postgresql proxy-dhcp radius rpc-bind
samba samba-client smtp ssh telnet tftp tftp-client transmission-client
vnc-server wbem-https
Finally to view the network zones that will be active after the next firewalld service reload, enter the following command as root:
# firewall-cmd --get-service --permanent

Rule   Verify firewalld Enabled   [ref]

The firewalld service can be enabled with the following command:
$ sudo systemctl enable firewalld.service
Rationale:
Access control methods provide the ability to enhance system security posture by restricting services and known good IP addresses and address ranges. This prevents connections from unknown hosts and protocols.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_service_firewalld_enabled
Identifiers and References

References:  11, 3, 9, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, 3.1.3, 3.4.7, CCI-000366, CCI-000382, CCI-002314, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 7.6, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, CIP-003-8 R4, CIP-003-8 R5, CIP-004-6 R3, AC-4, CM-7(b), CA-3(5), SC-7(21), CM-6(a), PR.IP-1, FMT_SMF_EXT.1, SRG-OS-000096-GPOS-00050, SRG-OS-000297-GPOS-00115, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00231, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00232


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
- name: Enable service firewalld
  block:

  - name: Gather the package facts
    package_facts:
      manager: auto

  - name: Enable service firewalld
    service:
      name: firewalld
      enabled: 'yes'
      state: started
      masked: 'no'
    when:
    - '"firewalld" in ansible_facts.packages'
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.3
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.7
  - NIST-800-53-AC-4
  - NIST-800-53-CA-3(5)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-7(21)
  - enable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_firewalld_enabled

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
include enable_firewalld

class enable_firewalld {
  service {'firewalld':
    enable => true,
    ensure => 'running',
  }
}


[customizations.services]
enabled = ["firewalld"]
Group   Strengthen the Default Ruleset   Group contains 1 rule
[ref]   The default rules can be strengthened. The system scripts that activate the firewall rules expect them to be defined in configuration files under the /etc/firewalld/services and /etc/firewalld/zones directories.

The following recommendations describe how to strengthen the default ruleset configuration file. An alternative to editing this configuration file is to create a shell script that makes calls to the firewall-cmd program to load in rules under the /etc/firewalld/services and /etc/firewalld/zones directories.

Instructions apply to both unless otherwise noted. Language and address conventions for regular firewalld rules are used throughout this section.
Warning:  The program firewall-config allows additional services to penetrate the default firewall rules and automatically adjusts the firewalld ruleset(s).

Rule   Set Default firewalld Zone for Incoming Packets   [ref]

To set the default zone to drop for the built-in default zone which processes incoming IPv4 and IPv6 packets, modify the following line in /etc/firewalld/firewalld.conf to be:
DefaultZone=drop
Warning:  To prevent denying any access to the system, automatic remediation of this control is not available. Remediation must be automated as a component of machine provisioning, or followed manually as outlined above.
Rationale:
In firewalld the default zone is applied only after all the applicable rules in the table are examined for a match. Setting the default zone to drop implements proper design for a firewall, i.e. any packets which are not explicitly permitted should not be accepted.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_set_firewalld_default_zone
Identifiers and References

References:  11, 14, 3, 9, 5.10.1, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.05, DSS06.06, 3.1.3, 3.4.7, 3.13.6, CCI-000366, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 7.6, 1416, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.9.1.2, CA-3(5), CM-7(b), SC-7(23), CM-6(a), PR.IP-1, PR.PT-3, FMT_MOF_EXT.1, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, SRG-OS-000480-VMM-002000

Group   File Permissions and Masks   Group contains 1 group and 2 rules
[ref]   Traditional Unix security relies heavily on file and directory permissions to prevent unauthorized users from reading or modifying files to which they should not have access.

Several of the commands in this section search filesystems for files or directories with certain characteristics, and are intended to be run on every local partition on a given system. When the variable PART appears in one of the commands below, it means that the command is intended to be run repeatedly, with the name of each local partition substituted for PART in turn.

The following command prints a list of all xfs partitions on the local system, which is the default filesystem for Alibaba Cloud Linux 2 installations:
$ mount -t xfs | awk '{print $3}'
For any systems that use a different local filesystem type, modify this command as appropriate.
Group   Restrict Dynamic Mounting and Unmounting of Filesystems   Group contains 2 rules
[ref]   Linux includes a number of facilities for the automated addition and removal of filesystems on a running system. These facilities may be necessary in many environments, but this capability also carries some risk -- whether direct risk from allowing users to introduce arbitrary filesystems, or risk that software flaws in the automated mount facility itself could allow an attacker to compromise the system.

This command can be used to list the types of filesystems that are available to the currently executing kernel:
$ find /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/fs -type f -name '*.ko'
If these filesystems are not required then they can be explicitly disabled in a configuratio file in /etc/modprobe.d.

Rule   Disable the Automounter   [ref]

The autofs daemon mounts and unmounts filesystems, such as user home directories shared via NFS, on demand. In addition, autofs can be used to handle removable media, and the default configuration provides the cdrom device as /misc/cd. However, this method of providing access to removable media is not common, so autofs can almost always be disabled if NFS is not in use. Even if NFS is required, it may be possible to configure filesystem mounts statically by editing /etc/fstab rather than relying on the automounter.

The autofs service can be disabled with the following command:
$ sudo systemctl mask --now autofs.service
Rationale:
Disabling the automounter permits the administrator to statically control filesystem mounting through /etc/fstab.

Additionally, automatically mounting filesystems permits easy introduction of unknown devices, thereby facilitating malicious activity.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_service_autofs_disabled
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 12, 15, 16, 5, APO13.01, DSS01.04, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, 3.4.6, CCI-000366, CCI-000778, CCI-001958, 164.308(a)(3)(i), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.310(d)(1), 164.310(d)(2), 164.312(a)(1), 164.312(a)(2)(iv), 164.312(b), 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.6, A.11.2.6, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.18.1.4, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, CM-7(a), CM-7(b), CM-6(a), MP-7, PR.AC-1, PR.AC-3, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, SRG-OS-000114-GPOS-00059, SRG-OS-000378-GPOS-00163, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, 1.1.19


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
- name: Disable service autofs
  block:

  - name: Disable service autofs
    systemd:
      name: autofs.service
      enabled: 'no'
      state: stopped
      masked: 'yes'
    ignore_errors: 'yes'
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.6
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-MP-7
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_autofs_disabled

- name: Unit Socket Exists - autofs.socket
  command: systemctl list-unit-files autofs.socket
  args:
    warn: false
  register: socket_file_exists
  changed_when: false
  ignore_errors: true
  check_mode: false
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.6
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-MP-7
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_autofs_disabled

- name: Disable socket autofs
  systemd:
    name: autofs.socket
    enabled: 'no'
    state: stopped
    masked: 'yes'
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - '"autofs.socket" in socket_file_exists.stdout_lines[1]'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.6
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-MP-7
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_autofs_disabled

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
include disable_autofs

class disable_autofs {
  service {'autofs':
    enable => false,
    ensure => 'stopped',
  }
}


[customizations.services]
disabled = ["autofs"]

Rule   Disable Kernel Support for USB via Bootloader Configuration   [ref]

All USB support can be disabled by adding the nousb argument to the kernel's boot loader configuration. To do so, append "nousb" to the kernel line in /etc/default/grub as shown:
kernel /vmlinuz-VERSION ro vga=ext root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00 rhgb quiet nousb
Warning:  Disabling all kernel support for USB will cause problems for systems with USB-based keyboards, mice, or printers. This configuration is infeasible for systems which require USB devices, which is common.
Rationale:
Disabling the USB subsystem within the Linux kernel at system boot will protect against potentially malicious USB devices, although it is only practical in specialized systems.
Severity: 
unknown
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_grub2_nousb_argument
Identifiers and References

References:  12, 16, APO13.01, DSS01.04, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS06.03, CCI-001250, 164.308(a)(3)(i), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.310(d)(1), 164.310(d)(2), 164.312(a)(1), 164.312(a)(2)(iv), 164.312(b), 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.6, A.11.2.6, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, MP-7, CM-6(a), PR.AC-3, PR.AC-6

Group   Services   Group contains 5 groups and 9 rules
[ref]   The best protection against vulnerable software is running less software. This section describes how to review the software which Alibaba Cloud Linux 2 installs on a system and disable software which is not needed. It then enumerates the software packages installed on a default Alibaba Cloud Linux 2 system and provides guidance about which ones can be safely disabled.

Alibaba Cloud Linux 2 provides a convenient minimal install option that essentially installs the bare necessities for a functional system. When building Alibaba Cloud Linux 2 systems, it is highly recommended to select the minimal packages and then build up the system from there.
Group   Base Services   Group contains 5 rules
[ref]   This section addresses the base services that are installed on a Alibaba Cloud Linux 2 default installation which are not covered in other sections. Some of these services listen on the network and should be treated with particular discretion. Other services are local system utilities that may or may not be extraneous. In general, system services should be disabled if not required.

Rule   Disable Automatic Bug Reporting Tool (abrtd)   [ref]

The Automatic Bug Reporting Tool (abrtd) daemon collects and reports crash data when an application crash is detected. Using a variety of plugins, abrtd can email crash reports to system administrators, log crash reports to files, or forward crash reports to a centralized issue tracking system such as RHTSupport. The abrtd service can be disabled with the following command:
$ sudo systemctl mask --now abrtd.service
Rationale:
Mishandling crash data could expose sensitive information about vulnerabilities in software executing on the system, as well as sensitive information from within a process's address space or registers.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_service_abrtd_disabled
Identifiers and References

References:  11, 12, 14, 15, 3, 8, 9, APO13.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS01.04, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.05, DSS06.06, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.11.2.6, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, A.9.1.2, CM-7(a), CM-6(a), PR.AC-3, PR.IP-1, PR.PT-3, PR.PT-4


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
- name: Disable service abrtd
  block:

  - name: Disable service abrtd
    systemd:
      name: abrtd.service
      enabled: 'no'
      state: stopped
      masked: 'yes'
    ignore_errors: 'yes'
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_abrtd_disabled

- name: Unit Socket Exists - abrtd.socket
  command: systemctl list-unit-files abrtd.socket
  args:
    warn: false
  register: socket_file_exists
  changed_when: false
  ignore_errors: true
  check_mode: false
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_abrtd_disabled

- name: Disable socket abrtd
  systemd:
    name: abrtd.socket
    enabled: 'no'
    state: stopped
    masked: 'yes'
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - '"abrtd.socket" in socket_file_exists.stdout_lines[1]'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_abrtd_disabled

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
include disable_abrtd

class disable_abrtd {
  service {'abrtd':
    enable => false,
    ensure => 'stopped',
  }
}


[customizations.services]
disabled = ["abrtd"]

Rule   Disable ntpdate Service (ntpdate)   [ref]

The ntpdate service sets the local hardware clock by polling NTP servers when the system boots. It synchronizes to the NTP servers listed in /etc/ntp/step-tickers or /etc/ntp.conf and then sets the local hardware clock to the newly synchronized system time. The ntpdate service can be disabled with the following command:
$ sudo systemctl mask --now ntpdate.service
Rationale:
The ntpdate service may only be suitable for systems which are rebooted frequently enough that clock drift does not cause problems between reboots. In any event, the functionality of the ntpdate service is now available in the ntpd program and should be considered deprecated.
Severity: 
low
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_service_ntpdate_disabled
Identifiers and References

References:  11, 12, 14, 15, 3, 8, 9, APO13.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS01.04, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.05, DSS06.06, CCI-000382, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.11.2.6, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, A.9.1.2, CM-7(a), CM-7(b), CM-6(a), PR.AC-3, PR.IP-1, PR.PT-3, PR.PT-4


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
- name: Disable service ntpdate
  block:

  - name: Disable service ntpdate
    systemd:
      name: ntpdate.service
      enabled: 'no'
      state: stopped
      masked: 'yes'
    ignore_errors: 'yes'
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - low_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_ntpdate_disabled

- name: Unit Socket Exists - ntpdate.socket
  command: systemctl list-unit-files ntpdate.socket
  args:
    warn: false
  register: socket_file_exists
  changed_when: false
  ignore_errors: true
  check_mode: false
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - low_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_ntpdate_disabled

- name: Disable socket ntpdate
  systemd:
    name: ntpdate.socket
    enabled: 'no'
    state: stopped
    masked: 'yes'
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - '"ntpdate.socket" in socket_file_exists.stdout_lines[1]'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - low_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_ntpdate_disabled

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
include disable_ntpdate

class disable_ntpdate {
  service {'ntpdate':
    enable => false,
    ensure => 'stopped',
  }
}


[customizations.services]
disabled = ["ntpdate"]

Rule   Disable Odd Job Daemon (oddjobd)   [ref]

The oddjobd service exists to provide an interface and access control mechanism through which specified privileged tasks can run tasks for unprivileged client applications. Communication with oddjobd through the system message bus. The oddjobd service can be disabled with the following command:
$ sudo systemctl mask --now oddjobd.service
Rationale:
The oddjobd service may provide necessary functionality in some environments, and can be disabled if it is not needed. Execution of tasks by privileged programs, on behalf of unprivileged ones, has traditionally been a source of privilege escalation security issues.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_service_oddjobd_disabled
Identifiers and References

References:  11, 14, 3, 9, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.05, DSS06.06, CCI-000381, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 7.6, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.9.1.2, CM-7(a), CM-7(b), CM-6(a), PR.IP-1, PR.PT-3


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
- name: Disable service oddjobd
  block:

  - name: Disable service oddjobd
    systemd:
      name: oddjobd.service
      enabled: 'no'
      state: stopped
      masked: 'yes'
    ignore_errors: 'yes'
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_oddjobd_disabled

- name: Unit Socket Exists - oddjobd.socket
  command: systemctl list-unit-files oddjobd.socket
  args:
    warn: false
  register: socket_file_exists
  changed_when: false
  ignore_errors: true
  check_mode: false
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_oddjobd_disabled

- name: Disable socket oddjobd
  systemd:
    name: oddjobd.socket
    enabled: 'no'
    state: stopped
    masked: 'yes'
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - '"oddjobd.socket" in socket_file_exists.stdout_lines[1]'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_oddjobd_disabled

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
include disable_oddjobd

class disable_oddjobd {
  service {'oddjobd':
    enable => false,
    ensure => 'stopped',
  }
}


[customizations.services]
disabled = ["oddjobd"]

Rule   Disable Apache Qpid (qpidd)   [ref]

The qpidd service provides high speed, secure, guaranteed delivery services. It is an implementation of the Advanced Message Queuing Protocol. By default the qpidd service will bind to port 5672 and listen for connection attempts. The qpidd service can be disabled with the following command:
$ sudo systemctl mask --now qpidd.service
Rationale:
The qpidd service is automatically installed when the base package selection is selected during installation. The qpidd service listens for network connections, which increases the attack surface of the system. If the system is not intended to receive AMQP traffic, then the qpidd service is not needed and should be disabled or removed.
Severity: 
low
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_service_qpidd_disabled
Identifiers and References

References:  11, 12, 14, 15, 3, 8, 9, APO13.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS01.04, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.05, DSS06.06, CCI-000382, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.11.2.6, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, A.9.1.2, CM-7(a), CM-7(b), CM-6(a), PR.AC-3, PR.IP-1, PR.PT-3, PR.PT-4


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
- name: Disable service qpidd
  block:

  - name: Disable service qpidd
    systemd:
      name: qpidd.service
      enabled: 'no'
      state: stopped
      masked: 'yes'
    ignore_errors: 'yes'
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - low_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_qpidd_disabled

- name: Unit Socket Exists - qpidd.socket
  command: systemctl list-unit-files qpidd.socket
  args:
    warn: false
  register: socket_file_exists
  changed_when: false
  ignore_errors: true
  check_mode: false
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - low_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_qpidd_disabled

- name: Disable socket qpidd
  systemd:
    name: qpidd.socket
    enabled: 'no'
    state: stopped
    masked: 'yes'
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - '"qpidd.socket" in socket_file_exists.stdout_lines[1]'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - low_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_qpidd_disabled

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
include disable_qpidd

class disable_qpidd {
  service {'qpidd':
    enable => false,
    ensure => 'stopped',
  }
}


[customizations.services]
disabled = ["qpidd"]

Rule   Disable Network Router Discovery Daemon (rdisc)   [ref]

The rdisc service implements the client side of the ICMP Internet Router Discovery Protocol (IRDP), which allows discovery of routers on the local subnet. If a router is discovered then the local routing table is updated with a corresponding default route. By default this daemon is disabled. The rdisc service can be disabled with the following command:
$ sudo systemctl mask --now rdisc.service
Rationale:
General-purpose systems typically have their network and routing information configured statically by a system administrator. Workstations or some special-purpose systems often use DHCP (instead of IRDP) to retrieve dynamic network configuration information.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_service_rdisc_disabled
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, APO01.06, APO13.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS01.04, DSS01.05, DSS03.01, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, DSS06.06, CCI-000382, 4.2.3.4, 4.3.3.4, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.11.2.6, A.12.1.1, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.2, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.2, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.6.1.2, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, AC-4, CM-7(a), CM-7(b), CM-6(a), DE.AE-1, ID.AM-3, PR.AC-3, PR.AC-5, PR.DS-5, PR.IP-1, PR.PT-3, PR.PT-4


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
- name: Disable service rdisc
  block:

  - name: Disable service rdisc
    systemd:
      name: rdisc.service
      enabled: 'no'
      state: stopped
      masked: 'yes'
    ignore_errors: 'yes'
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-4
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_rdisc_disabled

- name: Unit Socket Exists - rdisc.socket
  command: systemctl list-unit-files rdisc.socket
  args:
    warn: false
  register: socket_file_exists
  changed_when: false
  ignore_errors: true
  check_mode: false
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-4
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_rdisc_disabled

- name: Disable socket rdisc
  systemd:
    name: rdisc.socket
    enabled: 'no'
    state: stopped
    masked: 'yes'
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - '"rdisc.socket" in socket_file_exists.stdout_lines[1]'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-4
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_rdisc_disabled

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
include disable_rdisc

class disable_rdisc {
  service {'rdisc':
    enable => false,
    ensure => 'stopped',
  }
}


[customizations.services]
disabled = ["rdisc"]
Group   Cron and At Daemons   Group contains 1 rule
[ref]   The cron and at services are used to allow commands to be executed at a later time. The cron service is required by almost all systems to perform necessary maintenance tasks, while at may or may not be required on a given system. Both daemons should be configured defensively.

Rule   Disable At Service (atd)   [ref]

The at and batch commands can be used to schedule tasks that are meant to be executed only once. This allows delayed execution in a manner similar to cron, except that it is not recurring. The daemon atd keeps track of tasks scheduled via at and batch, and executes them at the specified time. The atd service can be disabled with the following command:
$ sudo systemctl mask --now atd.service
Rationale:
The atd service could be used by an unsophisticated insider to carry out activities outside of a normal login session, which could complicate accountability. Furthermore, the need to schedule tasks with at or batch is not common.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_service_atd_disabled
Identifiers and References

References:  11, 14, 3, 9, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.05, DSS06.06, CCI-000381, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 7.6, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.9.1.2, CM-7(a), CM-7(b), CM-6(a), PR.IP-1, PR.PT-3


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
- name: Disable service atd
  block:

  - name: Disable service atd
    systemd:
      name: atd.service
      enabled: 'no'
      state: stopped
      masked: 'yes'
    ignore_errors: 'yes'
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_atd_disabled

- name: Unit Socket Exists - atd.socket
  command: systemctl list-unit-files atd.socket
  args:
    warn: false
  register: socket_file_exists
  changed_when: false
  ignore_errors: true
  check_mode: false
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_atd_disabled

- name: Disable socket atd
  systemd:
    name: atd.socket
    enabled: 'no'
    state: stopped
    masked: 'yes'
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - '"atd.socket" in socket_file_exists.stdout_lines[1]'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_atd_disabled

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
include disable_atd

class disable_atd {
  service {'atd':
    enable => false,
    ensure => 'stopped',
  }
}


[customizations.services]
disabled = ["atd"]
Group   LDAP   Group contains 1 group and 1 rule
[ref]   LDAP is a popular directory service, that is, a standardized way of looking up information from a central database. Alibaba Cloud Linux 2 includes software that enables a system to act as both an LDAP client and server.
Group   Configure OpenLDAP Clients   Group contains 1 rule
[ref]   This section provides information on which security settings are important to configure in OpenLDAP clients by manually editing the appropriate configuration files. Alibaba Cloud Linux 2 provides an automated configuration tool called authconfig and a graphical wrapper for authconfig called system-config-authentication. However, these tools do not provide as much control over configuration as manual editing of configuration files. The authconfig tools do not allow you to specify locations of SSL certificate files, which is useful when trying to use SSL cleanly across several protocols. Installation and configuration of OpenLDAP on Alibaba Cloud Linux 2 is available at
Warning:  Before configuring any system to be an LDAP client, ensure that a working LDAP server is present on the network.

Rule   Ensure LDAP client is not installed   [ref]

The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is a service that provides a method for looking up information from a central database. The openldap-clients package can be removed with the following command:
$ sudo yum erase openldap-clients
Rationale:
If the system does not need to act as an LDAP client, it is recommended that the software is removed to reduce the potential attack surface.
Severity: 
low
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_package_openldap-clients_removed
Identifiers and References

References:  2.2.5


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
- name: Ensure openldap-clients is removed
  package:
    name: openldap-clients
    state: absent
  tags:
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - low_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - package_openldap-clients_removed

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
include remove_openldap-clients

class remove_openldap-clients {
  package { 'openldap-clients':
    ensure => 'purged',
  }
}

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable

# CAUTION: This remediation script will remove openldap-clients
#	   from the system, and may remove any packages
#	   that depend on openldap-clients. Execute this
#	   remediation AFTER testing on a non-production
#	   system!

if rpm -q --quiet "openldap-clients" ; then

    yum remove -y "openldap-clients"

fi
Group   Network Time Protocol   Group contains 2 rules
[ref]   The Network Time Protocol is used to manage the system clock over a network. Computer clocks are not very accurate, so time will drift unpredictably on unmanaged systems. Central time protocols can be used both to ensure that time is consistent among a network of systems, and that their time is consistent with the outside world.

If every system on a network reliably reports the same time, then it is much easier to correlate log messages in case of an attack. In addition, a number of cryptographic protocols (such as Kerberos) use timestamps to prevent certain types of attacks. If your network does not have synchronized time, these protocols may be unreliable or even unusable.

Depending on the specifics of the network, global time accuracy may be just as important as local synchronization, or not very important at all. If your network is connected to the Internet, using a public timeserver (or one provided by your enterprise) provides globally accurate timestamps which may be essential in investigating or responding to an attack which originated outside of your network.

A typical network setup involves a small number of internal systems operating as NTP servers, and the remainder obtaining time information from those internal servers.

There is a choice between the daemons ntpd and chronyd, which are available from the repositories in the ntp and chrony packages respectively.

The default chronyd daemon can work well when external time references are only intermittently accesible, can perform well even when the network is congested for longer periods of time, can usually synchronize the clock faster and with better time accuracy, and quickly adapts to sudden changes in the rate of the clock, for example, due to changes in the temperature of the crystal oscillator. Chronyd should be considered for all systems which are frequently suspended or otherwise intermittently disconnected and reconnected to a network. Mobile and virtual systems for example.

The ntpd NTP daemon fully supports NTP protocol version 4 (RFC 5905), including broadcast, multicast, manycast clients and servers, and the orphan mode. It also supports extra authentication schemes based on public-key cryptography (RFC 5906). The NTP daemon (ntpd) should be considered for systems which are normally kept permanently on. Systems which are required to use broadcast or multicast IP, or to perform authentication of packets with the Autokey protocol, should consider using ntpd.

Refer to https://www.alibabacloud.com/help/en/elastic-compute-service/latest/alibaba-cloud-ntp-server for more detailed comparison of features of chronyd and ntpd daemon features respectively, and for further guidance how to choose between the two NTP daemons.

The upstream manual pages at http://chrony.tuxfamily.org/manual.html for chronyd and http://www.ntp.org for ntpd provide additional information on the capabilities and configuration of each of the NTP daemons.

Rule   Enable the NTP Daemon   [ref]

Run the following command to determine the current status of the chronyd service:
$ sudo systemctl is-active chronyd
If the service is running, it should return the following:
active
Note: The chronyd daemon is enabled by default.

Run the following command to determine the current status of the ntpd service:
$ sudo systemctl is-active ntpd
If the service is running, it should return the following:
active
Note: The ntpd daemon is not enabled by default. Though as mentioned in the previous sections in certain environments the ntpd daemon might be preferred to be used rather than the chronyd one. Refer to: https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-us/red_hat_enterprise_linux/7/html/system_administrators_guide/ch-configuring_ntp_using_the_chrony_suite for guidance which NTP daemon to choose depending on the environment used.
Rationale:
Enabling some of chronyd or ntpd services ensures that the NTP daemon will be running and that the system will synchronize its time to any servers specified. This is important whether the system is configured to be a client (and synchronize only its own clock) or it is also acting as an NTP server to other systems. Synchronizing time is essential for authentication services such as Kerberos, but it is also important for maintaining accurate logs and auditing possible security breaches.

The chronyd and ntpd NTP daemons offer all of the functionality of ntpdate, which is now deprecated.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_service_chronyd_or_ntpd_enabled
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 14, 15, 16, 3, 5, 6, APO11.04, BAI03.05, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, MEA02.01, 3.3.7, CCI-000160, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, 0988, 1405, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, CM-6(a), AU-8(1)(a), AU-12(1), PR.PT-1, Req-10.4.1, SRG-OS-000356-VMM-001340

Rule   Specify a Remote NTP Server   [ref]

Depending on specific functional requirements of a concrete production environment, the Alibaba Cloud Linux 2 system can be configured to utilize the services of the chronyd NTP daemon (the default), or services of the ntpd NTP daemon. Refer to https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-us/red_hat_enterprise_linux/7/html/system_administrators_guide/ch-configuring_ntp_using_the_chrony_suite for more detailed comparison of the features of both of the choices, and for further guidance how to choose between the two NTP daemons.
To specify a remote NTP server for time synchronization, perform the following:
  • if the system is configured to use the chronyd as the NTP daemon (the default), edit the file /etc/chrony.conf as follows,
  • if the system is configured to use the ntpd as the NTP daemon, edit the file /etc/ntp.conf as documented below.
Add or correct the following lines, substituting the IP or hostname of a remote NTP server for ntpserver:
server ntpserver
This instructs the NTP software to contact that remote server to obtain time data.
Rationale:
Synchronizing with an NTP server makes it possible to collate system logs from multiple sources or correlate computer events with real time events.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_chronyd_or_ntpd_specify_remote_server
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 14, 15, 16, 3, 5, 6, APO11.04, BAI03.05, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, MEA02.01, 3.3.7, CCI-000160, CCI-001891, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, CM-6(a), AU-8(1)(a), AU-8(2), AU-12(1), PR.PT-1, Req-10.4.1, Req-10.4.3, SRG-OS-000355-VMM-001330

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