Guide to the Secure Configuration of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7

with profile CNSSI 1253 Low/Low/Low Control Baseline for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7
This profile follows the Committee on National Security Systems Instruction (CNSSI) No. 1253, "Security Categorization and Control Selection for National Security Systems" on security controls to meet low confidentiality, low integrity, and low assurance."

This guide presents a catalog of security-relevant configuration settings for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7. It is a rendering of content structured in the eXtensible Configuration Checklist Description Format (XCCDF) in order to support security automation. The SCAP content is is available in the scap-security-guide package which is developed at https://www.open-scap.org/security-policies/scap-security-guide.

Providing system administrators with such guidance informs them how to securely configure systems under their control in a variety of network roles. Policy makers and baseline creators can use this catalog of settings, with its associated references to higher-level security control catalogs, in order to assist them in security baseline creation. This guide is a catalog, not a checklist, and satisfaction of every item is not likely to be possible or sensible in many operational scenarios. However, the XCCDF format enables granular selection and adjustment of settings, and their association with OVAL and OCIL content provides an automated checking capability. Transformations of this document, and its associated automated checking content, are capable of providing baselines that meet a diverse set of policy objectives. Some example XCCDF Profiles, which are selections of items that form checklists and can be used as baselines, are available with this guide. They can be processed, in an automated fashion, with tools that support the Security Content Automation Protocol (SCAP). The DISA STIG for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, which provides required settings for US Department of Defense systems, is one example of a baseline created from this guidance.
Do not attempt to implement any of the settings in this guide without first testing them in a non-operational environment. The creators of this guidance assume no responsibility whatsoever for its use by other parties, and makes no guarantees, expressed or implied, about its quality, reliability, or any other characteristic.
Profile TitleCNSSI 1253 Low/Low/Low Control Baseline for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7
Profile IDxccdf_org.ssgproject.content_profile_nist-cl-il-al

Revision History

Current version: 0.1.31

  • draft (as of 2017-03-31)

Platforms

  • cpe:/o:redhat:enterprise_linux:7
  • cpe:/o:redhat:enterprise_linux:7::client
  • cpe:/o:redhat:enterprise_linux:7::computenode

Table of Contents

  1. System Settings
    1. Installing and Maintaining Software
    2. File Permissions and Masks
    3. SELinux
    4. Account and Access Control
    5. Network Configuration and Firewalls
    6. Configure Syslog
    7. System Accounting with auditd
  2. Services
    1. Obsolete Services
    2. Base Services
    3. Cron and At Daemons
    4. SSH Server
    5. Avahi Server
    6. Print Support
    7. DHCP
    8. Network Time Protocol
    9. Mail Server Software
    10. LDAP
    11. DNS Server
    12. FTP Server
    13. Web Server

Checklist

contains 205 rules

System Settings   [ref]group

Contains rules that check correct system settings.

contains 145 rules

Installing and Maintaining Software   [ref]group

The following sections contain information on security-relevant choices during the initial operating system installation process and the setup of software updates.

contains 14 rules

Disk Partitioning   [ref]group

To ensure separation and protection of data, there are top-level system directories which should be placed on their own physical partition or logical volume. The installer's default partitioning scheme creates separate logical volumes for /, /boot, and swap.

  • If starting with any of the default layouts, check the box to "Review and modify partitioning." This allows for the easy creation of additional logical volumes inside the volume group already created, though it may require making /'s logical volume smaller to create space. In general, using logical volumes is preferable to using partitions because they can be more easily adjusted later.
  • If creating a custom layout, create the partitions mentioned in the previous paragraph (which the installer will require anyway), as well as separate ones described in the following sections.
If a system has already been installed, and the default partitioning scheme was used, it is possible but nontrivial to modify it to create separate logical volumes for the directories listed above. The Logical Volume Manager (LVM) makes this possible. See the LVM HOWTO at http://tldp.org/HOWTO/LVM-HOWTO/ for more detailed information on LVM.

contains 2 rules

Ensure /var/log Located On Separate Partition   [ref]rule

System logs are stored in the /var/log directory. Ensure that it has its own partition or logical volume at installation time, or migrate it using LVM.

Rationale:

Placing /var/log in its own partition enables better separation between log files and other files in /var/.

identifiers:  CCE-26967-0

references:  AU-9, SC-32, http://iase.disa.mil/stigs/cci/Pages/index.aspx, 1.1.7

Ensure /var/log/audit Located On Separate Partition   [ref]rule

Audit logs are stored in the /var/log/audit directory. Ensure that it has its own partition or logical volume at installation time, or migrate it later using LVM. Make absolutely certain that it is large enough to store all audit logs that will be created by the auditing daemon.

Rationale:

Placing /var/log/audit in its own partition enables better separation between audit files and other files, and helps ensure that auditing cannot be halted due to the partition running out of space.

identifiers:  CCE-26971-2

references:  AU-4, AU-9, SC-32(1), 366, 1.1.8, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, RHEL-07-021330

System and Software Integrity   [ref]group

System and software integrity can be gained by installing antivirus, increasing system encryption strength with FIPS, verifying installed software, enabling SELinux, installing an Intrusion Prevention System, etc. However, installing or enabling integrity checking tools cannot prevent intrusions, but they can detect that an intrusion may have occurred. Requirements for integrity checking may be highly dependent on the environment in which the system will be used. Snapshot-based approaches such as AIDE may induce considerable overhead in the presence of frequent software updates.

contains 6 rules

Software Integrity Checking   [ref]group

Both the AIDE (Advanced Intrusion Detection Environment) software and the RPM package management system provide mechanisms for verifying the integrity of installed software. AIDE uses snapshots of file metadata (such as hashes) and compares these to current system files in order to detect changes.

The RPM package management system can conduct integrity checks by comparing information in its metadata database with files installed on the system.

contains 5 rules

Verify Integrity with AIDE   [ref]group

AIDE conducts integrity checks by comparing information about files with previously-gathered information. Ideally, the AIDE database is created immediately after initial system configuration, and then again after any software update. AIDE is highly configurable, with further configuration information located in /usr/share/doc/aide-VERSION.

contains 3 rules

Install AIDE   [ref]rule

Install the AIDE package with the command:

$ sudo yum install aide

Rationale:

The AIDE package must be installed if it is to be available for integrity checking.

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable

function package_command {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local package_operation=$1
local package=$2

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "2" ]
then
  echo "Usage: package_command 'install/uninstall' 'rpm_package_name"
  echo "Aborting."
  exit 1
fi

# If dnf is installed, use dnf; otherwise, use yum
if [ -f "/usr/bin/dnf" ] ; then
  install_util="/usr/bin/dnf"
else
  install_util="/usr/bin/yum"
fi

if [ "$package_operation" != 'remove' ] ; then
  # If the rpm is not installed, install the rpm
  if ! /bin/rpm -q --quiet $package; then
    $install_util -y $package_operation $package
  fi
else
  # If the rpm is installed, uninstall the rpm
  if /bin/rpm -q --quiet $package; then
    $install_util -y $package_operation $package
  fi
fi

}

package_command install aide
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
- name: Ensure aide is installed
  package:
    name="{{item}}"
    state=present
  with_items:
    - aide
Remediation Puppet snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
include install_aide

class install_aide {
  package { 'aide':
    ensure => 'installed',
  }
}
Remediation script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable

package -add=aide

Build and Test AIDE Database   [ref]rule

Run the following command to generate a new database:

$ sudo /usr/sbin/aide --init
By default, the database will be written to the file /var/lib/aide/aide.db.new.gz. Storing the database, the configuration file /etc/aide.conf, and the binary /usr/sbin/aide (or hashes of these files), in a secure location (such as on read-only media) provides additional assurance about their integrity. The newly-generated database can be installed as follows:
$ sudo cp /var/lib/aide/aide.db.new.gz /var/lib/aide/aide.db.gz
To initiate a manual check, run the following command:
$ sudo /usr/sbin/aide --check
If this check produces any unexpected output, investigate.

Rationale:

For AIDE to be effective, an initial database of "known-good" information about files must be captured and it should be able to be verified against the installed files.

identifiers:  CCE-27220-3

references:  CM-3(d), CM-3(e), CM-6(d), CM-6(3), SC-28, SI-7, Req-11.5, 5.10.1.3

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
/usr/sbin/aide --init
/bin/cp -p /var/lib/aide/aide.db.new.gz /var/lib/aide/aide.db.gz

Configure Periodic Execution of AIDE   [ref]rule

At a minimum, AIDE should be configured to run a weekly scan. At most, AIDE should be run daily. To implement a daily execution of AIDE at 4:05am using cron, add the following line to /etc/crontab:

05 4 * * * root /usr/sbin/aide --check
To implement a weekly execution of AIDE at 4:05am using cron, add the following line to /etc/crontab:
05 4 * * 0 root /usr/sbin/aide --check
AIDE can be executed periodically through other means; this is merely one example.

Rationale:

By default, AIDE does not install itself for periodic execution. Periodically running AIDE is necessary to reveal unexpected changes in installed files.

Unauthorized changes to the baseline configuration could make the system vulnerable to various attacks or allow unauthorized access to the operating system. Changes to operating system configurations can have unintended side effects, some of which may be relevant to security.

Detecting such changes and providing an automated response can help avoid unintended, negative consequences that could ultimately affect the security state of the operating system. The operating system's Information Management Officer (IMO)/Information System Security Officer (ISSO) and System Administrators (SAs) must be notified via email and/or monitoring system trap when there is an unauthorized modification of a configuration item.

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
echo "05 4 * * * root /usr/sbin/aide --check" >> /etc/crontab

Verify Integrity with RPM   [ref]group

The RPM package management system includes the ability to verify the integrity of installed packages by comparing the installed files with information about the files taken from the package metadata stored in the RPM database. Although an attacker could corrupt the RPM database (analogous to attacking the AIDE database as described above), this check can still reveal modification of important files. To list which files on the system differ from what is expected by the RPM database:

$ rpm -qVa
See the man page for rpm to see a complete explanation of each column.

contains 2 rules

Verify and Correct File Permissions with RPM   [ref]rule

Discretionary access control is weakened if a user or group has access permissions to system files and directories greater than the default. The RPM package management system can check file access permissions of installed software packages, including many that are important to system security. Verify that the file permissions, ownership, and gruop membership of system files and commands match vendor values. Check the file permissions, ownership, and group membership with the following command:

$ sudo rpm -Va | grep '^.M'
Output indicates files that do not match vendor defaults. After locating a file with incorrect permissions, run the following command to determine which package owns it:
$ rpm -qf FILENAME

Next, run the following command to reset its permissions to the correct values:
$ sudo rpm --setperms PACKAGENAME

warning  Note: Due to a bug in the gdm package, the RPM verify command may continue to fail even after file permissions have been correctly set on /var/log/gdm. This is being tracked in Red Hat Bugzilla #1275532.
Rationale:

Permissions on system binaries and configuration files that are too generous could allow an unauthorized user to gain privileges that they should not have. The permissions set by the vendor should be maintained. Any deviations from this baseline should be investigated.

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:high
Disruption:medium
Strategy:restrict

# Declare array to hold list of RPM packages we need to correct permissions for
declare -a SETPERMS_RPM_LIST

# Create a list of files on the system having permissions different from what
# is expected by the RPM database
FILES_WITH_INCORRECT_PERMS=($(rpm -Va --nofiledigest | grep '^.M'))

# For each file path from that list:
# * Determine the RPM package the file path is shipped by,
# * Include it into SETPERMS_RPM_LIST array

for FILE_PATH in "${FILES_WITH_INCORRECT_PERMS[@]}"
do
	RPM_PACKAGE=$(rpm -qf "$FILE_PATH")
	SETPERMS_RPM_LIST=("${SETPERMS_RPM_LIST[@]}" "$RPM_PACKAGE")
done

# Remove duplicate mention of same RPM in $SETPERMS_RPM_LIST (if any)
SETPERMS_RPM_LIST=( $(echo "${SETPERMS_RPM_LIST[@]}" | sort -n | uniq) )

# For each of the RPM packages left in the list -- reset its permissions to the
# correct values
for RPM_PACKAGE in "${SETPERMS_RPM_LIST[@]}"
do
	rpm --setperms "${RPM_PACKAGE}"
done
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:high
Disruption:medium
Strategy:restrict

- name: "Read list of files with incorrect permissions"
  shell: "rpm -Va | grep '^.M' | sed -r 's;^.*\\s+(.+);\\1;g'"
  register: files_with_incorrect_permissions
  failed_when: False
  changed_when: False

- name: "Correct file permissions with RPM"
  shell: "rpm --setperms $(rpm -qf '{{item}}')"
  with_items: "{{ files_with_incorrect_permissions.stdout_lines }}"
  when: files_with_incorrect_permissions.stdout_lines | length > 0

Verify File Hashes with RPM   [ref]rule

Without cryptographic integrity protections, system executables and files can be altered by unauthorized users without detection. The RPM package management system can check the hashes of installed software packages, including many that are important to system security. To verify that the cryptographic hash of system files and commands match vendor values, run the following command to list which files on the system have hashes that differ from what is expected by the RPM database:

$ rpm -Va | grep '^..5'
A "c" in the second column indicates that a file is a configuration file, which may appropriately be expected to change. If the file was not expected to change, investigate the cause of the change using audit logs or other means. The package can then be reinstalled to restore the file. Run the following command to determine which package owns the file:
$ rpm -qf FILENAME
The package can be reinstalled from a yum repository using the command:
$ sudo yum reinstall PACKAGENAME
Alternatively, the package can be reinstalled from trusted media using the command:
$ sudo rpm -Uvh PACKAGENAME

Rationale:

The hashes of important files like system executables should match the information given by the RPM database. Executables with erroneous hashes could be a sign of nefarious activity on the system.

Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:high
Disruption:medium

- name: "Set fact: Package manager reinstall command (dnf)"
  set_fact:
    package_manager_reinstall_cmd: dnf reinstall -y
  when: ansible_distribution == "Fedora"

- name: "Set fact: Package manager reinstall command (yum)"
  set_fact:
    package_manager_reinstall_cmd: yum reinstall -y
  when: ansible_distribution == "RedHat"

- name: "Read files with incorrect hash"
  shell: "rpm -Va | grep -E '^..5.* /(bin|sbin|lib|lib64|usr)/' | sed -r 's;^.*\\s+(.+);\\1;g'"
  register: files_with_incorrect_hash
  changed_when: False
  when: package_manager_reinstall_cmd is defined

- name: "Reinstall packages of files with incorrect hash"
  shell: "{{package_manager_reinstall_cmd}} $(rpm -qf '{{item}}')"
  with_items: "{{ files_with_incorrect_hash.stdout_lines }}"
  when: package_manager_reinstall_cmd is defined and (files_with_incorrect_hash.stdout_lines | length > 0)

GNOME Desktop Environment   [ref]group

GNOME is a graphical desktop environment bundled with many Linux distributions that allow users to easily interact with the operating system graphically rather than textually. The GNOME Graphical Display Manager (GDM) provides login, logout, and user switching contexts as well as display server management.

GNOME is developed by the GNOME Project and is considered the default Red Hat Graphical environment.

For more information on GNOME and the GNOME Project, see https://www.gnome.org

contains 6 rules

Configure GNOME Screen Locking   [ref]group

In the default GNOME3 desktop, the screen can be locked by selecting the user name in the far right corner of the main panel and selecting Lock.

The following sections detail commands to enforce idle activation of the screensaver, screen locking, a blank-screen screensaver, and an idle activation time.

Because users should be trained to lock the screen when they step away from the computer, the automatic locking feature is only meant as a backup.

The root account can be screen-locked; however, the root account should never be used to log into an X Windows environment and should only be used to for direct login via console in emergency circumstances.

For more information about enforcing preferences in the GNOME3 environment using the DConf configuration system, see http://wiki.gnome.org/dconf and the man page dconf(1). For Red Hat specific information on configuring DConf settings, see https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-US/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/7/html/Desktop_Migration_and_Administration_Guide/part-Configuration_and_Administration.html

contains 4 rules

Set GNOME3 Screensaver Inactivity Timeout   [ref]rule

The idle time-out value for inactivity in the GNOME3 desktop is configured via the idle-delay setting must be set under an appropriate configuration file(s) in the /etc/dconf/db/local.d directory and locked in /etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks directory to prevent user modification.

For example, to configure the system for a 15 minute delay, add the following to /etc/dconf/db/local.d/00-security-settings:

[org/gnome/desktop/session]
idle-delay='uint32 900'
Once the setting has been added, add a lock to /etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock to prevent user modification. For example:
/org/gnome/desktop/session/idle-delay
After the settings have been set, run dconf update.

Rationale:

A session time-out lock is a temporary action taken when a user stops work and moves away from the immediate physical vicinity of the information system but does not logout because of the temporary nature of the absence. Rather than relying on the user to manually lock their operating system session prior to vacating the vicinity, GNOME3 can be configured to identify when a user's session has idled and take action to initiate a session lock.

identifiers:  CCE-80110-0

references:  AC-11(a), 57, Req-8.1.8, SRG-OS-000029-GPOS-00010, RHEL-07-010070, 5.5.5, 3.1.10

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable

inactivity_timeout_value="900"

# Define constants to be reused below
ORG_GNOME_DESKTOP_SESSION="org/gnome/desktop/session"
SSG_DCONF_IDLE_DELAY_FILE="/etc/dconf/db/local.d/10-scap-security-guide"
SESSION_LOCKS_FILE="/etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/session"
IDLE_DELAY_DEFINED="FALSE"

# First update '[org/gnome/desktop/session] idle-delay' settings in
# /etc/dconf/db/local.d/* if already defined
for FILE in /etc/dconf/db/local.d/*
do
	if grep -q -d skip "$ORG_GNOME_DESKTOP_SESSION" "$FILE"
	then
		if grep 'idle-delay' "$FILE"
		then
			sed -i "s/idle-delay=.*/idle-delay=uint32 ${inactivity_timeout_value}/g" "$FILE"
			IDLE_DELAY_DEFINED="TRUE"
		fi
	fi
done

# Then define '[org/gnome/desktop/session] idle-delay' setting
# if still not defined yet
if [ "$IDLE_DELAY_DEFINED" != "TRUE" ]
then
	echo "" >> $SSG_DCONF_IDLE_DELAY_FILE
	echo "[org/gnome/desktop/session]" >>  $SSG_DCONF_IDLE_DELAY_FILE
	echo "idle-delay=uint32 ${inactivity_timeout_value}" >> $SSG_DCONF_IDLE_DELAY_FILE
fi

# Verify if 'idle-delay' modification is locked. If not, lock it
if ! grep -q "^/${ORG_GNOME_DESKTOP_SESSION}/idle-delay$" /etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/*
then
	# Check if "$SESSION_LOCK_FILE" exists. If not, create it.
	if [ ! -f "$SESSION_LOCKS_FILE" ]
	then
		touch "$SESSION_LOCKS_FILE"
	fi
	echo "/${ORG_GNOME_DESKTOP_SESSION}/idle-delay" >> "$SESSION_LOCKS_FILE"
fi

Enable GNOME3 Screensaver Idle Activation   [ref]rule

To activate the screensaver in the GNOME3 desktop after a period of inactivity, add or set idle-activation-enabled to true in /etc/dconf/db/local.d/00-security-settings. For example:

[org/gnome/desktop/screensaver]
idle_activation_enabled=true
Once the setting has been added, add a lock to /etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock to prevent user modification. For example:
/org/gnome/desktop/screensaver/idle-activation-enabled
After the settings have been set, run dconf update.

Rationale:

A session time-out lock is a temporary action taken when a user stops work and moves away from the immediate physical vicinity of the information system but does not logout because of the temporary nature of the absence. Rather than relying on the user to manually lock their operating system session prior to vacating the vicinity, GNOME desktops can be configured to identify when a user's session has idled and take action to initiate the session lock.

Enabling idle activation of the screensaver ensures the screensaver will be activated after the idle delay. Applications requiring continuous, real-time screen display (such as network management products) require the login session does not have administrator rights and the display station is located in a controlled-access area.

identifiers:  CCE-80111-8

references:  AC-11(a), 57, SRG-OS-000029-GPOS-00010, RHEL-07-010100, Req-8.1.8, 5.5.5, 3.1.10

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable

# Define constants to be reused below
ORG_GNOME_DESKTOP_SCREENSAVER="org/gnome/desktop/screensaver"
SSG_DCONF_IDLE_ACTIVATION_FILE="/etc/dconf/db/local.d/10-scap-security-guide"
SCREENSAVER_LOCKS_FILE="/etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/screensaver"
IDLE_ACTIVATION_DEFINED="FALSE"

# First update '[org/gnome/desktop/screensaver] idle-activation-enabled' settings in
# /etc/dconf/db/local.d/* if already defined
for FILE in /etc/dconf/db/local.d/*
do
	if grep -q -d skip "$ORG_GNOME_DESKTOP_SCREENSAVER" "$FILE"
	then
		if grep 'idle-activation-enabled' "$FILE"
		then
			sed -i "s/idle-activation-enabled=.*/idle-activation-enabled=true/g" "$FILE"
			IDLE_ACTIVATION_DEFINED="TRUE"
		fi
	fi
done

# Then define '[org/gnome/desktop/screensaver] idle-activation-enabled' setting
# if still not defined yet
if [ "$IDLE_ACTIVATION_DEFINED" != "TRUE" ]
then
	echo "" >> $SSG_DCONF_IDLE_ACTIVATION_FILE
	echo "[org/gnome/desktop/screensaver]" >>  $SSG_DCONF_IDLE_ACTIVATION_FILE
	echo "idle-activation-enabled=true" >> $SSG_DCONF_IDLE_ACTIVATION_FILE
fi

# Verify if 'idle-activation-enabled' modification is locked. If not, lock it
if ! grep -q "^/${ORG_GNOME_DESKTOP_SCREENSAVER}/idle-activation-enabled$" /etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/*
then
	# Check if "$SCREENSAVER_LOCK_FILE" exists. If not, create it.
	if [ ! -f "$SCREENSAVER_LOCKS_FILE" ]
	then
		touch "$SCREENSAVER_LOCKS_FILE"
	fi
	echo "/${ORG_GNOME_DESKTOP_SCREENSAVER}/idle-activation-enabled" >> "$SCREENSAVER_LOCKS_FILE"
fi

Enable GNOME3 Screensaver Lock After Idle Period   [ref]rule

To activate locking of the screensaver in the GNOME3 desktop when it is activated, add or set lock-enabled to true in /etc/dconf/db/local.d/00-security-settings. For example:

[org/gnome/desktop/screensaver]
lock-enabled=true
Once the settings have been added, add a lock to /etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock to prevent user modification. For example:
/org/gnome/desktop/screensaver/lock-enabled
After the settings have been set, run dconf update.

Rationale:

A session lock is a temporary action taken when a user stops work and moves away from the immediate physical vicinity of the information system but does not want to logout because of the temporary nature of the absense.

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable

# Define constants to be reused below
ORG_GNOME_DESKTOP_SCREENSAVER="org/gnome/desktop/screensaver"
SSG_DCONF_LOCK_ENABLED_FILE="/etc/dconf/db/local.d/10-scap-security-guide"
SCREENSAVER_LOCKS_FILE="/etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/screensaver"
LOCK_ENABLED_DEFINED="FALSE"
LOCK_DELAY_DEFINED="FALSE"

# First update '[org/gnome/desktop/screensaver] lock-enabled' and
# '[org/gnome/desktop/screensaver] lock-delay' settings in
# /etc/dconf/db/local.d/* if already defined
for FILE in /etc/dconf/db/local.d/*
do
	if grep -q -d skip "$ORG_GNOME_DESKTOP_SCREENSAVER" "$FILE"
	then
		if grep 'lock-enabled' "$FILE"
		then
			sed -i "s/lock-enabled=.*/lock-enabled=true/g" "$FILE"
			LOCK_ENABLED_DEFINED="TRUE"
		fi
		if grep 'lock-delay' "$FILE"
		then
			sed -i "s/lock-delay=.*/lock-delay=uint32 0/g" "$FILE"
			LOCK_DELAY_DEFINED="TRUE"
		fi
	fi
done

# Then define '[org/gnome/desktop/screensaver] lock-enabled' setting
# if still not defined yet
if [ "$LOCK_ENABLED_DEFINED" != "TRUE" ] || [ "$LOCK_DELAY_DEFINED" != "TRUE" ]
then
	echo "" >> $SSG_DCONF_LOCK_ENABLED_FILE
	echo "[org/gnome/desktop/screensaver]" >>  $SSG_DCONF_LOCK_ENABLED_FILE
	echo "lock-enabled=true" >> $SSG_DCONF_LOCK_ENABLED_FILE
	echo "lock-delay=uint32 0" >> $SSG_DCONF_LOCK_ENABLED_FILE
fi

# Verify if 'lock-enabled' modification is locked. If not, lock it
if ! grep -q "^/${ORG_GNOME_DESKTOP_SCREENSAVER}/lock-enabled$" /etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/*
then
	# Check if "$SCREENSAVER_LOCK_FILE" exists. If not, create it.
	if [ ! -f "$SCREENSAVER_LOCKS_FILE" ]
	then
		touch "$SCREENSAVER_LOCKS_FILE"
	fi
	echo "/${ORG_GNOME_DESKTOP_SCREENSAVER}/lock-enabled" >> "$SCREENSAVER_LOCKS_FILE"
fi


# Verify if 'lock-delay' modification is locked. If not, lock it
if ! grep -q "^/${ORG_GNOME_DESKTOP_SCREENSAVER}/lock-delay$" /etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/*
then
        # Check if "$SCREENSAVER_LOCK_FILE" exists. If not, create it.
        if [ ! -f "$SCREENSAVER_LOCKS_FILE" ]
        then
                touch "$SCREENSAVER_LOCKS_FILE"
        fi
        echo "/${ORG_GNOME_DESKTOP_SCREENSAVER}/lock-delay" >> "$SCREENSAVER_LOCKS_FILE"
fi

Implement Blank Screensaver   [ref]rule

To set the screensaver mode in the GNOME3 desktop to a blank screen, add or set picture-uri to string '' in /etc/dconf/db/local.d/00-security-settings. For example:

[org/gnome/desktop/screensaver]
picture-uri=string ''
Once the settings have been added, add a lock to /etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock to prevent user modification. For example:
/org/gnome/desktop/screensaver/picture-uri
After the settings have been set, run dconf update.

Rationale:

Setting the screensaver mode to blank-only conceals the contents of the display from passersby.

identifiers:  CCE-80113-4

references:  AC-11(b), 60, Req-8.1.8, 5.5.5, 3.1.10

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable

# Define constants to be reused below
ORG_GNOME_DESKTOP_SCREENSAVER="org/gnome/desktop/screensaver"
SSG_DCONF_MODE_BLANK_FILE="/etc/dconf/db/local.d/10-scap-security-guide"
SCREENSAVER_LOCKS_FILE="/etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/screensaver"
MODE_BLANK_DEFINED="FALSE"

# First update '[org/gnome/desktop/screensaver] picture-uri' settings in
# /etc/dconf/db/local.d/* if already defined
for FILE in /etc/dconf/db/local.d/*
do
	if grep -q -d skip "$ORG_GNOME_DESKTOP_SCREENSAVER" "$FILE"
	then
		if grep 'picture-uri' "$FILE"
		then
			sed -i "s/picture-uri=.*/picture-uri=string ''/g" "$FILE"
			MODE_BLANK_DEFINED="TRUE"
		fi
	fi
done

# Then define '[org/gnome/desktop/screensaver] picture-uri' setting
# if still not defined yet
if [ "$MODE_BLANK_DEFINED" != "TRUE" ]
then
	echo "" >> $SSG_DCONF_MODE_BLANK_FILE
	echo "[org/gnome/desktop/screensaver]" >>  $SSG_DCONF_MODE_BLANK_FILE
	echo "picture-uri=string ''" >> $SSG_DCONF_MODE_BLANK_FILE
fi

# Verify if 'picture-uri' modification is locked. If not, lock it
if ! grep -q "^/${ORG_GNOME_DESKTOP_SCREENSAVER}/picture-uri$" /etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/*
then
	# Check if "$SCREENSAVER_LOCK_FILE" exists. If not, create it.
	if [ ! -f "$SCREENSAVER_LOCKS_FILE" ]
	then
		touch "$SCREENSAVER_LOCKS_FILE"
	fi
	echo "/${ORG_GNOME_DESKTOP_SCREENSAVER}/picture-uri" >> "$SCREENSAVER_LOCKS_FILE"
fi

GNOME Media Settings   [ref]group

GNOME media settings that apply to the graphical interface.

contains 2 rules

Disable GNOME3 Automounting   [ref]rule

The system's default desktop environment, GNOME3, will mount devices and removable media (such as DVDs, CDs and USB flash drives) whenever they are inserted into the system. To disable automount and autorun within GNOME3, add or set automount to false, automount-open to false, and autorun-never to true in /etc/dconf/db/local.d/00-security-settings. For example:

[org/gnome/desktop/media-handling]
automount=false
automount-open=false
autorun-never=true
Once the settings have been added, add a lock to /etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock to prevent user modification. For example:
/org/gnome/desktop/media-handling/automount
/org/gnome/desktop/media-handling/auto-open
/org/gnome/desktop/media-handling/autorun-never
After the settings have been set, run dconf update.

Rationale:

Disabling automatic mounting in GNOME3 can prevent the introduction of malware via removable media. It will, however, also prevent desktop users from legitimate use of removable media.

identifiers:  CCE-80122-5

references:  AC-19(a), AC-19(d), AC-19(e), 3.1.7

Disable All GNOME3 Thumbnailers   [ref]rule

The system's default desktop environment, GNOME3, uses a number of different thumbnailer programs to generate thumbnails for any new or modified content in an opened folder. To disable the execution of these thumbnail applications, add or set disable-all to true in /etc/dconf/db/local.d/00-security-settings. For example:

[org/gnome/desktop/thumbnailers]
disable-all=true
Once the settings have been added, add a lock to /etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock to prevent user modification. For example:
/org/gnome/desktop/thumbnailers/disable-all
After the settings have been set, run dconf update. This effectively prevents an attacker from gaining access to a system through a flaw in GNOME3's Nautilus thumbnail creators.

Rationale:

An attacker with knowledge of a flaw in a GNOME3 thumbnailer application could craft a malicious file to exploit this flaw. Assuming the attacker could place the malicious file on the local filesystem (via a web upload for example) and assuming a user browses the same location using Nautilus, the malicious file would exploit the thumbnailer with the potential for malicious code execution. It is best to disable these thumbnailer applications unless they are explicitly required.

identifiers:  CCE-80123-3

references:  CM-7

File Permissions and Masks   [ref]group

Traditional Unix security relies heavily on file and directory permissions to prevent unauthorized users from reading or modifying files to which they should not have access.

Several of the commands in this section search filesystems for files or directories with certain characteristics, and are intended to be run on every local partition on a given system. When the variable PART appears in one of the commands below, it means that the command is intended to be run repeatedly, with the name of each local partition substituted for PART in turn.

The following command prints a list of all xfs partitions on the local system, which is the default filesystem for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 installations:

$ mount -t xfs | awk '{print $3}'
For any systems that use a different local filesystem type, modify this command as appropriate.

contains 42 rules

Restrict Partition Mount Options   [ref]group

System partitions can be mounted with certain options that limit what files on those partitions can do. These options are set in the /etc/fstab configuration file, and can be used to make certain types of malicious behavior more difficult.

contains 11 rules

Add nodev Option to Non-Root Local Partitions   [ref]rule

The nodev mount option prevents files from being interpreted as character or block devices. Legitimate character and block devices should exist only in the /dev directory on the root partition or within chroot jails built for system services. Add the nodev option to the fourth column of /etc/fstab for the line which controls mounting of any non-root local partitions.

Rationale:

The nodev mount option prevents files from being interpreted as character or block devices. The only legitimate location for device files is the /dev directory located on the root partition. The only exception to this is chroot jails, for which it is not advised to set nodev on these filesystems.

identifiers:  CCE-80145-6

references:  CM-7, 1.1.11

Add nodev Option to Removable Media Partitions   [ref]rule

The nodev mount option prevents files from being interpreted as character or block devices. Legitimate character and block devices should exist only in the /dev directory on the root partition or within chroot jails built for system services. Add the nodev option to the fourth column of /etc/fstab for the line which controls mounting of any removable media partitions.

Rationale:

The only legitimate location for device files is the /dev directory located on the root partition. An exception to this is chroot jails, and it is not advised to set nodev on partitions which contain their root filesystems.

identifiers:  CCE-80146-4

references:  AC-19(a), AC-19(d), AC-19(e), CM-7, MP-2

Add noexec Option to Removable Media Partitions   [ref]rule

The noexec mount option prevents the direct execution of binaries on the mounted filesystem. Preventing the direct execution of binaries from removable media (such as a USB key) provides a defense against malicious software that may be present on such untrusted media. Add the noexec option to the fourth column of /etc/fstab for the line which controls mounting of any removable media partitions.

Rationale:

Allowing users to execute binaries from removable media such as USB keys exposes the system to potential compromise.

identifiers:  CCE-80147-2

references:  AC-19(a), AC-19(d), AC-19(e), CM-7, MP-2, 87, 1.1.12

Add nosuid Option to Removable Media Partitions   [ref]rule

The nosuid mount option prevents set-user-identifier (SUID) and set-group-identifier (SGID) permissions from taking effect. These permissions allow users to execute binaries with the same permissions as the owner and group of the file respectively. Users should not be allowed to introduce SUID and SGID files into the system via partitions mounted from removeable media. Add the nosuid option to the fourth column of /etc/fstab for the line which controls mounting of any removable media partitions.

Rationale:

The presence of SUID and SGID executables should be tightly controlled. Allowing users to introduce SUID or SGID binaries from partitions mounted off of removable media would allow them to introduce their own highly-privileged programs.

identifiers:  CCE-80148-0

references:  AC-6, AC-19(a), AC-19(d), AC-19(e), CM-7, MP-2, 1.1.13, 366, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, RHEL-07-021010

Add nodev Option to /tmp   [ref]rule

The nodev mount option can be used to prevent device files from being created in /tmp. Legitimate character and block devices should not exist within temporary directories like /tmp. Add the nodev option to the fourth column of /etc/fstab for the line which controls mounting of /tmp.

Rationale:

The only legitimate location for device files is the /dev directory located on the root partition. The only exception to this is chroot jails.

identifiers:  CCE-80149-8

references:  CM-7, MP-2, 1.1.2

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
NEW_OPT=nodev

if [ $(grep " \/tmp " /etc/fstab | grep -c "$NEW_OPT" ) -eq 0 ]; then
        MNT_OPTS=$(grep " \/tmp " /etc/fstab | awk '{print $4}')
        sed -i "s/\( \/tmp.*${MNT_OPTS}\)/\1,${NEW_OPT}/" /etc/fstab
        
        if [ $MNT_OPTS = "defaults" ]
        then
                sed -i "s/defaults,//" /etc/fstab
        fi
fi
Remediation script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Strategy:enable

part /tmp -mountoptions="nodev"

Add noexec Option to /tmp   [ref]rule

The noexec mount option can be used to prevent binaries from being executed out of /tmp. Add the noexec option to the fourth column of /etc/fstab for the line which controls mounting of /tmp.

Rationale:

Allowing users to execute binaries from world-writable directories such as /tmp should never be necessary in normal operation and can expose the system to potential compromise.

identifiers:  CCE-80150-6

references:  CM-7, MP-2, 1.1.4

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
NEW_OPT=noexec

if [ $(grep " \/tmp " /etc/fstab | grep -c "$NEW_OPT" ) -eq 0 ]; then
        MNT_OPTS=$(grep " \/tmp " /etc/fstab | awk '{print $4}')
        sed -i "s/\( \/tmp.*${MNT_OPTS}\)/\1,${NEW_OPT}/" /etc/fstab
        
        if [ $MNT_OPTS = "defaults" ]
        then
                sed -i "s/defaults,//" /etc/fstab
        fi
fi

Add nosuid Option to /tmp   [ref]rule

The nosuid mount option can be used to prevent execution of setuid programs in /tmp. The SUID and SGID permissions should not be required in these world-writable directories. Add the nosuid option to the fourth column of /etc/fstab for the line which controls mounting of /tmp.

Rationale:

The presence of SUID and SGID executables should be tightly controlled. Users should not be able to execute SUID or SGID binaries from temporary storage partitions.

identifiers:  CCE-80151-4

references:  CM-7, MP-2, 1.1.3

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
NEW_OPT="nosuid"

if [ $(grep " \/tmp " /etc/fstab | grep -c "$NEW_OPT" ) -eq 0 ]; then
        MNT_OPTS=$(grep " \/tmp " /etc/fstab | awk '{print $4}')
        sed -i "s/\( \/tmp.*${MNT_OPTS}\)/\1,${NEW_OPT}/" /etc/fstab
        
        if [ $MNT_OPTS = "defaults" ]
        then
        	sed -i "s/defaults,//" /etc/fstab
        fi
fi

Add nodev Option to /dev/shm   [ref]rule

The nodev mount option can be used to prevent creation of device files in /dev/shm. Legitimate character and block devices should not exist within temporary directories like /dev/shm. Add the nodev option to the fourth column of /etc/fstab for the line which controls mounting of /dev/shm.

Rationale:

The only legitimate location for device files is the /dev directory located on the root partition. The only exception to this is chroot jails.

identifiers:  CCE-80152-2

references:  CM-7, MP-2, 1.1.14

Add noexec Option to /dev/shm   [ref]rule

The noexec mount option can be used to prevent binaries from being executed out of /dev/shm. It can be dangerous to allow the execution of binaries from world-writable temporary storage directories such as /dev/shm. Add the noexec option to the fourth column of /etc/fstab for the line which controls mounting of /dev/shm.

Rationale:

Allowing users to execute binaries from world-writable directories such as /dev/shm can expose the system to potential compromise.

identifiers:  CCE-80153-0

references:  CM-7, MP-2, 1.1.16

Add nosuid Option to /dev/shm   [ref]rule

The nosuid mount option can be used to prevent execution of setuid programs in /dev/shm. The SUID and SGID permissions should not be required in these world-writable directories. Add the nosuid option to the fourth column of /etc/fstab for the line which controls mounting of /dev/shm.

Rationale:

The presence of SUID and SGID executables should be tightly controlled. Users should not be able to execute SUID or SGID binaries from temporary storage partitions.

identifiers:  CCE-80154-8

references:  CM-7, MP-2, 1.1.14

Bind Mount /var/tmp To /tmp   [ref]rule

The /var/tmp directory is a world-writable directory. Bind-mount it to /tmp in order to consolidate temporary storage into one location protected by the same techniques as /tmp. To do so, edit /etc/fstab and add the following line:

/tmp     /var/tmp     none     rw,nodev,noexec,nosuid,bind     0 0
See the mount(8) man page for further explanation of bind mounting.

Rationale:

Having multiple locations for temporary storage is not required. Unless absolutely necessary to meet requirements, the storage location /var/tmp should be bind mounted to /tmp and thus share the same protections.

identifiers:  CCE-80155-5

references:  CM-7, 1.1.6

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
# Delete particular /etc/fstab's row if /var/tmp is already configured to
# represent a mount point (for some device or filesystem other than /tmp)
if grep -q -P '.*\/var\/tmp.*' /etc/fstab
then
  sed -i '/.*\/var\/tmp.*/d' /etc/fstab
fi

# Bind-mount /var/tmp to /tmp via /etc/fstab (preserving the /etc/fstab form)
printf "%-24s%-24s%-8s%-32s%-3s\n" "/tmp" "/var/tmp" "none" "rw,nodev,noexec,nosuid,bind" "0 0" >> /etc/fstab

Restrict Dynamic Mounting and Unmounting of Filesystems   [ref]group

Linux includes a number of facilities for the automated addition and removal of filesystems on a running system. These facilities may be necessary in many environments, but this capability also carries some risk -- whether direct risk from allowing users to introduce arbitrary filesystems, or risk that software flaws in the automated mount facility itself could allow an attacker to compromise the system.

This command can be used to list the types of filesystems that are available to the currently executing kernel:

$ find /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/fs -type f -name '*.ko'
If these filesystems are not required then they can be explicitly disabled in a configuratio file in /etc/modprobe.d.

contains 11 rules

Disable Modprobe Loading of USB Storage Driver   [ref]rule

To prevent USB storage devices from being used, configure the kernel module loading system to prevent automatic loading of the USB storage driver. To configure the system to prevent the usb-storage kernel module from being loaded, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/modprobe.d:

install usb-storage /bin/true
This will prevent the modprobe program from loading the usb-storage module, but will not prevent an administrator (or another program) from using the insmod program to load the module manually.

Rationale:

USB storage devices such as thumb drives can be used to introduce malicious software.

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
if grep --silent "^install usb-storage" /etc/modprobe.d/usb-storage.conf ; then
        sed -i 's/^install usb-storage.*/install usb-storage /bin/true/g' /etc/modprobe.d/usb-storage.conf
else
        echo -e "\n# Disable per security requirements" >> /etc/modprobe.d/usb-storage.conf
        echo "install usb-storage /bin/true" >> /etc/modprobe.d/usb-storage.conf
fi
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: Ensure kernel module 'usb-storage' is disabled
  lineinfile:
    create=yes
    dest="/etc/modprobe.d/{{item}}.conf"
    regexp="{{item}}"
    line="install {{item}} /bin/true"
  with_items:
    - usb-storage

Disable Kernel Support for USB via Bootloader Configuration   [ref]rule

All USB support can be disabled by adding the nousb argument to the kernel's boot loader configuration. To do so, append "nousb" to the kernel line in /etc/default/grub as shown:

kernel /vmlinuz-VERSION ro vga=ext root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00 rhgb quiet nousb
WARNING: Disabling all kernel support for USB will cause problems for systems with USB-based keyboards, mice, or printers. This configuration is infeasible for systems which require USB devices, which is common.

Rationale:

Disabling the USB subsystem within the Linux kernel at system boot will protect against potentially malicious USB devices, although it is only practical in specialized systems.

identifiers:  CCE-26548-8

references:  AC-19(a), AC-19(d), AC-19(e), 1250

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:high
Disruption:medium
Strategy:restrict

# Correct the form of default kernel command line in /etc/default/grub
if ! grep -q ^GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX=\".*nousb.*\" /etc/default/grub;
then
  # Edit configuration setting
  # Append 'nousb' argument to /etc/default/grub (if not present yet)
  sed -i "s/\(GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX=\)\"\(.*\)\"/\1\"\2 nousb\"/" /etc/default/grub
  # Edit runtime setting
  # Correct the form of kernel command line for each installed kernel in the bootloader
  /sbin/grubby --update-kernel=ALL --args="nousb"
fi

Disable Booting from USB Devices in Boot Firmware   [ref]rule

Configure the system boot firmware (historically called BIOS on PC systems) to disallow booting from USB drives.

Rationale:

Booting a system from a USB device would allow an attacker to circumvent any security measures provided by the operating system. Attackers could mount partitions and modify the configuration of the OS.

identifiers:  CCE-26960-5

references:  AC-19(a), AC-19(d), AC-19(e), 1250

Disable the Automounter   [ref]rule

The autofs daemon mounts and unmounts filesystems, such as user home directories shared via NFS, on demand. In addition, autofs can be used to handle removable media, and the default configuration provides the cdrom device as /misc/cd. However, this method of providing access to removable media is not common, so autofs can almost always be disabled if NFS is not in use. Even if NFS is required, it may be possible to configure filesystem mounts statically by editing /etc/fstab rather than relying on the automounter.

The autofs service can be disabled with the following command:

$ sudo systemctl disable autofs.service

Rationale:

Disabling the automounter permits the administrator to statically control filesystem mounting through /etc/fstab.

Additionally, automatically mounting filesystems permits easy introduction of unknown devices, thereby facilitating malicious activity.

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable

function service_command {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local service_state=$1
local service=$2
local xinetd=$(echo $3 | cut -d'=' -f2)

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -lt "2" ]
then
  echo "Usage: service_command 'enable/disable' 'service_name.service'"
  echo
  echo "To enable or disable xinetd services add \'xinetd=service_name\'"
  echo "as the last argument"
  echo "Aborting."
  exit 1
fi

# If systemctl is installed, use systemctl command; otherwise, use the service/chkconfig commands
if [ -f "/usr/bin/systemctl" ] ; then
  service_util="/usr/bin/systemctl"
else
  service_util="/sbin/service"
  chkconfig_util="/sbin/chkconfig"
fi

# If disable is not specified in arg1, set variables to enable services.
# Otherwise, variables are to be set to disable services.
if [ "$service_state" != 'disable' ] ; then
  service_state="enable"
  service_operation="start"
  chkconfig_state="on"
else
  service_state="disable"
  service_operation="stop"
  chkconfig_state="off"
fi

# If chkconfig_util is not empty, use chkconfig/service commands.
if ! [ "x$chkconfig_util" = x ] ; then
  $service_util $service $service_operation
  $chkconfig_util --level 0123456 $service $chkconfig_state
else
  $service_util $service_operation $service
  $service_util $service_state $service
fi

# Test if local variable xinetd is empty using non-bashism.
# If empty, then xinetd is not being used.
if ! [ "x$xinetd" = x ] ; then
  grep -qi disable /etc/xinetd.d/$xinetd && \

  if ! [ "$service_operation" != 'disable' ] ; then
    sed -i "s/disable.*/disable         = no/gI" /etc/xinetd.d/$xinetd
  else
    sed -i "s/disable.*/disable         = yes/gI" /etc/xinetd.d/$xinetd
  fi
fi

}

service_command disable autofs
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
- name: Disable service autofs
  service:
    name="{{item}}"
    enabled="no"
    state="stopped"
  with_items:
    - autofs

Disable Mounting of cramfs   [ref]rule

To configure the system to prevent the cramfs kernel module from being loaded, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/modprobe.d:

install cramfs /bin/true
This effectively prevents usage of this uncommon filesystem.

Rationale:

Linux kernel modules which implement filesystems that are not needed by the local system should be disabled.

identifiers:  CCE-80137-3

references:  CM-7, 1.1.18, 3.4.6

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
if grep --silent "^install cramfs" /etc/modprobe.d/cramfs.conf ; then
        sed -i 's/^install cramfs.*/install cramfs /bin/true/g' /etc/modprobe.d/cramfs.conf
else
        echo -e "\n# Disable per security requirements" >> /etc/modprobe.d/cramfs.conf
        echo "install cramfs /bin/true" >> /etc/modprobe.d/cramfs.conf
fi
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: Ensure kernel module 'cramfs' is disabled
  lineinfile:
    create=yes
    dest="/etc/modprobe.d/{{item}}.conf"
    regexp="{{item}}"
    line="install {{item}} /bin/true"
  with_items:
    - cramfs

Disable Mounting of freevxfs   [ref]rule

To configure the system to prevent the freevxfs kernel module from being loaded, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/modprobe.d:

install freevxfs /bin/true
This effectively prevents usage of this uncommon filesystem.

Rationale:

Linux kernel modules which implement filesystems that are not needed by the local system should be disabled.

identifiers:  CCE-80138-1

references:  CM-7, 1.1.19, 3.4.6

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
if grep --silent "^install freevxfs" /etc/modprobe.d/freevxfs.conf ; then
        sed -i 's/^install freevxfs.*/install freevxfs /bin/true/g' /etc/modprobe.d/freevxfs.conf
else
        echo -e "\n# Disable per security requirements" >> /etc/modprobe.d/freevxfs.conf
        echo "install freevxfs /bin/true" >> /etc/modprobe.d/freevxfs.conf
fi
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: Ensure kernel module 'freevxfs' is disabled
  lineinfile:
    create=yes
    dest="/etc/modprobe.d/{{item}}.conf"
    regexp="{{item}}"
    line="install {{item}} /bin/true"
  with_items:
    - freevxfs

Disable Mounting of jffs2   [ref]rule

To configure the system to prevent the jffs2 kernel module from being loaded, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/modprobe.d:

install jffs2 /bin/true
This effectively prevents usage of this uncommon filesystem.

Rationale:

Linux kernel modules which implement filesystems that are not needed by the local system should be disabled.

identifiers:  CCE-80139-9

references:  CM-7, 1.1.20, 3.4.6

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
if grep --silent "^install jffs2" /etc/modprobe.d/jffs2.conf ; then
        sed -i 's/^install jffs2.*/install jffs2 /bin/true/g' /etc/modprobe.d/jffs2.conf
else
        echo -e "\n# Disable per security requirements" >> /etc/modprobe.d/jffs2.conf
        echo "install jffs2 /bin/true" >> /etc/modprobe.d/jffs2.conf
fi
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: Ensure kernel module 'jffs2' is disabled
  lineinfile:
    create=yes
    dest="/etc/modprobe.d/{{item}}.conf"
    regexp="{{item}}"
    line="install {{item}} /bin/true"
  with_items:
    - jffs2

Disable Mounting of hfs   [ref]rule

To configure the system to prevent the hfs kernel module from being loaded, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/modprobe.d:

install hfs /bin/true
This effectively prevents usage of this uncommon filesystem.

Rationale:

Linux kernel modules which implement filesystems that are not needed by the local system should be disabled.

identifiers:  CCE-80140-7

references:  CM-7, 1.1.21, 3.4.6

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
if grep --silent "^install hfs" /etc/modprobe.d/hfs.conf ; then
        sed -i 's/^install hfs.*/install hfs /bin/true/g' /etc/modprobe.d/hfs.conf
else
        echo -e "\n# Disable per security requirements" >> /etc/modprobe.d/hfs.conf
        echo "install hfs /bin/true" >> /etc/modprobe.d/hfs.conf
fi
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: Ensure kernel module 'hfs' is disabled
  lineinfile:
    create=yes
    dest="/etc/modprobe.d/{{item}}.conf"
    regexp="{{item}}"
    line="install {{item}} /bin/true"
  with_items:
    - hfs

Disable Mounting of hfsplus   [ref]rule

To configure the system to prevent the hfsplus kernel module from being loaded, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/modprobe.d:

install hfsplus /bin/true
This effectively prevents usage of this uncommon filesystem.

Rationale:

Linux kernel modules which implement filesystems that are not needed by the local system should be disabled.

identifiers:  CCE-80141-5

references:  CM-7, 1.1.22, 3.4.6

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
if grep --silent "^install hfsplus" /etc/modprobe.d/hfsplus.conf ; then
        sed -i 's/^install hfsplus.*/install hfsplus /bin/true/g' /etc/modprobe.d/hfsplus.conf
else
        echo -e "\n# Disable per security requirements" >> /etc/modprobe.d/hfsplus.conf
        echo "install hfsplus /bin/true" >> /etc/modprobe.d/hfsplus.conf
fi
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: Ensure kernel module 'hfsplus' is disabled
  lineinfile:
    create=yes
    dest="/etc/modprobe.d/{{item}}.conf"
    regexp="{{item}}"
    line="install {{item}} /bin/true"
  with_items:
    - hfsplus

Disable Mounting of squashfs   [ref]rule

To configure the system to prevent the squashfs kernel module from being loaded, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/modprobe.d:

install squashfs /bin/true
This effectively prevents usage of this uncommon filesystem.

Rationale:

Linux kernel modules which implement filesystems that are not needed by the local system should be disabled.

identifiers:  CCE-80142-3

references:  CM-7, 1.1.23, 3.4.6

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
if grep --silent "^install squashfs" /etc/modprobe.d/squashfs.conf ; then
        sed -i 's/^install squashfs.*/install squashfs /bin/true/g' /etc/modprobe.d/squashfs.conf
else
        echo -e "\n# Disable per security requirements" >> /etc/modprobe.d/squashfs.conf
        echo "install squashfs /bin/true" >> /etc/modprobe.d/squashfs.conf
fi
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: Ensure kernel module 'squashfs' is disabled
  lineinfile:
    create=yes
    dest="/etc/modprobe.d/{{item}}.conf"
    regexp="{{item}}"
    line="install {{item}} /bin/true"
  with_items:
    - squashfs

Disable Mounting of udf   [ref]rule

To configure the system to prevent the udf kernel module from being loaded, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/modprobe.d:

install udf /bin/true
This effectively prevents usage of this uncommon filesystem.

Rationale:

Linux kernel modules which implement filesystems that are not needed by the local system should be disabled.

identifiers:  CCE-80143-1

references:  CM-7, 1.1.24, 3.4.6

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
if grep --silent "^install udf" /etc/modprobe.d/udf.conf ; then
        sed -i 's/^install udf.*/install udf /bin/true/g' /etc/modprobe.d/udf.conf
else
        echo -e "\n# Disable per security requirements" >> /etc/modprobe.d/udf.conf
        echo "install udf /bin/true" >> /etc/modprobe.d/udf.conf
fi
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: Ensure kernel module 'udf' is disabled
  lineinfile:
    create=yes
    dest="/etc/modprobe.d/{{item}}.conf"
    regexp="{{item}}"
    line="install {{item}} /bin/true"
  with_items:
    - udf

Verify Permissions on Important Files and Directories   [ref]group

Permissions for many files on a system must be set restrictively to ensure sensitive information is properly protected. This section discusses important permission restrictions which can be verified to ensure that no harmful discrepancies have arisen.

contains 20 rules
contains 12 rules

Verify User Who Owns shadow File   [ref]rule

To properly set the owner of /etc/shadow, run the command:

$ sudo chown root /etc/shadow

Rationale:

The /etc/shadow file contains the list of local system accounts and stores password hashes. Protection of this file is critical for system security. Failure to give ownership of this file to root provides the designated owner with access to sensitive information which could weaken the system security posture.

identifiers:  CCE-26795-5

references:  AC-6, http://iase.disa.mil/stigs/cci/Pages/index.aspx, Req-8.7.c, 5.5.2.2

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
chown root /etc/shadow

Verify Group Who Owns shadow File   [ref]rule

To properly set the group owner of /etc/shadow, run the command:

$ sudo chgrp root /etc/shadow

Rationale:

The /etc/shadow file stores password hashes. Protection of this file is critical for system security.

identifiers:  CCE-27125-4

references:  AC-6, http://iase.disa.mil/stigs/cci/Pages/index.aspx, Req-8.7.c, 5.5.2.2

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
chgrp root /etc/shadow

Verify Permissions on shadow File   [ref]rule

To properly set the permissions of /etc/shadow, run the command:

$ sudo chmod 0000 /etc/shadow

Rationale:

The /etc/shadow file contains the list of local system accounts and stores password hashes. Protection of this file is critical for system security. Failure to give ownership of this file to root provides the designated owner with access to sensitive information which could weaken the system security posture.

identifiers:  CCE-27100-7

references:  AC-6, http://iase.disa.mil/stigs/cci/Pages/index.aspx, Req-8.7.c, 5.5.2.2

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure
chmod 0000 /etc/shadow
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure
- name: Ensure permission 0000 on /etc/shadow
  file:
    path="{{item}}"
    mode=0000
  with_items:
    - /etc/shadow

Verify User Who Owns group File   [ref]rule

To properly set the owner of /etc/group, run the command:

$ sudo chown root /etc/group

Rationale:

The /etc/group file contains information regarding groups that are configured on the system. Protection of this file is important for system security.

identifiers:  CCE-26933-2

references:  AC-6, Req-8.7.c, 5.5.2.2

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
chown root /etc/group

Verify Group Who Owns group File   [ref]rule

To properly set the group owner of /etc/group, run the command:

$ sudo chgrp root /etc/group

Rationale:

The /etc/group file contains information regarding groups that are configured on the system. Protection of this file is important for system security.

identifiers:  CCE-27037-1

references:  AC-6, http://iase.disa.mil/stigs/cci/Pages/index.aspx, Req-8.7.c, 5.5.2.2

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
chgrp root /etc/group

Verify Permissions on group File   [ref]rule

To properly set the permissions of /etc/group, run the command:

$ sudo chmod 644 /etc/group

Rationale:

The /etc/group file contains information regarding groups that are configured on the system. Protection of this file is important for system security.

identifiers:  CCE-26949-8

references:  AC-6, http://iase.disa.mil/stigs/cci/Pages/index.aspx, Req-8.7.c, 5.5.2.2

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:high
Disruption:medium
Strategy:restrict
chmod 644 /etc/group

Verify User Who Owns gshadow File   [ref]rule

To properly set the owner of /etc/gshadow, run the command:

$ sudo chown root /etc/gshadow

Rationale:

The /etc/gshadow file contains group password hashes. Protection of this file is critical for system security.

identifiers:  CCE-27161-9

references:  AC-6, http://iase.disa.mil/stigs/cci/Pages/index.aspx

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
chown root /etc/gshadow

Verify Group Who Owns gshadow File   [ref]rule

To properly set the group owner of /etc/gshadow, run the command:

$ sudo chgrp root /etc/gshadow

Rationale:

The /etc/gshadow file contains group password hashes. Protection of this file is critical for system security.

identifiers:  CCE-26840-9

references:  AC-6, http://iase.disa.mil/stigs/cci/Pages/index.aspx

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
chgrp root /etc/gshadow

Verify Permissions on gshadow File   [ref]rule

To properly set the permissions of /etc/gshadow, run the command:

$ sudo chmod 0000 /etc/gshadow

Rationale:

The /etc/gshadow file contains group password hashes. Protection of this file is critical for system security.

identifiers:  CCE-27162-7

references:  AC-6, http://iase.disa.mil/stigs/cci/Pages/index.aspx

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
chmod 0000 /etc/gshadow

Verify User Who Owns passwd File   [ref]rule

To properly set the owner of /etc/passwd, run the command:

$ sudo chown root /etc/passwd

Rationale:

The /etc/passwd file contains information about the users that are configured on the system. Protection of this file is critical for system security.

identifiers:  CCE-27138-7

references:  AC-6, http://iase.disa.mil/stigs/cci/Pages/index.aspx, Req-8.7.c, 5.5.2.2

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
chown root /etc/passwd

Verify Group Who Owns passwd File   [ref]rule

To properly set the group owner of /etc/passwd, run the command:

$ sudo chgrp root /etc/passwd

Rationale:

The /etc/passwd file contains information about the users that are configured on the system. Protection of this file is critical for system security.

identifiers:  CCE-26639-5

references:  AC-6, http://iase.disa.mil/stigs/cci/Pages/index.aspx, Req-8.7.c, 5.5.2.2

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:high
Disruption:medium
Strategy:restrict
chgrp root /etc/passwd

Verify Permissions on passwd File   [ref]rule

To properly set the permissions of /etc/passwd, run the command:

$ sudo chmod 0644 /etc/passwd

Rationale:

If the /etc/passwd file is writable by a group-owner or the world the risk of its compromise is increased. The file contains the list of accounts on the system and associated information, and protection of this file is critical for system security.

identifiers:  CCE-26887-0

references:  AC-6, http://iase.disa.mil/stigs/cci/Pages/index.aspx, Req-8.7.c, 5.5.2.2

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
chmod 0644 /etc/passwd

Verify File Permissions Within Some Important Directories   [ref]group

Some directories contain files whose confidentiality or integrity is notably important and may also be susceptible to misconfiguration over time, particularly if unpackaged software is installed. As such, an argument exists to verify that files' permissions within these directories remain configured correctly and restrictively.

contains 3 rules

Verify that Shared Library Files Have Root Ownership   [ref]rule

System-wide shared library files, which are linked to executables during process load time or run time, are stored in the following directories by default:

/lib
/lib64
/usr/lib
/usr/lib64
Kernel modules, which can be added to the kernel during runtime, are also stored in /lib/modules. All files in these directories should be owned by the root user. If the directory, or any file in these directories, is found to be owned by a user other than root correct its ownership with the following command:
$ sudo chown root FILE

Rationale:

Files from shared library directories are loaded into the address space of processes (including privileged ones) or of the kernel itself at runtime. Proper ownership is necessary to protect the integrity of the system.

identifiers:  CCE-26648-6

references:  AC-6, http://iase.disa.mil/stigs/cci/Pages/index.aspx

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:high
Disruption:medium
Strategy:restrict
for LIBDIR in /usr/lib /usr/lib64 /lib /lib64
do
  if [ -d $LIBDIR ]
  then
    find -L $LIBDIR \! -user root -exec chown root {} \; 
  fi
done
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:medium
Disruption:medium
Strategy:restrict

- name: "Read list libraries without root ownership"
  shell: "find -L /usr/lib /usr/lib64 /lib /lib64 \\! -user root"
  register: libraries_not_owned_by_root
  changed_when: False
  failed_when: False

- name: "Set ownership of system libraries to root"
  file:
    path: "{{item}}"
    owner: "root"
  with_items: "{{ libraries_not_owned_by_root.stdout_lines }}"
  when: libraries_not_owned_by_root | length > 0

Verify that System Executables Have Restrictive Permissions   [ref]rule

System executables are stored in the following directories by default:

/bin
/sbin
/usr/bin
/usr/libexec
/usr/local/bin
/usr/local/sbin
/usr/sbin
All files in these directories should not be group-writable or world-writable. If any file FILE in these directories is found to be group-writable or world-writable, correct its permission with the following command:
$ sudo chmod go-w FILE

Rationale:

System binaries are executed by privileged users, as well as system services, and restrictive permissions are necessary to ensure execution of these programs cannot be co-opted.

identifiers:  CCE-27075-1

references:  AC-6, http://iase.disa.mil/stigs/cci/Pages/index.aspx

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
DIRS="/bin /usr/bin /usr/local/bin /sbin /usr/sbin /usr/local/sbin /usr/libexec"
for dirPath in $DIRS; do
	find "$dirPath" -perm /022 -exec chmod go-w '{}' \;
done
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:medium
Disruption:medium
Strategy:restrict

- name: "Read list of world and group writable system executables"
  shell: "find /bin /usr/bin /usr/local/bin /sbin /usr/sbin /usr/local/sbin /usr/libexec -perm /022 -type f"
  register: world_writable_library_files
  changed_when: False
  failed_when: False

- name: "Remove world/group writability of system executables"
  file:
    path: "{{item}}"
    mode: "go-w"
  with_items: "{{ world_writable_library_files.stdout_lines }}"
  when: world_writable_library_files.stdout_lines | length > 0

Verify that System Executables Have Root Ownership   [ref]rule

System executables are stored in the following directories by default:

/bin
/sbin
/usr/bin
/usr/libexec
/usr/local/bin
/usr/local/sbin
/usr/sbin
All files in these directories should be owned by the root user. If any file FILE in these directories is found to be owned by a user other than root, correct its ownership with the following command:
$ sudo chown root FILE

Rationale:

System binaries are executed by privileged users as well as system services, and restrictive permissions are necessary to ensure that their execution of these programs cannot be co-opted.

identifiers:  CCE-27119-7

references:  AC-6, http://iase.disa.mil/stigs/cci/Pages/index.aspx

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
find /bin/ \
/usr/bin/ \
/usr/local/bin/ \
/sbin/ \
/usr/sbin/ \
/usr/local/sbin/ \
/usr/libexec \
\! -user root -execdir chown root {} \;
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:medium
Disruption:medium
Strategy:restrict

- name: "Read list of system executables without root ownership"
  shell: "find /bin/ /usr/bin/ /usr/local/bin/ /sbin/ /usr/sbin/ /usr/local/sbin/ /usr/libexec \\! -user root"
  register: no_root_system_executables
  changed_when: False
  failed_when: False

- name: "Set ownership to root of system executables"
  file:
    path: "{{item}}"
    owner: "root"
  with_items: "{{ no_root_system_executables.stdout_lines }}"
  when: no_root_system_executables.stdout_lines | length > 0

Verify that All World-Writable Directories Have Sticky Bits Set   [ref]rule

When the so-called 'sticky bit' is set on a directory, only the owner of a given file may remove that file from the directory. Without the sticky bit, any user with write access to a directory may remove any file in the directory. Setting the sticky bit prevents users from removing each other's files. In cases where there is no reason for a directory to be world-writable, a better solution is to remove that permission rather than to set the sticky bit. However, if a directory is used by a particular application, consult that application's documentation instead of blindly changing modes.
To set the sticky bit on a world-writable directory DIR, run the following command:

$ sudo chmod +t DIR

Rationale:

Failing to set the sticky bit on public directories allows unauthorized users to delete files in the directory structure.

The only authorized public directories are those temporary directories supplied with the system, or those designed to be temporary file repositories. The setting is normally reserved for directories used by the system, by users for temporary file storage (such as /tmp), and for directories requiring global read/write access.

identifiers:  CCE-80130-8

references:  AC-6, 1.1.17

Ensure No World-Writable Files Exist   [ref]rule

It is generally a good idea to remove global (other) write access to a file when it is discovered. However, check with documentation for specific applications before making changes. Also, monitor for recurring world-writable files, as these may be symptoms of a misconfigured application or user account.

Rationale:

Data in world-writable files can be modified by any user on the system. In almost all circumstances, files can be configured using a combination of user and group permissions to support whatever legitimate access is needed without the risk caused by world-writable files.

identifiers:  CCE-80131-6

references:  AC-6

Ensure All Files Are Owned by a User   [ref]rule

If any files are not owned by a user, then the cause of their lack of ownership should be investigated. Following this, the files should be deleted or assigned to an appropriate user.

Rationale:

Unowned files do not directly imply a security problem, but they are generally a sign that something is amiss. They may be caused by an intruder, by incorrect software installation or draft software removal, or by failure to remove all files belonging to a deleted account. The files should be repaired so they will not cause problems when accounts are created in the future, and the cause should be discovered and addressed.

identifiers:  CCE-80134-0

references:  AC-3(4), AC-6, CM-6(b), 002165, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, RHEL-07-020320

Ensure All Files Are Owned by a Group   [ref]rule

If any files are not owned by a group, then the cause of their lack of group-ownership should be investigated. Following this, the files should be deleted or assigned to an appropriate group.

Rationale:

Unowned files do not directly imply a security problem, but they are generally a sign that something is amiss. They may be caused by an intruder, by incorrect software installation or draft software removal, or by failure to remove all files belonging to a deleted account. The files should be repaired so they will not cause problems when accounts are created in the future, and the cause should be discovered and addressed.

identifiers:  CCE-80135-7

references:  AC-3(4), AC-6, IA-2, 02165, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, RHEL-07-020330

Ensure All World-Writable Directories Are Owned by a System Account   [ref]rule

All directories in local partitions which are world-writable should be owned by root or another system account. If any world-writable directories are not owned by a system account, this should be investigated. Following this, the files should be deleted or assigned to an appropriate group.

Rationale:

Allowing a user account to own a world-writable directory is undesirable because it allows the owner of that directory to remove or replace any files that may be placed in the directory by other users.

identifiers:  CCE-80136-5

references:  AC-6, 366, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, RHEL-07-021030

SELinux   [ref]group

SELinux is a feature of the Linux kernel which can be used to guard against misconfigured or compromised programs. SELinux enforces the idea that programs should be limited in what files they can access and what actions they can take.

The default SELinux policy, as configured on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, has been sufficiently developed and debugged that it should be usable on almost any Red Hat system with minimal configuration and a small amount of system administrator training. This policy prevents system services - including most of the common network-visible services such as mail servers, FTP servers, and DNS servers - from accessing files which those services have no valid reason to access. This action alone prevents a huge amount of possible damage from network attacks against services, from trojaned software, and so forth.

This guide recommends that SELinux be enabled using the default (targeted) policy on every Red Hat system, unless that system has unusual requirements which make a stronger policy appropriate.

For more information on SELinux, see https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-US/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/7/html/SELinux_Users_and_Administrators_Guide

contains 4 rules

Ensure SELinux Not Disabled in /etc/default/grub   [ref]rule

SELinux can be disabled at boot time by an argument in /etc/default/grub. Remove any instances of selinux=0 from the kernel arguments in that file to prevent SELinux from being disabled at boot.

Rationale:

Disabling a major host protection feature, such as SELinux, at boot time prevents it from confining system services at boot time. Further, it increases the chances that it will remain off during system operation.

identifiers:  CCE-26961-3

references:  AC-3, AC-3(3), AC-3(4), AC-4, AC-6, AU-9, SI-6(a), 22, 32, 1.4.1, 3.1.2, 3.7.2

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/selinux=0//gI" /etc/default/grub /etc/grub2.cfg /etc/grub.d/*
sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/enforcing=0//gI" /etc/default/grub /etc/grub2.cfg /etc/grub.d/*

Ensure SELinux State is Enforcing   [ref]rule

The SELinux state should be set to enforcing at system boot time. In the file /etc/selinux/config, add or correct the following line to configure the system to boot into enforcing mode:

SELINUX=enforcing

Rationale:

Setting the SELinux state to enforcing ensures SELinux is able to confine potentially compromised processes to the security policy, which is designed to prevent them from causing damage to the system or further elevating their privileges.

identifiers:  CCE-27334-2

references:  AC-3, AC-3(3), AC-3(4), AC-4, AC-6, AU-9, SI-6(a), 2165, 2696, 1.4.2, SRG-OS-000445-GPOS-00199, RHEL-07-020210, 3.1.2, 3.7.2

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable

var_selinux_state="enforcing"

function replace_or_append {
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  # Check sanity of the input
  if [ $# -lt "3" ]
  then
        echo "Usage: replace_or_append 'config_file_location' 'key_to_search' 'new_value'"
        echo
        echo "If symlinks need to be taken into account, add yes/no to the last argument"
        echo "to allow to 'follow_symlinks'."
        echo "Aborting."
        exit 1
  fi

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  if test -L $config_file; then
    sed_command="sed -i --follow-symlinks"
  else
    sed_command="sed -i"
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal $CCENUM.
  # If $CCENUM exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if ! [ "x$cce" = x ] && [ "$cce" != '$CCENUM' ]; then
    cce="CCE-${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed "s/[\^=\$,;+]*//g" <<< $key)

  # If there is no print format specified in the last arg, use the default format.
  if ! [ "x$format" = x ] ; then
    printf -v formatted_output "$format" $stripped_key $value
  else
    formatted_output="$stripped_key = $value"
  fi

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  if `grep -qi $key $config_file` ; then
    $sed_command "s/$key.*/$formatted_output/g" $config_file
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    echo -e "\n# Per $cce: Set $formatted_output in $config_file" >> $config_file
    echo -e "$formatted_output" >> $config_file
  fi

}

replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state 'CCE-27334-2' '%s=%s'

Configure SELinux Policy   [ref]rule

The SELinux targeted policy is appropriate for general-purpose desktops and servers, as well as systems in many other roles. To configure the system to use this policy, add or correct the following line in /etc/selinux/config:

SELINUXTYPE=targeted
Other policies, such as mls, provide additional security labeling and greater confinement but are not compatible with many general-purpose use cases.

Rationale:

Setting the SELinux policy to targeted or a more specialized policy ensures the system will confine processes that are likely to be targeted for exploitation, such as network or system services.

Note: During the development or debugging of SELinux modules, it is common to temporarily place non-production systems in permissive mode. In such temporary cases, SELinux policies should be developed, and once work is completed, the system should be reconfigured to targeted.

identifiers:  CCE-27279-9

references:  AC-3, AC-3(3), AC-3(4), AC-4, AC-6, AU-9, SI-6(a), 2696, 1.4.3, SRG-OS-000445-GPOS-00199, RHEL-07-020220, 3.1.2, 3.7.2

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable

var_selinux_policy_name="targeted"

function replace_or_append {
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  # Check sanity of the input
  if [ $# -lt "3" ]
  then
        echo "Usage: replace_or_append 'config_file_location' 'key_to_search' 'new_value'"
        echo
        echo "If symlinks need to be taken into account, add yes/no to the last argument"
        echo "to allow to 'follow_symlinks'."
        echo "Aborting."
        exit 1
  fi

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  if test -L $config_file; then
    sed_command="sed -i --follow-symlinks"
  else
    sed_command="sed -i"
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal $CCENUM.
  # If $CCENUM exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if ! [ "x$cce" = x ] && [ "$cce" != '$CCENUM' ]; then
    cce="CCE-${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed "s/[\^=\$,;+]*//g" <<< $key)

  # If there is no print format specified in the last arg, use the default format.
  if ! [ "x$format" = x ] ; then
    printf -v formatted_output "$format" $stripped_key $value
  else
    formatted_output="$stripped_key = $value"
  fi

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  if `grep -qi $key $config_file` ; then
    $sed_command "s/$key.*/$formatted_output/g" $config_file
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    echo -e "\n# Per $cce: Set $formatted_output in $config_file" >> $config_file
    echo -e "$formatted_output" >> $config_file
  fi

}

replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUXTYPE=' $var_selinux_policy_name 'CCE-27279-9' '%s=%s'

Ensure No Daemons are Unconfined by SELinux   [ref]rule

Daemons for which the SELinux policy does not contain rules will inherit the context of the parent process. Because daemons are launched during startup and descend from the init process, they inherit the initrc_t context.

To check for unconfined daemons, run the following command:

$ sudo ps -eZ | egrep "initrc" | egrep -vw "tr|ps|egrep|bash|awk" | tr ':' ' ' | awk '{ print $NF }'
It should produce no output in a well-configured system.

Rationale:

Daemons which run with the initrc_t context may cause AVC denials, or allow privileges that the daemon does not require.

identifiers:  CCE-27288-0

references:  AC-6, AU-9, CM-7, 1.4.6, 3.1.2, 3.1.5, 3.7.2

Account and Access Control   [ref]group

In traditional Unix security, if an attacker gains shell access to a certain login account, they can perform any action or access any file to which that account has access. Therefore, making it more difficult for unauthorized people to gain shell access to accounts, particularly to privileged accounts, is a necessary part of securing a system. This section introduces mechanisms for restricting access to accounts under Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.

contains 11 rules

Protect Accounts by Restricting Password-Based Login   [ref]group

Conventionally, Unix shell accounts are accessed by providing a username and password to a login program, which tests these values for correctness using the /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow files. Password-based login is vulnerable to guessing of weak passwords, and to sniffing and man-in-the-middle attacks against passwords entered over a network or at an insecure console. Therefore, mechanisms for accessing accounts by entering usernames and passwords should be restricted to those which are operationally necessary.

contains 5 rules

Restrict Root Logins   [ref]group

Direct root logins should be allowed only for emergency use. In normal situations, the administrator should access the system via a unique unprivileged account, and then use su or sudo to execute privileged commands. Discouraging administrators from accessing the root account directly ensures an audit trail in organizations with multiple administrators. Locking down the channels through which root can connect directly also reduces opportunities for password-guessing against the root account. The login program uses the file /etc/securetty to determine which interfaces should allow root logins. The virtual devices /dev/console and /dev/tty* represent the system consoles (accessible via the Ctrl-Alt-F1 through Ctrl-Alt-F6 keyboard sequences on a default installation). The default securetty file also contains /dev/vc/*. These are likely to be deprecated in most environments, but may be retained for compatibility. Root should also be prohibited from connecting via network protocols. Other sections of this document include guidance describing how to prevent root from logging in via SSH.

contains 3 rules

Restrict Serial Port Root Logins   [ref]rule

To restrict root logins on serial ports, ensure lines of this form do not appear in /etc/securetty:

ttyS0
ttyS1

Rationale:

Preventing direct root login to serial port interfaces helps ensure accountability for actions taken on the systems using the root account.

identifiers:  CCE-27268-2

references:  AC-6(2), 770, 3.1.1, 3.1.5

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
sed -i '/ttyS/d' /etc/securetty

Verify Only Root Has UID 0   [ref]rule

If any account other than root has a UID of 0, this misconfiguration should be investigated and the accounts other than root should be removed or have their UID changed.
If the account is associated with system commands or applications the UID should be changed to one greater than "0" but less than "1000." Otherwise assign a UID greater than "1000" that has not already been assigned.

Rationale:

An account has root authority if it has a UID of 0. Multiple accounts with a UID of 0 afford more opportunity for potential intruders to guess a password for a privileged account. Proper configuration of sudo is recommended to afford multiple system administrators access to root privileges in an accountable manner.

identifiers:  CCE-27175-9

references:  AC-6, IA-2(1), IA-4, 366, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, RHEL-07-020310, 3.1.1, 3.1.5

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
awk -F: '$3 == 0 && $1 != "root" { print $1 }' /etc/passwd | xargs passwd -l
contains 2 rules

Protect Accounts by Configuring PAM   [ref]group

PAM, or Pluggable Authentication Modules, is a system which implements modular authentication for Linux programs. PAM provides a flexible and configurable architecture for authentication, and it should be configured to minimize exposure to unnecessary risk. This section contains guidance on how to accomplish that.

PAM is implemented as a set of shared objects which are loaded and invoked whenever an application wishes to authenticate a user. Typically, the application must be running as root in order to take advantage of PAM, because PAM's modules often need to be able to access sensitive stores of account information, such as /etc/shadow. Traditional privileged network listeners (e.g. sshd) or SUID programs (e.g. sudo) already meet this requirement. An SUID root application, userhelper, is provided so that programs which are not SUID or privileged themselves can still take advantage of PAM.

PAM looks in the directory /etc/pam.d for application-specific configuration information. For instance, if the program login attempts to authenticate a user, then PAM's libraries follow the instructions in the file /etc/pam.d/login to determine what actions should be taken.

One very important file in /etc/pam.d is /etc/pam.d/system-auth. This file, which is included by many other PAM configuration files, defines 'default' system authentication measures. Modifying this file is a good way to make far-reaching authentication changes, for instance when implementing a centralized authentication service.

warning  Be careful when making changes to PAM's configuration files. The syntax for these files is complex, and modifications can have unexpected consequences. The default configurations shipped with applications should be sufficient for most users.
warning  Running authconfig or system-config-authentication will re-write the PAM configuration files, destroying any manually made changes and replacing them with a series of system defaults. One reference to the configuration file syntax can be found at http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/libs/pam/Linux-PAM-html/sag-configuration-file.html .
contains 3 rules

Set Lockouts for Failed Password Attempts   [ref]group

The pam_faillock PAM module provides the capability to lock out user accounts after a number of failed login attempts. Its documentation is available in /usr/share/doc/pam-VERSION/txts/README.pam_faillock.

warning  Locking out user accounts presents the risk of a denial-of-service attack. The lockout policy must weigh whether the risk of such a denial-of-service attack outweighs the benefits of thwarting password guessing attacks.
contains 3 rules

Set Deny For Failed Password Attempts   [ref]rule

To configure the system to lock out accounts after a number of incorrect login attempts using pam_faillock.so, modify the content of both /etc/pam.d/system-auth and /etc/pam.d/password-auth as follows:

  • add the following line immediately before the pam_unix.so statement in the AUTH section:
    auth required pam_faillock.so preauth silent deny=3 unlock_time=900 fail_interval=900
  • add the following line immediately after the pam_unix.so statement in the AUTH section:
    auth [default=die] pam_faillock.so authfail deny=3 unlock_time=900 fail_interval=900
  • add the following line immediately before the pam_unix.so statement in the ACCOUNT section:
    account required pam_faillock.so

Rationale:

Locking out user accounts after a number of incorrect attempts prevents direct password guessing attacks.

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable

var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny="3"

AUTH_FILES[0]="/etc/pam.d/system-auth"
AUTH_FILES[1]="/etc/pam.d/password-auth"

# This script fixes absence of pam_faillock.so in PAM stack or the
# absense of deny=[0-9]+ in pam_faillock.so arguments
# When inserting auth pam_faillock.so entries,
# the entry with preauth argument will be added before pam_unix.so module
# and entry with authfail argument will be added before pam_deny.so module.

# The placement of pam_faillock.so entries will not be changed
# if they are already present

for pamFile in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
do
	
	# pam_faillock.so already present?
	if grep -q "^auth.*pam_faillock.so.*" $pamFile; then

		# pam_faillock.so present, deny directive present?
		if grep -q "^auth.*[default=die].*pam_faillock.so.*authfail.*deny=" $pamFile; then

			# both pam_faillock.so & deny present, just correct deny directive value
			sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/\(^auth.*required.*pam_faillock.so.*preauth.*silent.*\)\(deny *= *\).*/\1\2$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny/" $pamFile
			sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/\(^auth.*[default=die].*pam_faillock.so.*authfail.*\)\(deny *= *\).*/\1\2$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny/" $pamFile

		# pam_faillock.so present, but deny directive not yet
		else

			# append correct deny value to appropriate places
			sed -i --follow-symlinks "/^auth.*required.*pam_faillock.so.*preauth.*silent.*/ s/$/ deny=$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny/" $pamFile
			sed -i --follow-symlinks "/^auth.*[default=die].*pam_faillock.so.*authfail.*/ s/$/ deny=$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny/" $pamFile
		fi

	# pam_faillock.so not present yet
	else

		# insert pam_faillock.so preauth row with proper value of the 'deny' option before pam_unix.so
		sed -i --follow-symlinks "/^auth.*pam_unix.so.*/i auth        required      pam_faillock.so preauth silent deny=$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny" $pamFile
		# insert pam_faillock.so authfail row with proper value of the 'deny' option before pam_deny.so, after all modules which determine authentication outcome.
		sed -i --follow-symlinks "/^auth.*pam_deny.so.*/i auth        [default=die] pam_faillock.so authfail deny=$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny" $pamFile
	fi

	# add pam_faillock.so into account phase
	if ! grep -q "^account.*required.*pam_faillock.so" $pamFile; then
		sed -i --follow-symlinks "/^account.*required.*pam_unix.so/i account     required      pam_faillock.so" $pamFile
	fi
done

Set Lockout Time For Failed Password Attempts   [ref]rule

To configure the system to lock out accounts after a number of incorrect login attempts and require an administrator to unlock the account using pam_faillock.so, modify the content of both /etc/pam.d/system-auth and /etc/pam.d/password-auth as follows:

  • add the following line immediately before the pam_unix.so statement in the AUTH section:
    auth required pam_faillock.so preauth silent deny=3 unlock_time=900 fail_interval=900
  • add the following line immediately after the pam_unix.so statement in the AUTH section:
    auth [default=die] pam_faillock.so authfail deny=3 unlock_time=900 fail_interval=900
  • add the following line immediately before the pam_unix.so statement in the ACCOUNT section:
    account required pam_faillock.so

Rationale:

Locking out user accounts after a number of incorrect attempts prevents direct password guessing attacks. Ensuring that an administrator is involved in unlocking locked accounts draws appropriate attention to such situations.

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable

var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time="900"

AUTH_FILES[0]="/etc/pam.d/system-auth"
AUTH_FILES[1]="/etc/pam.d/password-auth"

for pamFile in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
do
	
	# pam_faillock.so already present?
	if grep -q "^auth.*pam_faillock.so.*" $pamFile; then

		# pam_faillock.so present, unlock_time directive present?
		if grep -q "^auth.*[default=die].*pam_faillock.so.*authfail.*unlock_time=" $pamFile; then

			# both pam_faillock.so & unlock_time present, just correct unlock_time directive value
			sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/\(^auth.*required.*pam_faillock.so.*preauth.*silent.*\)\(unlock_time *= *\).*/\1\2$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time/" $pamFile
			sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/\(^auth.*[default=die].*pam_faillock.so.*authfail.*\)\(unlock_time *= *\).*/\1\2$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time/" $pamFile

		# pam_faillock.so present, but unlock_time directive not yet
		else

			# append correct unlock_time value to appropriate places
			sed -i --follow-symlinks "/^auth.*required.*pam_faillock.so.*preauth.*silent.*/ s/$/ unlock_time=$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time/" $pamFile
			sed -i --follow-symlinks "/^auth.*[default=die].*pam_faillock.so.*authfail.*/ s/$/ unlock_time=$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time/" $pamFile
		fi

	# pam_faillock.so not present yet
	else

		# insert pam_faillock.so preauth & authfail rows with proper value of the 'unlock_time' option
		sed -i --follow-symlinks "/^auth.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so.*/i auth        required      pam_faillock.so preauth silent unlock_time=$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time" $pamFile
		sed -i --follow-symlinks "/^auth.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so.*/a auth        [default=die] pam_faillock.so authfail unlock_time=$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time" $pamFile
		sed -i --follow-symlinks "/^account.*required.*pam_unix.so/i account     required      pam_faillock.so" $pamFile
	fi
done

Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts   [ref]rule

Utilizing pam_faillock.so, the fail_interval directive configures the system to lock out an accounts after a number of incorrect login attempts within a specified time period. Modify the content of both /etc/pam.d/system-auth and /etc/pam.d/password-auth as follows:

  • Add the following line immediately before the pam_unix.so statement in the AUTH section:
    auth required pam_faillock.so preauth silent deny=3 unlock_time=900 fail_interval=900
  • Add the following line immediately after the pam_unix.so statement in the AUTH section:
    auth [default=die] pam_faillock.so authfail deny=3 unlock_time=900 fail_interval=900
  • Add the following line immediately before the pam_unix.so statement in the ACCOUNT section:
    account required pam_faillock.so

Rationale:

By limiting the number of failed logon attempts the risk of unauthorized system access via user password guessing, otherwise known as brute-forcing, is reduced. Limits are imposed by locking the account.

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable

var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval="900"

AUTH_FILES[0]="/etc/pam.d/system-auth"
AUTH_FILES[1]="/etc/pam.d/password-auth"

for pamFile in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
do
	
	# pam_faillock.so already present?
	if grep -q "^auth.*pam_faillock.so.*" $pamFile; then

		# pam_faillock.so present, 'fail_interval' directive present?
		if grep -q "^auth.*[default=die].*pam_faillock.so.*authfail.*fail_interval=" $pamFile; then

			# both pam_faillock.so & 'fail_interval' present, just correct 'fail_interval' directive value
			sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/\(^auth.*required.*pam_faillock.so.*preauth.*silent.*\)\(fail_interval *= *\).*/\1\2$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval/" $pamFile
			sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/\(^auth.*[default=die].*pam_faillock.so.*authfail.*\)\(fail_interval *= *\).*/\1\2$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval/" $pamFile

		# pam_faillock.so present, but 'fail_interval' directive not yet
		else

			# append correct 'fail_interval' value to appropriate places
			sed -i --follow-symlinks "/^auth.*required.*pam_faillock.so.*preauth.*silent.*/ s/$/ fail_interval=$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval/" $pamFile
			sed -i --follow-symlinks "/^auth.*[default=die].*pam_faillock.so.*authfail.*/ s/$/ fail_interval=$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval/" $pamFile
		fi

	# pam_faillock.so not present yet
	else

		# insert pam_faillock.so preauth & authfail rows with proper value of the 'fail_interval' option
		sed -i --follow-symlinks "/^auth.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so.*/i auth        required      pam_faillock.so preauth silent fail_interval=$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval" $pamFile
		sed -i --follow-symlinks "/^auth.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so.*/a auth        [default=die] pam_faillock.so authfail fail_interval=$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval" $pamFile
		sed -i --follow-symlinks "/^account.*required.*pam_unix.so/i account     required      pam_faillock.so" $pamFile
	fi
done

Warning Banners for System Accesses   [ref]group

Each system should expose as little information about itself as possible.

System banners, which are typically displayed just before a login prompt, give out information about the service or the host's operating system. This might include the distribution name and the system kernel version, and the particular version of a network service. This information can assist intruders in gaining access to the system as it can reveal whether the system is running vulnerable software. Most network services can be configured to limit what information is displayed.

Many organizations implement security policies that require a system banner provide notice of the system's ownership, provide warning to unauthorized users, and remind authorized users of their consent to monitoring.

contains 3 rules
contains 2 rules

Enable GNOME3 Login Warning Banner   [ref]rule

In the default graphical environment, displaying a login warning banner in the GNOME Display Manager's login screen can be enabled on the login screen by setting banner-message-enable to true.

To enable, add or edit banner-message-enable to /etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/00-security-settings. For example:

[org/gnome/login-screen]
banner-message-enable=true
Once the setting has been added, add a lock to /etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock to prevent user modification. For example:
/org/gnome/login-screen/banner-message-enable
After the settings have been set, run dconf update. The banner text must also be set.

Rationale:

Display of a standardized and approved use notification before granting access to the operating system ensures privacy and security notification verbiage used is consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance.

For U.S. Government systems, system use notifications are required only for access via login interfaces with human users and are not required when such human interfaces do not exist.

Modify the System Login Banner   [ref]rule

To configure the system login banner edit /etc/issue. Replace the default text with a message compliant with the local site policy or a legal disclaimer. The DoD required text is either:

You are accessing a U.S. Government (USG) Information System (IS) that is provided for USG-authorized use only. By using this IS (which includes any device attached to this IS), you consent to the following conditions:
-The USG routinely intercepts and monitors communications on this IS for purposes including, but not limited to, penetration testing, COMSEC monitoring, network operations and defense, personnel misconduct (PM), law enforcement (LE), and counterintelligence (CI) investigations.
-At any time, the USG may inspect and seize data stored on this IS.
-Communications using, or data stored on, this IS are not private, are subject to routine monitoring, interception, and search, and may be disclosed or used for any USG-authorized purpose.
-This IS includes security measures (e.g., authentication and access controls) to protect USG interests -- not for your personal benefit or privacy.
-Notwithstanding the above, using this IS does not constitute consent to PM, LE or CI investigative searching or monitoring of the content of privileged communications, or work product, related to personal representation or services by attorneys, psychotherapists, or clergy, and their assistants. Such communications and work product are private and confidential. See User Agreement for details.


OR:

I've read & consent to terms in IS user agreem't.

Rationale:

Display of a standardized and approved use notification before granting access to the operating system ensures privacy and security notification verbiage used is consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance.

System use notifications are required only for access via login interfaces with human users and are not required when such human interfaces do not exist.

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable

login_banner_text="--[\s\n]+WARNING[\s\n]+--[\s\n]*This[\s\n]+system[\s\n]+is[\s\n]+for[\s\n]+the[\s\n]+use[\s\n]+of[\s\n]+authorized[\s\n]+users[\s\n]+only.[\s\n]+Individuals[\s\n]*using[\s\n]+this[\s\n]+computer[\s\n]+system[\s\n]+without[\s\n]+authority[\s\n]+or[\s\n]+in[\s\n]+excess[\s\n]+of[\s\n]+their[\s\n]*authority[\s\n]+are[\s\n]+subject[\s\n]+to[\s\n]+having[\s\n]+all[\s\n]+their[\s\n]+activities[\s\n]+on[\s\n]+this[\s\n]+system[\s\n]*monitored[\s\n]+and[\s\n]+recorded[\s\n]+by[\s\n]+system[\s\n]+personnel.[\s\n]+Anyone[\s\n]+using[\s\n]+this[\s\n]*system[\s\n]+expressly[\s\n]+consents[\s\n]+to[\s\n]+such[\s\n]+monitoring[\s\n]+and[\s\n]+is[\s\n]+advised[\s\n]+that[\s\n]*if[\s\n]+such[\s\n]+monitoring[\s\n]+reveals[\s\n]+possible[\s\n]+evidence[\s\n]+of[\s\n]+criminal[\s\n]+activity[\s\n]*system[\s\n]+personal[\s\n]+may[\s\n]+provide[\s\n]+the[\s\n]+evidence[\s\n]+of[\s\n]+such[\s\n]+monitoring[\s\n]+to[\s\n]+law[\s\n]*enforcement[\s\n]+officials."

# There was a regular-expression matching various banners, needs to be expanded
expanded=$(echo "$login_banner_text" | sed 's/\[\\s\\n\][+*]/ /g;s/\\//g;s/[^-]- /\n\n-/g')
formatted=$(echo "$expanded" | fold -sw 80)

cat <<EOF >/etc/issue
$formatted
EOF

printf "\n" >> /etc/issue

Network Configuration and Firewalls   [ref]group

Most systems must be connected to a network of some sort, and this brings with it the substantial risk of network attack. This section discusses the security impact of decisions about networking which must be made when configuring a system.

This section also discusses firewalls, network access controls, and other network security frameworks, which allow system-level rules to be written that can limit an attackers' ability to connect to your system. These rules can specify that network traffic should be allowed or denied from certain IP addresses, hosts, and networks. The rules can also specify which of the system's network services are available to particular hosts or networks.

contains 28 rules

Kernel Parameters Which Affect Networking   [ref]group

The sysctl utility is used to set parameters which affect the operation of the Linux kernel. Kernel parameters which affect networking and have security implications are described here.

contains 14 rules

Network Parameters for Hosts Only   [ref]group

If the system is not going to be used as a router, then setting certain kernel parameters ensure that the host will not perform routing of network traffic.

contains 3 rules

Disable Kernel Parameter for Sending ICMP Redirects by Default   [ref]rule

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.conf.default.send_redirects kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.default.send_redirects=0
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv4.conf.default.send_redirects = 0

Rationale:

ICMP redirect messages are used by routers to inform hosts that a more direct route exists for a particular destination. These messages contain information from the system's route table possibly revealing portions of the network topology.
The ability to send ICMP redirects is only appropriate for systems acting as routers.

identifiers:  CCE-80156-3

references:  AC-4, CM-7, SC-5, SC-7, 366, 4.1.2, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, RHEL-07-040650, 5.10.1.1, 3.1.20

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable


#
# Set runtime for net.ipv4.conf.default.send_redirects
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv4.conf.default.send_redirects=0

#
# If net.ipv4.conf.default.send_redirects present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to "0"
#	else, add "net.ipv4.conf.default.send_redirects = 0" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#

function replace_or_append {
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  # Check sanity of the input
  if [ $# -lt "3" ]
  then
        echo "Usage: replace_or_append 'config_file_location' 'key_to_search' 'new_value'"
        echo
        echo "If symlinks need to be taken into account, add yes/no to the last argument"
        echo "to allow to 'follow_symlinks'."
        echo "Aborting."
        exit 1
  fi

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  if test -L $config_file; then
    sed_command="sed -i --follow-symlinks"
  else
    sed_command="sed -i"
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal $CCENUM.
  # If $CCENUM exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if ! [ "x$cce" = x ] && [ "$cce" != '$CCENUM' ]; then
    cce="CCE-${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed "s/[\^=\$,;+]*//g" <<< $key)

  # If there is no print format specified in the last arg, use the default format.
  if ! [ "x$format" = x ] ; then
    printf -v formatted_output "$format" $stripped_key $value
  else
    formatted_output="$stripped_key = $value"
  fi

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  if `grep -qi $key $config_file` ; then
    $sed_command "s/$key.*/$formatted_output/g" $config_file
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    echo -e "\n# Per $cce: Set $formatted_output in $config_file" >> $config_file
    echo -e "$formatted_output" >> $config_file
  fi

}

replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^net.ipv4.conf.default.send_redirects' '0' 'CCE-80156-3'

Disable Kernel Parameter for Sending ICMP Redirects for All Interfaces   [ref]rule

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.conf.all.send_redirects kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.all.send_redirects=0
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv4.conf.all.send_redirects = 0

Rationale:

ICMP redirect messages are used by routers to inform hosts that a more direct route exists for a particular destination. These messages contain information from the system's route table possibly revealing portions of the network topology.
The ability to send ICMP redirects is only appropriate for systems acting as routers.

identifiers:  CCE-80156-3

references:  AC-4, CM-7, SC-5(1), 366, 4.1.2, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, RHEL-07-040660, 5.10.1.1, 3.1.20

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable


#
# Set runtime for net.ipv4.conf.all.send_redirects
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv4.conf.all.send_redirects=0

#
# If net.ipv4.conf.all.send_redirects present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to "0"
#	else, add "net.ipv4.conf.all.send_redirects = 0" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#

function replace_or_append {
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  # Check sanity of the input
  if [ $# -lt "3" ]
  then
        echo "Usage: replace_or_append 'config_file_location' 'key_to_search' 'new_value'"
        echo
        echo "If symlinks need to be taken into account, add yes/no to the last argument"
        echo "to allow to 'follow_symlinks'."
        echo "Aborting."
        exit 1
  fi

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  if test -L $config_file; then
    sed_command="sed -i --follow-symlinks"
  else
    sed_command="sed -i"
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal $CCENUM.
  # If $CCENUM exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if ! [ "x$cce" = x ] && [ "$cce" != '$CCENUM' ]; then
    cce="CCE-${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed "s/[\^=\$,;+]*//g" <<< $key)

  # If there is no print format specified in the last arg, use the default format.
  if ! [ "x$format" = x ] ; then
    printf -v formatted_output "$format" $stripped_key $value
  else
    formatted_output="$stripped_key = $value"
  fi

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  if `grep -qi $key $config_file` ; then
    $sed_command "s/$key.*/$formatted_output/g" $config_file
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    echo -e "\n# Per $cce: Set $formatted_output in $config_file" >> $config_file
    echo -e "$formatted_output" >> $config_file
  fi

}

replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^net.ipv4.conf.all.send_redirects' '0' 'CCE-80156-3'

Disable Kernel Parameter for IP Forwarding   [ref]rule

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.ip_forward kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.ip_forward=0
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv4.ip_forward = 0

Rationale:

Routing protocol daemons are typically used on routers to exchange network topology information with other routers. If this capability is used when not required, system network information may be unnecessarily transmitted across the network.

identifiers:  CCE-80157-1

references:  CM-7, SC-5, SC-32, 366, 4.1.1, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, RHEL-07-040740, 3.1.20

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable


#
# Set runtime for net.ipv4.ip_forward
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv4.ip_forward=0

#
# If net.ipv4.ip_forward present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to "0"
#	else, add "net.ipv4.ip_forward = 0" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#

function replace_or_append {
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  # Check sanity of the input
  if [ $# -lt "3" ]
  then
        echo "Usage: replace_or_append 'config_file_location' 'key_to_search' 'new_value'"
        echo
        echo "If symlinks need to be taken into account, add yes/no to the last argument"
        echo "to allow to 'follow_symlinks'."
        echo "Aborting."
        exit 1
  fi

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  if test -L $config_file; then
    sed_command="sed -i --follow-symlinks"
  else
    sed_command="sed -i"
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal $CCENUM.
  # If $CCENUM exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if ! [ "x$cce" = x ] && [ "$cce" != '$CCENUM' ]; then
    cce="CCE-${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed "s/[\^=\$,;+]*//g" <<< $key)

  # If there is no print format specified in the last arg, use the default format.
  if ! [ "x$format" = x ] ; then
    printf -v formatted_output "$format" $stripped_key $value
  else
    formatted_output="$stripped_key = $value"
  fi

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  if `grep -qi $key $config_file` ; then
    $sed_command "s/$key.*/$formatted_output/g" $config_file
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    echo -e "\n# Per $cce: Set $formatted_output in $config_file" >> $config_file
    echo -e "$formatted_output" >> $config_file
  fi

}

replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^net.ipv4.ip_forward' '0' 'CCE-80157-1'

Network Related Kernel Runtime Parameters for Hosts and Routers   [ref]group

Certain kernel parameters should be set for systems which are acting as either hosts or routers to improve the system's ability defend against certain types of IPv4 protocol attacks.

contains 11 rules

Configure Kernel Parameter for Accepting Source-Routed Packets for All Interfaces   [ref]rule

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_source_route kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_source_route=0
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_source_route = 0

Rationale:

Source-routed packets allow the source of the packet to suggest routers forward the packet along a different path than configured on the router, which can be used to bypass network security measures. This requirement applies only to the forwarding of source-routerd traffic, such as when IPv4 forwarding is enabled and the system is functioning as a router.

Accepting source-routed packets in the IPv4 protocol has few legitimate uses. It should be disabled unless it is absolutely required.

identifiers:  CCE-27434-0

references:  AC-4, CM-7, SC-5, 366, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, RHEL-07-040610, 4.2.1, 3.1.20

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable

sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_accept_source_route_value="0"

#
# Set runtime for net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_source_route
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_source_route=$sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_accept_source_route_value

#
# If net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_source_route present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to appropriate value
#	else, add "net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_source_route = value" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#

function replace_or_append {
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  # Check sanity of the input
  if [ $# -lt "3" ]
  then
        echo "Usage: replace_or_append 'config_file_location' 'key_to_search' 'new_value'"
        echo
        echo "If symlinks need to be taken into account, add yes/no to the last argument"
        echo "to allow to 'follow_symlinks'."
        echo "Aborting."
        exit 1
  fi

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  if test -L $config_file; then
    sed_command="sed -i --follow-symlinks"
  else
    sed_command="sed -i"
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal $CCENUM.
  # If $CCENUM exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if ! [ "x$cce" = x ] && [ "$cce" != '$CCENUM' ]; then
    cce="CCE-${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed "s/[\^=\$,;+]*//g" <<< $key)

  # If there is no print format specified in the last arg, use the default format.
  if ! [ "x$format" = x ] ; then
    printf -v formatted_output "$format" $stripped_key $value
  else
    formatted_output="$stripped_key = $value"
  fi

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  if `grep -qi $key $config_file` ; then
    $sed_command "s/$key.*/$formatted_output/g" $config_file
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    echo -e "\n# Per $cce: Set $formatted_output in $config_file" >> $config_file
    echo -e "$formatted_output" >> $config_file
  fi

}

replace_or_append '/etc/systcl.conf' '^net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_source_route' '$sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_accept_source_route_value' 'CCE-27434-0'

Configure Kernel Parameter for Accepting ICMP Redirects for All Interfaces   [ref]rule

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_redirects kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_redirects=0
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_redirects = 0

Rationale:

ICMP redirect messages are used by routers to inform hosts that a more direct route exists for a particular destination. These messages modify the host's route table and are unauthenticated. An illicit ICMP redirect message could result in a man-in-the-middle attack.
This feature of the IPv4 protocol has few legitimate uses. It should be disabled unless absolutely required.

identifiers:  CCE-80158-9

references:  CM-6(d), CM-7, SC-5, 366, 1503, 1551, 4.2.2, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, RHEL-07-040641, 5.10.1.1, 3.1.20

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable

sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_accept_redirects_value="0"

#
# Set runtime for net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_redirects
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_redirects=$sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_accept_redirects_value

#
# If net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_redirects present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to appropriate value
#	else, add "net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_redirects = value" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#

function replace_or_append {
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  # Check sanity of the input
  if [ $# -lt "3" ]
  then
        echo "Usage: replace_or_append 'config_file_location' 'key_to_search' 'new_value'"
        echo
        echo "If symlinks need to be taken into account, add yes/no to the last argument"
        echo "to allow to 'follow_symlinks'."
        echo "Aborting."
        exit 1
  fi

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  if test -L $config_file; then
    sed_command="sed -i --follow-symlinks"
  else
    sed_command="sed -i"
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal $CCENUM.
  # If $CCENUM exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if ! [ "x$cce" = x ] && [ "$cce" != '$CCENUM' ]; then
    cce="CCE-${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed "s/[\^=\$,;+]*//g" <<< $key)

  # If there is no print format specified in the last arg, use the default format.
  if ! [ "x$format" = x ] ; then
    printf -v formatted_output "$format" $stripped_key $value
  else
    formatted_output="$stripped_key = $value"
  fi

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  if `grep -qi $key $config_file` ; then
    $sed_command "s/$key.*/$formatted_output/g" $config_file
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    echo -e "\n# Per $cce: Set $formatted_output in $config_file" >> $config_file
    echo -e "$formatted_output" >> $config_file
  fi

}

replace_or_append '/etc/systcl.conf' '^net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_redirects' '$sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_accept_redirects_value' 'CCE-80158-9'

Configure Kernel Parameter for Accepting Secure Redirects for All Interfaces   [ref]rule

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.conf.all.secure_redirects kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.all.secure_redirects=0
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv4.conf.all.secure_redirects = 0

Rationale:

Accepting "secure" ICMP redirects (from those gateways listed as default gateways) has few legitimate uses. It should be disabled unless it is absolutely required.

identifiers:  CCE-80159-7

references:  AC-4, CM-7, SC-5, 1503, 1551, 4.2.3, 3.1.20

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable

sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_secure_redirects_value="1"

#
# Set runtime for net.ipv4.conf.all.secure_redirects
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv4.conf.all.secure_redirects=$sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_secure_redirects_value

#
# If net.ipv4.conf.all.secure_redirects present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to appropriate value
#	else, add "net.ipv4.conf.all.secure_redirects = value" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#

function replace_or_append {
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  # Check sanity of the input
  if [ $# -lt "3" ]
  then
        echo "Usage: replace_or_append 'config_file_location' 'key_to_search' 'new_value'"
        echo
        echo "If symlinks need to be taken into account, add yes/no to the last argument"
        echo "to allow to 'follow_symlinks'."
        echo "Aborting."
        exit 1
  fi

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  if test -L $config_file; then
    sed_command="sed -i --follow-symlinks"
  else
    sed_command="sed -i"
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal $CCENUM.
  # If $CCENUM exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if ! [ "x$cce" = x ] && [ "$cce" != '$CCENUM' ]; then
    cce="CCE-${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed "s/[\^=\$,;+]*//g" <<< $key)

  # If there is no print format specified in the last arg, use the default format.
  if ! [ "x$format" = x ] ; then
    printf -v formatted_output "$format" $stripped_key $value
  else
    formatted_output="$stripped_key = $value"
  fi

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  if `grep -qi $key $config_file` ; then
    $sed_command "s/$key.*/$formatted_output/g" $config_file
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    echo -e "\n# Per $cce: Set $formatted_output in $config_file" >> $config_file
    echo -e "$formatted_output" >> $config_file
  fi

}

replace_or_append '/etc/systcl.conf' '^net.ipv4.conf.all.secure_redirects' '$sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_secure_redirects_value' 'CCE-80159-7'

Configure Kernel Parameter to Log Martian Packets   [ref]rule

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.conf.all.log_martians kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.all.log_martians=1
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv4.conf.all.log_martians = 1

Rationale:

The presence of "martian" packets (which have impossible addresses) as well as spoofed packets, source-routed packets, and redirects could be a sign of nefarious network activity. Logging these packets enables this activity to be detected.

identifiers:  CCE-80160-5

references:  AC-17(7), CM-7, SC-5(3), 126, 4.2.4, 3.1.20

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable

sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_log_martians_value="1"

#
# Set runtime for net.ipv4.conf.all.log_martians
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv4.conf.all.log_martians=$sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_log_martians_value

#
# If net.ipv4.conf.all.log_martians present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to appropriate value
#	else, add "net.ipv4.conf.all.log_martians = value" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#

function replace_or_append {
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  # Check sanity of the input
  if [ $# -lt "3" ]
  then
        echo "Usage: replace_or_append 'config_file_location' 'key_to_search' 'new_value'"
        echo
        echo "If symlinks need to be taken into account, add yes/no to the last argument"
        echo "to allow to 'follow_symlinks'."
        echo "Aborting."
        exit 1
  fi

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  if test -L $config_file; then
    sed_command="sed -i --follow-symlinks"
  else
    sed_command="sed -i"
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal $CCENUM.
  # If $CCENUM exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if ! [ "x$cce" = x ] && [ "$cce" != '$CCENUM' ]; then
    cce="CCE-${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed "s/[\^=\$,;+]*//g" <<< $key)

  # If there is no print format specified in the last arg, use the default format.
  if ! [ "x$format" = x ] ; then
    printf -v formatted_output "$format" $stripped_key $value
  else
    formatted_output="$stripped_key = $value"
  fi

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  if `grep -qi $key $config_file` ; then
    $sed_command "s/$key.*/$formatted_output/g" $config_file
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    echo -e "\n# Per $cce: Set $formatted_output in $config_file" >> $config_file
    echo -e "$formatted_output" >> $config_file
  fi

}

replace_or_append '/etc/systcl.conf' '^net.ipv4.conf.all.log_martians' '$sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_log_martians_value' 'CCE-80160-5'

Configure Kernel Parameter for Accepting Source-Routed Packets By Default   [ref]rule

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route=0
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route = 0

Rationale:

Source-routed packets allow the source of the packet to suggest routers forward the packet along a different path than configured on the router, which can be used to bypass network security measures.
Accepting source-routed packets in the IPv4 protocol has few legitimate uses. It should be disabled unless it is absolutely required, such as when IPv4 forwarding is enabled and the system is legitimately functioning as a router.

identifiers:  CCE-80162-1

references:  AC-4, CM-7, SC-5, SC-7, 366, 1551, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, RHEL-07-040620, 4.2.1, 5.10.1.1, 3.1.20

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable

sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_accept_source_route_value="0"

#
# Set runtime for net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route=$sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_accept_source_route_value

#
# If net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to appropriate value
#	else, add "net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route = value" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#

function replace_or_append {
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  # Check sanity of the input
  if [ $# -lt "3" ]
  then
        echo "Usage: replace_or_append 'config_file_location' 'key_to_search' 'new_value'"
        echo
        echo "If symlinks need to be taken into account, add yes/no to the last argument"
        echo "to allow to 'follow_symlinks'."
        echo "Aborting."
        exit 1
  fi

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  if test -L $config_file; then
    sed_command="sed -i --follow-symlinks"
  else
    sed_command="sed -i"
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal $CCENUM.
  # If $CCENUM exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if ! [ "x$cce" = x ] && [ "$cce" != '$CCENUM' ]; then
    cce="CCE-${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed "s/[\^=\$,;+]*//g" <<< $key)

  # If there is no print format specified in the last arg, use the default format.
  if ! [ "x$format" = x ] ; then
    printf -v formatted_output "$format" $stripped_key $value
  else
    formatted_output="$stripped_key = $value"
  fi

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  if `grep -qi $key $config_file` ; then
    $sed_command "s/$key.*/$formatted_output/g" $config_file
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    echo -e "\n# Per $cce: Set $formatted_output in $config_file" >> $config_file
    echo -e "$formatted_output" >> $config_file
  fi

}

replace_or_append '/etc/systcl.conf' '^net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route' '$sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_accept_source_route_value' 'CCE-80162-1'

Configure Kernel Parameter for Accepting ICMP Redirects By Default   [ref]rule

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_redirects kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_redirects=0
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_redirects = 0

Rationale:

ICMP redirect messages are used by routers to inform hosts that a more direct route exists for a particular destination. These messages modify the host's route table and are unauthenticated. An illicit ICMP redirect message could result in a man-in-the-middle attack.
This feature of the IPv4 protocol has few legitimate uses. It should be disabled unless absolutely required.

identifiers:  CCE-80163-9

references:  AC-4, CM-7, SC-5, SC-7, 1551, 4.2.2, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, RHEL-07-040640, 5.10.1.1, 3.1.20

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable

sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_accept_redirects_value="0"

#
# Set runtime for net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_redirects
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_redirects=$sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_accept_redirects_value

#
# If net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_redirects present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to appropriate value
#	else, add "net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_redirects = value" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#

function replace_or_append {
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  # Check sanity of the input
  if [ $# -lt "3" ]
  then
        echo "Usage: replace_or_append 'config_file_location' 'key_to_search' 'new_value'"
        echo
        echo "If symlinks need to be taken into account, add yes/no to the last argument"
        echo "to allow to 'follow_symlinks'."
        echo "Aborting."
        exit 1
  fi

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  if test -L $config_file; then
    sed_command="sed -i --follow-symlinks"
  else
    sed_command="sed -i"
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal $CCENUM.
  # If $CCENUM exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if ! [ "x$cce" = x ] && [ "$cce" != '$CCENUM' ]; then
    cce="CCE-${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed "s/[\^=\$,;+]*//g" <<< $key)

  # If there is no print format specified in the last arg, use the default format.
  if ! [ "x$format" = x ] ; then
    printf -v formatted_output "$format" $stripped_key $value
  else
    formatted_output="$stripped_key = $value"
  fi

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  if `grep -qi $key $config_file` ; then
    $sed_command "s/$key.*/$formatted_output/g" $config_file
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    echo -e "\n# Per $cce: Set $formatted_output in $config_file" >> $config_file
    echo -e "$formatted_output" >> $config_file
  fi

}

replace_or_append '/etc/systcl.conf' '^net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_redirects' '$sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_accept_redirects_value' 'CCE-80163-9'

Configure Kernel Parameter for Accepting Secure Redirects By Default   [ref]rule

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.conf.default.secure_redirects kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.default.secure_redirects=0
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv4.conf.default.secure_redirects = 0

Rationale:

Accepting "secure" ICMP redirects (from those gateways listed as default gateways) has few legitimate uses. It should be disabled unless it is absolutely required.

identifiers:  CCE-80164-7

references:  AC-4, CM-7, SC-5, SC-7, 1551, 4.2.3, 3.1.20

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable

sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_secure_redirects_value="1"

#
# Set runtime for net.ipv4.conf.default.secure_redirects
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv4.conf.default.secure_redirects=$sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_secure_redirects_value

#
# If net.ipv4.conf.default.secure_redirects present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to appropriate value
#	else, add "net.ipv4.conf.default.secure_redirects = value" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#

function replace_or_append {
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  # Check sanity of the input
  if [ $# -lt "3" ]
  then
        echo "Usage: replace_or_append 'config_file_location' 'key_to_search' 'new_value'"
        echo
        echo "If symlinks need to be taken into account, add yes/no to the last argument"
        echo "to allow to 'follow_symlinks'."
        echo "Aborting."
        exit 1
  fi

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  if test -L $config_file; then
    sed_command="sed -i --follow-symlinks"
  else
    sed_command="sed -i"
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal $CCENUM.
  # If $CCENUM exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if ! [ "x$cce" = x ] && [ "$cce" != '$CCENUM' ]; then
    cce="CCE-${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed "s/[\^=\$,;+]*//g" <<< $key)

  # If there is no print format specified in the last arg, use the default format.
  if ! [ "x$format" = x ] ; then
    printf -v formatted_output "$format" $stripped_key $value
  else
    formatted_output="$stripped_key = $value"
  fi

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  if `grep -qi $key $config_file` ; then
    $sed_command "s/$key.*/$formatted_output/g" $config_file
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    echo -e "\n# Per $cce: Set $formatted_output in $config_file" >> $config_file
    echo -e "$formatted_output" >> $config_file
  fi

}

replace_or_append '/etc/systcl.conf' '^net.ipv4.conf.default.secure_redirects' '$sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_secure_redirects_value' 'CCE-80164-7'

Configure Kernel Parameter to Ignore ICMP Broadcast Echo Requests   [ref]rule

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts=1
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv4.icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts = 1

Rationale:

Responding to broadcast (ICMP) echoes facilitates network mapping and provides a vector for amplification attacks.
Ignoring ICMP echo requests (pings) sent to broadcast or multicast addresses makes the system slightly more difficult to enumerate on the network.

identifiers:  CCE-80165-4

references:  AC-4, CM-7, SC-5, 366, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, RHEL-07-040630, 4.2.5, 5.10.1.1, 3.1.20

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable

sysctl_net_ipv4_icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts_value="1"

#
# Set runtime for net.ipv4.icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv4.icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts=$sysctl_net_ipv4_icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts_value

#
# If net.ipv4.icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to appropriate value
#	else, add "net.ipv4.icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts = value" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#

function replace_or_append {
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  # Check sanity of the input
  if [ $# -lt "3" ]
  then
        echo "Usage: replace_or_append 'config_file_location' 'key_to_search' 'new_value'"
        echo
        echo "If symlinks need to be taken into account, add yes/no to the last argument"
        echo "to allow to 'follow_symlinks'."
        echo "Aborting."
        exit 1
  fi

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  if test -L $config_file; then
    sed_command="sed -i --follow-symlinks"
  else
    sed_command="sed -i"
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal $CCENUM.
  # If $CCENUM exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if ! [ "x$cce" = x ] && [ "$cce" != '$CCENUM' ]; then
    cce="CCE-${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed "s/[\^=\$,;+]*//g" <<< $key)

  # If there is no print format specified in the last arg, use the default format.
  if ! [ "x$format" = x ] ; then
    printf -v formatted_output "$format" $stripped_key $value
  else
    formatted_output="$stripped_key = $value"
  fi

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  if `grep -qi $key $config_file` ; then
    $sed_command "s/$key.*/$formatted_output/g" $config_file
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    echo -e "\n# Per $cce: Set $formatted_output in $config_file" >> $config_file
    echo -e "$formatted_output" >> $config_file
  fi

}

replace_or_append '/etc/systcl.conf' '^net.ipv4.icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts' '$sysctl_net_ipv4_icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts_value' 'CCE-80165-4'

Configure Kernel Parameter to Ignore Bogus ICMP Error Responses   [ref]rule

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses=1
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv4.icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses = 1

Rationale:

Ignoring bogus ICMP error responses reduces log size, although some activity would not be logged.

identifiers:  CCE-80166-2

references:  CM-7, SC-5, 4.2.6, 3.1.20

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable

sysctl_net_ipv4_icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses_value="1"

#
# Set runtime for net.ipv4.icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv4.icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses=$sysctl_net_ipv4_icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses_value

#
# If net.ipv4.icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to appropriate value
#	else, add "net.ipv4.icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses = value" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#

function replace_or_append {
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  # Check sanity of the input
  if [ $# -lt "3" ]
  then
        echo "Usage: replace_or_append 'config_file_location' 'key_to_search' 'new_value'"
        echo
        echo "If symlinks need to be taken into account, add yes/no to the last argument"
        echo "to allow to 'follow_symlinks'."
        echo "Aborting."
        exit 1
  fi

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  if test -L $config_file; then
    sed_command="sed -i --follow-symlinks"
  else
    sed_command="sed -i"
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal $CCENUM.
  # If $CCENUM exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if ! [ "x$cce" = x ] && [ "$cce" != '$CCENUM' ]; then
    cce="CCE-${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed "s/[\^=\$,;+]*//g" <<< $key)

  # If there is no print format specified in the last arg, use the default format.
  if ! [ "x$format" = x ] ; then
    printf -v formatted_output "$format" $stripped_key $value
  else
    formatted_output="$stripped_key = $value"
  fi

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  if `grep -qi $key $config_file` ; then
    $sed_command "s/$key.*/$formatted_output/g" $config_file
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    echo -e "\n# Per $cce: Set $formatted_output in $config_file" >> $config_file
    echo -e "$formatted_output" >> $config_file
  fi

}

replace_or_append '/etc/systcl.conf' '^net.ipv4.icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses' '$sysctl_net_ipv4_icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses_value' 'CCE-80166-2'

Configure Kernel Parameter to Use Reverse Path Filtering for All Interfaces   [ref]rule

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter=1
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter = 1

Rationale:

Enabling reverse path filtering drops packets with source addresses that should not have been able to be received on the interface they were received on. It should not be used on systems which are routers for complicated networks, but is helpful for end hosts and routers serving small networks.

identifiers:  CCE-80167-0

references:  AC-4, SC-5, SC-7, 1551, 4.2.7, 3.1.20

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable

sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_rp_filter_value="1"

#
# Set runtime for net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter=$sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_rp_filter_value

#
# If net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to appropriate value
#	else, add "net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter = value" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#

function replace_or_append {
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  # Check sanity of the input
  if [ $# -lt "3" ]
  then
        echo "Usage: replace_or_append 'config_file_location' 'key_to_search' 'new_value'"
        echo
        echo "If symlinks need to be taken into account, add yes/no to the last argument"
        echo "to allow to 'follow_symlinks'."
        echo "Aborting."
        exit 1
  fi

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  if test -L $config_file; then
    sed_command="sed -i --follow-symlinks"
  else
    sed_command="sed -i"
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal $CCENUM.
  # If $CCENUM exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if ! [ "x$cce" = x ] && [ "$cce" != '$CCENUM' ]; then
    cce="CCE-${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed "s/[\^=\$,;+]*//g" <<< $key)

  # If there is no print format specified in the last arg, use the default format.
  if ! [ "x$format" = x ] ; then
    printf -v formatted_output "$format" $stripped_key $value
  else
    formatted_output="$stripped_key = $value"
  fi

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  if `grep -qi $key $config_file` ; then
    $sed_command "s/$key.*/$formatted_output/g" $config_file
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    echo -e "\n# Per $cce: Set $formatted_output in $config_file" >> $config_file
    echo -e "$formatted_output" >> $config_file
  fi

}

replace_or_append '/etc/systcl.conf' '^net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter' '$sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_rp_filter_value' 'CCE-80167-0'

Configure Kernel Parameter to Use Reverse Path Filtering by Default   [ref]rule

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter=1
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter = 1

Rationale:

Enabling reverse path filtering drops packets with source addresses that should not have been able to be received on the interface they were received on. It should not be used on systems which are routers for complicated networks, but is helpful for end hosts and routers serving small networks.

identifiers:  CCE-80168-8

references:  AC-4, SC-5, SC-7, 4.2.7, 3.1.20

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable

sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_rp_filter_value="1"

#
# Set runtime for net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter=$sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_rp_filter_value

#
# If net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to appropriate value
#	else, add "net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter = value" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#

function replace_or_append {
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  # Check sanity of the input
  if [ $# -lt "3" ]
  then
        echo "Usage: replace_or_append 'config_file_location' 'key_to_search' 'new_value'"
        echo
        echo "If symlinks need to be taken into account, add yes/no to the last argument"
        echo "to allow to 'follow_symlinks'."
        echo "Aborting."
        exit 1
  fi

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  if test -L $config_file; then
    sed_command="sed -i --follow-symlinks"
  else
    sed_command="sed -i"
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal $CCENUM.
  # If $CCENUM exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if ! [ "x$cce" = x ] && [ "$cce" != '$CCENUM' ]; then
    cce="CCE-${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed "s/[\^=\$,;+]*//g" <<< $key)

  # If there is no print format specified in the last arg, use the default format.
  if ! [ "x$format" = x ] ; then
    printf -v formatted_output "$format" $stripped_key $value
  else
    formatted_output="$stripped_key = $value"
  fi

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  if `grep -qi $key $config_file` ; then
    $sed_command "s/$key.*/$formatted_output/g" $config_file
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    echo -e "\n# Per $cce: Set $formatted_output in $config_file" >> $config_file
    echo -e "$formatted_output" >> $config_file
  fi

}

replace_or_append '/etc/systcl.conf' '^net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter' '$sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_rp_filter_value' 'CCE-80168-8'

Wireless Networking   [ref]group

Wireless networking, such as 802.11 (WiFi) and Bluetooth, can present a security risk to sensitive or classified systems and networks. Wireless networking hardware is much more likely to be included in laptop or portable systems than in desktops or servers.

Removal of hardware provides the greatest assurance that the wireless capability remains disabled. Acquisition policies often include provisions to prevent the purchase of equipment that will be used in sensitive spaces and includes wireless capabilities. If it is impractical to remove the wireless hardware, and policy permits the device to enter sensitive spaces as long as wireless is disabled, efforts should instead focus on disabling wireless capability via software.

contains 4 rules

Disable Wireless Through Software Configuration   [ref]group

If it is impossible to remove the wireless hardware from the device in question, disable as much of it as possible through software. The following methods can disable software support for wireless networking, but note that these methods do not prevent malicious software or careless users from re-activating the devices.

contains 4 rules

Disable WiFi or Bluetooth in BIOS   [ref]rule

Some machines that include built-in wireless support offer the ability to disable the device through the BIOS. This is hardware-specific; consult your hardware manual or explore the BIOS setup during boot.

Rationale:

Disabling wireless support in the BIOS prevents easy activation of the wireless interface, generally requiring administrators to reboot the system first.

identifiers:  CCE-27397-9

references:  AC-17(8), AC-18(a), AC-18(d), AC-18(3), CM-7, 85

Deactivate Wireless Network Interfaces   [ref]rule

Deactivating wireless network interfaces should prevent normal usage of the wireless capability.

First, identify the interfaces available with the command:

$ ifconfig -a
Additionally, the following command may be used to determine whether wireless support is included for a particular interface, though this may not always be a clear indicator:
$ iwconfig
After identifying any wireless interfaces (which may have names like wlan0, ath0, wifi0, em1 or eth0), deactivate the interface with the command:
$ sudo ifdown interface
These changes will only last until the next reboot. To disable the interface for future boots, remove the appropriate interface file from /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts:
$ sudo rm /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-interface

Rationale:

Wireless networking allows attackers within physical proximity to launch network-based attacks against systems, including those against local LAN protocols which were not designed with security in mind.

identifiers:  CCE-27358-1

references:  AC-17(8), AC-18(a), AC-18(d), AC-18(3), CM-7, 85, 4.3.1, 3.1.16

Disable Bluetooth Service   [ref]rule

The bluetooth service can be disabled with the following command:

$ sudo systemctl disable bluetooth.service
$ sudo service bluetooth stop

Rationale:

Disabling the bluetooth service prevents the system from attempting connections to Bluetooth devices, which entails some security risk. Nevertheless, variation in this risk decision may be expected due to the utility of Bluetooth connectivity and its limited range.

identifiers:  CCE-27328-4

references:  AC-17(8), AC-18(a), AC-18(d), AC-18(3), CM-7, 85, 1551, 3.1.16

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
grep -qi disable /etc/xinetd.d/bluetooth && \
	sed -i 's/disable.*/disable	= yes/gI' /etc/xinetd.d/bluetooth
#
# Disable bluetooth.service for all systemd targets
#
systemctl disable bluetooth.service

#
# Stop bluetooth.service if currently running
#
systemctl stop bluetooth.service

Disable Bluetooth Kernel Modules   [ref]rule

The kernel's module loading system can be configured to prevent loading of the Bluetooth module. Add the following to the appropriate /etc/modprobe.d configuration file to prevent the loading of the Bluetooth module:

install bluetooth /bin/true

Rationale:

If Bluetooth functionality must be disabled, preventing the kernel from loading the kernel module provides an additional safeguard against its activation.

identifiers:  CCE-27327-6

references:  AC-17(8), AC-18(a), AC-18(d), AC-18(3), CM-7, 85, 1551, 5.13.1.3, 3.1.16

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
if grep --silent "^install bluetooth" /etc/modprobe.d/bluetooth.conf ; then
        sed -i 's/^install bluetooth.*/install bluetooth /bin/true/g' /etc/modprobe.d/bluetooth.conf
else
        echo -e "\n# Disable per security requirements" >> /etc/modprobe.d/bluetooth.conf
        echo "install bluetooth /bin/true" >> /etc/modprobe.d/bluetooth.conf
fi
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: Ensure kernel module 'bluetooth' is disabled
  lineinfile:
    create=yes
    dest="/etc/modprobe.d/{{item}}.conf"
    regexp="{{item}}"
    line="install {{item}} /bin/true"
  with_items:
    - bluetooth

IPv6   [ref]group

The system includes support for Internet Protocol version 6. A major and often-mentioned improvement over IPv4 is its enormous increase in the number of available addresses. Another important feature is its support for automatic configuration of many network settings.

contains 4 rules

Disable Support for IPv6 Unless Needed   [ref]group

Despite configuration that suggests support for IPv6 has been disabled, link-local IPv6 address auto-configuration occurs even when only an IPv4 address is assigned. The only way to effectively prevent execution of the IPv6 networking stack is to instruct the system not to activate the IPv6 kernel module.

contains 2 rules

Disable IPv6 Networking Support Automatic Loading   [ref]rule

To disable support for (ipv6) add the following line to /etc/sysctl.d/ipv6.conf (or another file in /etc/sysctl.d):

net.ipv6.conf.all.disable_ipv6 = 1
This disables IPv6 on all network interfaces as other services and system functionality require the IPv6 stack loaded to work.

Rationale:

Any unnecessary network stacks - including IPv6 - should be disabled, to reduce the vulnerability to exploitation.

identifiers:  CCE-80175-3

references:  CM-7, 1551, 4.4.2, 3.1.20

Disable Support for RPC IPv6   [ref]rule

RPC services for NFSv4 try to load transport modules for udp6 and tcp6 by default, even if IPv6 has been disabled in /etc/modprobe.d. To prevent RPC services such as rpc.mountd from attempting to start IPv6 network listeners, remove or comment out the following two lines in /etc/netconfig:

udp6       tpi_clts      v     inet6    udp     -       -
tcp6       tpi_cots_ord  v     inet6    tcp     -       -

identifiers:  CCE-80177-9

references:  CM-7, 3.1.20

Configure IPv6 Settings if Necessary   [ref]group

A major feature of IPv6 is the extent to which systems implementing it can automatically configure their networking devices using information from the network. From a security perspective, manually configuring important configuration information is preferable to accepting it from the network in an unauthenticated fashion.

contains 2 rules

Disable Automatic Configuration   [ref]group

Disable the system's acceptance of router advertisements and redirects by adding or correcting the following line in /etc/sysconfig/network (note that this does not disable sending router solicitations):

IPV6_AUTOCONF=no

contains 2 rules

Configure Accepting IPv6 Router Advertisements   [ref]rule

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_ra kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_ra=0
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_ra = 0

Rationale:

An illicit router advertisement message could result in a man-in-the-middle attack.

identifiers:  CCE-80181-1

references:  CM-7, 4.4.1.1, 3.1.20

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable

sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_default_accept_ra_value="0"

#
# Set runtime for net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_ra
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_ra=$sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_default_accept_ra_value

#
# If net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_ra present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to appropriate value
#	else, add "net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_ra = value" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#

function replace_or_append {
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  # Check sanity of the input
  if [ $# -lt "3" ]
  then
        echo "Usage: replace_or_append 'config_file_location' 'key_to_search' 'new_value'"
        echo
        echo "If symlinks need to be taken into account, add yes/no to the last argument"
        echo "to allow to 'follow_symlinks'."
        echo "Aborting."
        exit 1
  fi

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  if test -L $config_file; then
    sed_command="sed -i --follow-symlinks"
  else
    sed_command="sed -i"
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal $CCENUM.
  # If $CCENUM exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if ! [ "x$cce" = x ] && [ "$cce" != '$CCENUM' ]; then
    cce="CCE-${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed "s/[\^=\$,;+]*//g" <<< $key)

  # If there is no print format specified in the last arg, use the default format.
  if ! [ "x$format" = x ] ; then
    printf -v formatted_output "$format" $stripped_key $value
  else
    formatted_output="$stripped_key = $value"
  fi

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  if `grep -qi $key $config_file` ; then
    $sed_command "s/$key.*/$formatted_output/g" $config_file
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    echo -e "\n# Per $cce: Set $formatted_output in $config_file" >> $config_file
    echo -e "$formatted_output" >> $config_file
  fi

}

replace_or_append '/etc/systcl.conf' '^net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_ra' '$sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_default_accept_ra_value' 'CCE-80181-1'

Configure Accepting IPv6 Redirects By Default   [ref]rule

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_redirects kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_redirects=0
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_redirects = 0

Rationale:

An illicit ICMP redirect message could result in a man-in-the-middle attack.

identifiers:  CCE-80183-7

references:  CM-7, 1551, 4.4.1.2, 3.1.20

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable

sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_default_accept_redirects_value="0"

#
# Set runtime for net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_redirects
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_redirects=$sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_default_accept_redirects_value

#
# If net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_redirects present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to appropriate value
#	else, add "net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_redirects = value" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#

function replace_or_append {
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  # Check sanity of the input
  if [ $# -lt "3" ]
  then
        echo "Usage: replace_or_append 'config_file_location' 'key_to_search' 'new_value'"
        echo
        echo "If symlinks need to be taken into account, add yes/no to the last argument"
        echo "to allow to 'follow_symlinks'."
        echo "Aborting."
        exit 1
  fi

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  if test -L $config_file; then
    sed_command="sed -i --follow-symlinks"
  else
    sed_command="sed -i"
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal $CCENUM.
  # If $CCENUM exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if ! [ "x$cce" = x ] && [ "$cce" != '$CCENUM' ]; then
    cce="CCE-${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed "s/[\^=\$,;+]*//g" <<< $key)

  # If there is no print format specified in the last arg, use the default format.
  if ! [ "x$format" = x ] ; then
    printf -v formatted_output "$format" $stripped_key $value
  else
    formatted_output="$stripped_key = $value"
  fi

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  if `grep -qi $key $config_file` ; then
    $sed_command "s/$key.*/$formatted_output/g" $config_file
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    echo -e "\n# Per $cce: Set $formatted_output in $config_file" >> $config_file
    echo -e "$formatted_output" >> $config_file
  fi

}

replace_or_append '/etc/systcl.conf' '^net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_redirects' '$sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_default_accept_redirects_value' 'CCE-80183-7'

firewalld   [ref]group

The dynamic firewall daemon firewalld provides a dynamically managed firewall with support for network “zones” to assign a level of trust to a network and its associated connections and interfaces. It has support for IPv4 and IPv6 firewall settings. It supports Ethernet bridges and has a separation of runtime and permanent configuration options. It also has an interface for services or applications to add firewall rules directly.
A graphical configuration tool, firewall-config, is used to configure firewalld, which in turn uses iptables tool to communicate with Netfilter in the kernel which implements packet filtering.
The firewall service provided by firewalld is dynamic rather than static because changes to the configuration can be made at anytime and are immediately implemented. There is no need to save or apply the changes. No unintended disruption of existing network connections occurs as no part of the firewall has to be reloaded.

contains 2 rules

Inspect and Activate Default firewalld Rules   [ref]group

Firewalls can be used to separate networks into different zones based on the level of trust the user has decided to place on the devices and traffic within that network. NetworkManager informs firewalld to which zone an interface belongs. An interface's assigned zone can be changed by NetworkManager or via the firewall-config tool.
The zone settings in /etc/firewalld/ are a range of preset settings which can be quickly applied to a network interface. These are the zones provided by firewalld sorted according to the default trust level of the zones from untrusted to trusted:

  • drop

    Any incoming network packets are dropped, there is no reply. Only outgoing network connections are possible.

  • block

    Any incoming network connections are rejected with an icmp-host-prohibited message for IPv4 and icmp6-adm-prohibited for IPv6. Only network connections initiated from within the system are possible.

  • public

    For use in public areas. You do not trust the other computers on the network to not harm your computer. Only selected incoming connections are accepted.

  • external

    For use on external networks with masquerading enabled especially for routers. You do not trust the other computers on the network to not harm your computer. Only selected incoming connections are accepted.

  • dmz

    For computers in your demilitarized zone that are publicly-accessible with limited access to your internal network. Only selected incoming connections are accepted.

  • work

    For use in work areas. You mostly trust the other computers on networks to not harm your computer. Only selected incoming connections are accepted.

  • home

    For use in home areas. You mostly trust the other computers on networks to not harm your computer. Only selected incoming connections are accepted.

  • internal

    For use on internal networks. You mostly trust the other computers on the networks to not harm your computer. Only selected incoming connections are accepted.

  • trusted

    All network connections are accepted.


It is possible to designate one of these zones to be the default zone. When interface connections are added to NetworkManager, they are assigned to the default zone. On installation, the default zone in firewalld is set to be the public zone.
To find out all the settings of a zone, for example the public zone, enter the following command as root:
# firewall-cmd --zone=public --list-all
Example output of this command might look like the following:
# firewall-cmd --zone=public --list-all
public
  interfaces:
  services: mdns dhcpv6-client ssh
  ports:
  forward-ports:
  icmp-blocks: source-quench
To view the network zones currently active, enter the following command as root:
# firewall-cmd --get-service
The following listing displays the result of this command on common Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Server system:
# firewall-cmd --get-service
amanda-client bacula bacula-client dhcp dhcpv6 dhcpv6-client dns ftp
high-availability http https imaps ipp ipp-client ipsec kerberos kpasswd
ldap ldaps libvirt libvirt-tls mdns mountd ms-wbt mysql nfs ntp openvpn
pmcd pmproxy pmwebapi pmwebapis pop3s postgresql proxy-dhcp radius rpc-bind
samba samba-client smtp ssh telnet tftp tftp-client transmission-client
vnc-server wbem-https
Finally to view the network zones that will be active after the next firewalld service reload, enter the following command as root:
# firewall-cmd --get-service --permanent

contains 1 rule

Verify firewalld Enabled   [ref]rule

The firewalld service can be enabled with the following command:

$ sudo systemctl enable firewalld.service

Rationale:

Access control methods provide the ability to enhance system security posture by restricting services and known good IP addresses and address ranges. This prevents connections from unknown hosts and protocols.

identifiers:  CCE-27361-5

references:  CM-6(b), 366, 4.7, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, RHEL-07-040520, 3.1.3, 3.4.7

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable

function service_command {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local service_state=$1
local service=$2
local xinetd=$(echo $3 | cut -d'=' -f2)

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -lt "2" ]
then
  echo "Usage: service_command 'enable/disable' 'service_name.service'"
  echo
  echo "To enable or disable xinetd services add \'xinetd=service_name\'"
  echo "as the last argument"
  echo "Aborting."
  exit 1
fi

# If systemctl is installed, use systemctl command; otherwise, use the service/chkconfig commands
if [ -f "/usr/bin/systemctl" ] ; then
  service_util="/usr/bin/systemctl"
else
  service_util="/sbin/service"
  chkconfig_util="/sbin/chkconfig"
fi

# If disable is not specified in arg1, set variables to enable services.
# Otherwise, variables are to be set to disable services.
if [ "$service_state" != 'disable' ] ; then
  service_state="enable"
  service_operation="start"
  chkconfig_state="on"
else
  service_state="disable"
  service_operation="stop"
  chkconfig_state="off"
fi

# If chkconfig_util is not empty, use chkconfig/service commands.
if ! [ "x$chkconfig_util" = x ] ; then
  $service_util $service $service_operation
  $chkconfig_util --level 0123456 $service $chkconfig_state
else
  $service_util $service_operation $service
  $service_util $service_state $service
fi

# Test if local variable xinetd is empty using non-bashism.
# If empty, then xinetd is not being used.
if ! [ "x$xinetd" = x ] ; then
  grep -qi disable /etc/xinetd.d/$xinetd && \

  if ! [ "$service_operation" != 'disable' ] ; then
    sed -i "s/disable.*/disable         = no/gI" /etc/xinetd.d/$xinetd
  else
    sed -i "s/disable.*/disable         = yes/gI" /etc/xinetd.d/$xinetd
  fi
fi

}

service_command enable firewalld
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
- name: Enable service firewalld
  service:
    name="{{item}}"
    enabled="yes"
    state="started"
  with_items:
    - firewalld

Strengthen the Default Ruleset   [ref]group

The default rules can be strengthened. The system scripts that activate the firewall rules expect them to be defined in configuration files under the /etc/firewalld/services and /etc/firewalld/zones directories.

The following recommendations describe how to strengthen the default ruleset configuration file. An alternative to editing this configuration file is to create a shell script that makes calls to the firewall-cmd program to load in rules under the /etc/firewalld/services and /etc/firewalld/zones directories.

Instructions apply to both unless otherwise noted. Language and address conventions for regular firewalld rules are used throughout this section.

warning  The program firewall-config allows additional services to penetrate the default firewall rules and automatically adjusts the firewalld ruleset(s).
contains 1 rule

Set Default firewalld Zone for Incoming Packets   [ref]rule

To set the default zone to drop for the built-in default zone which processes incoming IPv4 and IPv6 packets, modify the following line in /etc/firewalld/firewalld.conf to be:

DefaultZone=drop

Rationale:

In firewalld the default zone is applied only after all the applicable rules in the table are examined for a match. Setting the default zone to drop implements proper design for a firewall, i.e. any packets which are not explicitly permitted should not be accepted.

identifiers:  CCE-27349-0

references:  CM-6(b), CM-7, 366, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, 5.10.1, 3.1.3, 3.4.7, 3.13.6

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
grep -q ^DefaultZone= /etc/firewalld/firewalld.conf && \
  sed -i "s/DefaultZone=.*/DefaultZone=drop/g" /etc/firewalld/firewalld.conf
if ! [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
    echo "DefaultZone=drop" >> /etc/firewalld/firewalld.conf
fi

Uncommon Network Protocols   [ref]group

The system includes support for several network protocols which are not commonly used. Although security vulnerabilities in kernel networking code are not frequently discovered, the consequences can be dramatic. Ensuring uncommon network protocols are disabled reduces the system's risk to attacks targeted at its implementation of those protocols.

warning  Although these protocols are not commonly used, avoid disruption in your network environment by ensuring they are not needed prior to disabling them.
contains 2 rules

Disable DCCP Support   [ref]rule

The Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) is a relatively new transport layer protocol, designed to support streaming media and telephony. To configure the system to prevent the dccp kernel module from being loaded, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/modprobe.d:

install dccp /bin/true

Rationale:

Disabling DCCP protects the system against exploitation of any flaws in its implementation.

identifiers:  CCE-26828-4

references:  CM-7, http://iase.disa.mil/stigs/cci/Pages/index.aspx, 4.6.1, 5.10.1, 3.4.6

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
if grep --silent "^install dccp" /etc/modprobe.d/dccp.conf ; then
        sed -i 's/^install dccp.*/install dccp /bin/true/g' /etc/modprobe.d/dccp.conf
else
        echo -e "\n# Disable per security requirements" >> /etc/modprobe.d/dccp.conf
        echo "install dccp /bin/true" >> /etc/modprobe.d/dccp.conf
fi
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: Ensure kernel module 'dccp' is disabled
  lineinfile:
    create=yes
    dest="/etc/modprobe.d/{{item}}.conf"
    regexp="{{item}}"
    line="install {{item}} /bin/true"
  with_items:
    - dccp

Disable SCTP Support   [ref]rule

The Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a transport layer protocol, designed to support the idea of message-oriented communication, with several streams of messages within one connection. To configure the system to prevent the sctp kernel module from being loaded, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/modprobe.d:

install sctp /bin/true

Rationale:

Disabling SCTP protects the system against exploitation of any flaws in its implementation.

identifiers:  CCE-27106-4

references:  CM-7, http://iase.disa.mil/stigs/cci/Pages/index.aspx, 4.6.2, 5.10.1, 3.4.6

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
if grep --silent "^install sctp" /etc/modprobe.d/sctp.conf ; then
        sed -i 's/^install sctp.*/install sctp /bin/true/g' /etc/modprobe.d/sctp.conf
else
        echo -e "\n# Disable per security requirements" >> /etc/modprobe.d/sctp.conf
        echo "install sctp /bin/true" >> /etc/modprobe.d/sctp.conf
fi
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: Ensure kernel module 'sctp' is disabled
  lineinfile:
    create=yes
    dest="/etc/modprobe.d/{{item}}.conf"
    regexp="{{item}}"
    line="install {{item}} /bin/true"
  with_items:
    - sctp

Disable Zeroconf Networking   [ref]rule

Zeroconf networking allows the system to assign itself an IP address and engage in IP communication without a statically-assigned address or even a DHCP server. Automatic address assignment via Zeroconf (or DHCP) is not recommended. To disable Zeroconf automatic route assignment in the 169.254.0.0 subnet, add or correct the following line in /etc/sysconfig/network:

NOZEROCONF=yes

Rationale:

Zeroconf addresses are in the network 169.254.0.0. The networking scripts add entries to the system's routing table for these addresses. Zeroconf address assignment commonly occurs when the system is configured to use DHCP but fails to receive an address assignment from the DHCP server.

identifiers:  CCE-80173-8

references:  CM-7

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
echo "NOZEROCONF=yes" >> /etc/sysconfig/network

Ensure System is Not Acting as a Network Sniffer   [ref]rule

The system should not be acting as a network sniffer, which can capture all traffic on the network to which it is connected. Run the following to determine if any interface is running in promiscuous mode:

$ ip link | grep PROMISC

Rationale:

Network interfaces in promiscuous mode allow for the capture of all network traffic visible to the system. If unauthorized individuals can access these applications, it may allow them to collect information such as logon IDs, passwords, and key exchanges between systems.

If the system is being used to perform a network troubleshooting function, the use of these tools must be documented with the Information Systems Security Manager (ISSM) and restricted to only authorized personnel.

Configure Syslog   [ref]group

The syslog service has been the default Unix logging mechanism for many years. It has a number of downsides, including inconsistent log format, lack of authentication for received messages, and lack of authentication, encryption, or reliable transport for messages sent over a network. However, due to its long history, syslog is a de facto standard which is supported by almost all Unix applications.

In Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, rsyslog has replaced ksyslogd as the syslog daemon of choice, and it includes some additional security features such as reliable, connection-oriented (i.e. TCP) transmission of logs, the option to log to database formats, and the encryption of log data en route to a central logging server. This section discusses how to configure rsyslog for best effect, and how to use tools provided with the system to maintain and monitor logs.

contains 5 rules

Ensure Proper Configuration of Log Files   [ref]group

The file /etc/rsyslog.conf controls where log message are written. These are controlled by lines called rules, which consist of a selector and an action. These rules are often customized depending on the role of the system, the requirements of the environment, and whatever may enable the administrator to most effectively make use of log data. The default rules in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 are:

*.info;mail.none;authpriv.none;cron.none                /var/log/messages
authpriv.*                                              /var/log/secure
mail.*                                                  -/var/log/maillog
cron.*                                                  /var/log/cron
*.emerg                                                 *
uucp,news.crit                                          /var/log/spooler
local7.*                                                /var/log/boot.log
See the man page rsyslog.conf(5) for more information. Note that the rsyslog daemon can be configured to use a timestamp format that some log processing programs may not understand. If this occurs, edit the file /etc/rsyslog.conf and add or edit the following line:
$ ActionFileDefaultTemplate RSYSLOG_TraditionalFileFormat

contains 2 rules

Ensure Log Files Are Owned By Appropriate User   [ref]rule

The owner of all log files written by rsyslog should be root. These log files are determined by the second part of each Rule line in /etc/rsyslog.conf and typically all appear in /var/log. For each log file LOGFILE referenced in /etc/rsyslog.conf, run the following command to inspect the file's owner:

$ ls -l LOGFILE
If the owner is not root, run the following command to correct this:
$ sudo chown root LOGFILE

Rationale:

The log files generated by rsyslog contain valuable information regarding system configuration, user authentication, and other such information. Log files should be protected from unauthorized access.

identifiers:  CCE-80189-4

references:  AC-6, SI-11, 1314, Req-10.5.1, Req-10.5.2

Ensure Log Files Are Owned By Appropriate Group   [ref]rule

The group-owner of all log files written by rsyslog should be root. These log files are determined by the second part of each Rule line in /etc/rsyslog.conf and typically all appear in /var/log. For each log file LOGFILE referenced in /etc/rsyslog.conf, run the following command to inspect the file's group owner:

$ ls -l LOGFILE
If the owner is not root, run the following command to correct this:
$ sudo chgrp root LOGFILE

Rationale:

The log files generated by rsyslog contain valuable information regarding system configuration, user authentication, and other such information. Log files should be protected from unauthorized access.

identifiers:  CCE-80190-2

references:  AC-6, SI-11, 1314, Req-10.5.1, Req-10.5.2

Rsyslog Logs Sent To Remote Host   [ref]group

If system logs are to be useful in detecting malicious activities, it is necessary to send logs to a remote server. An intruder who has compromised the root account on a system may delete the log entries which indicate that the system was attacked before they are seen by an administrator.

However, it is recommended that logs be stored on the local host in addition to being sent to the loghost, especially if rsyslog has been configured to use the UDP protocol to send messages over a network. UDP does not guarantee reliable delivery, and moderately busy sites will lose log messages occasionally, especially in periods of high traffic which may be the result of an attack. In addition, remote rsyslog messages are not authenticated in any way by default, so it is easy for an attacker to introduce spurious messages to the central log server. Also, some problems cause loss of network connectivity, which will prevent the sending of messages to the central server. For all of these reasons, it is better to store log messages both centrally and on each host, so that they can be correlated if necessary.

contains 1 rule

Ensure Logs Sent To Remote Host   [ref]rule

To configure rsyslog to send logs to a remote log server, open /etc/rsyslog.conf and read and understand the last section of the file, which describes the multiple directives necessary to activate remote logging. Along with these other directives, the system can be configured to forward its logs to a particular log server by adding or correcting one of the following lines, substituting loghost.example.com appropriately. The choice of protocol depends on the environment of the system; although TCP and RELP provide more reliable message delivery, they may not be supported in all environments.
To use UDP for log message delivery:

*.* @loghost.example.com

To use TCP for log message delivery:
*.* @@loghost.example.com

To use RELP for log message delivery:
*.* :omrelp:loghost.example.com

Rationale:

A log server (loghost) receives syslog messages from one or more systems. This data can be used as an additional log source in the event a system is compromised and its local logs are suspect. Forwarding log messages to a remote loghost also provides system administrators with a centralized place to view the status of multiple hosts within the enterprise.

identifiers:  CCE-27343-3

references:  AU-3(2), AU-4(1), AU-9, 366, 1348, 136, 1851, 5.1.5, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, RHEL-07-031000

Ensure rsyslog is Installed   [ref]rule

Rsyslog is installed by default. The rsyslog package can be installed with the following command:

$ sudo yum install rsyslog

Rationale:

The rsyslog package provides the rsyslog daemon, which provides system logging services.

identifiers:  CCE-80187-8

references:  AU-9(2), 1311, 1312, 5.1.1

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable

function package_command {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local package_operation=$1
local package=$2

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "2" ]
then
  echo "Usage: package_command 'install/uninstall' 'rpm_package_name"
  echo "Aborting."
  exit 1
fi

# If dnf is installed, use dnf; otherwise, use yum
if [ -f "/usr/bin/dnf" ] ; then
  install_util="/usr/bin/dnf"
else
  install_util="/usr/bin/yum"
fi

if [ "$package_operation" != 'remove' ] ; then
  # If the rpm is not installed, install the rpm
  if ! /bin/rpm -q --quiet $package; then
    $install_util -y $package_operation $package
  fi
else
  # If the rpm is installed, uninstall the rpm
  if /bin/rpm -q --quiet $package; then
    $install_util -y $package_operation $package
  fi
fi

}

package_command install rsyslog
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
- name: Ensure rsyslog is installed
  package:
    name="{{item}}"
    state=present
  with_items:
    - rsyslog
Remediation Puppet snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
include install_rsyslog

class install_rsyslog {
  package { 'rsyslog':
    ensure => 'installed',
  }
}
Remediation script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable

package -add=rsyslog

Enable rsyslog Service   [ref]rule

The rsyslog service provides syslog-style logging by default on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7. The rsyslog service can be enabled with the following command:

$ sudo systemctl enable rsyslog.service

Rationale:

The rsyslog service must be running in order to provide logging services, which are essential to system administration.

identifiers:  CCE-80188-6

references:  AU-4(1), AU-12, 1311, 1312, 1557, 1851, 5.1.2

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable

function service_command {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local service_state=$1
local service=$2
local xinetd=$(echo $3 | cut -d'=' -f2)

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -lt "2" ]
then
  echo "Usage: service_command 'enable/disable' 'service_name.service'"
  echo
  echo "To enable or disable xinetd services add \'xinetd=service_name\'"
  echo "as the last argument"
  echo "Aborting."
  exit 1
fi

# If systemctl is installed, use systemctl command; otherwise, use the service/chkconfig commands
if [ -f "/usr/bin/systemctl" ] ; then
  service_util="/usr/bin/systemctl"
else
  service_util="/sbin/service"
  chkconfig_util="/sbin/chkconfig"
fi

# If disable is not specified in arg1, set variables to enable services.
# Otherwise, variables are to be set to disable services.
if [ "$service_state" != 'disable' ] ; then
  service_state="enable"
  service_operation="start"
  chkconfig_state="on"
else
  service_state="disable"
  service_operation="stop"
  chkconfig_state="off"
fi

# If chkconfig_util is not empty, use chkconfig/service commands.
if ! [ "x$chkconfig_util" = x ] ; then
  $service_util $service $service_operation
  $chkconfig_util --level 0123456 $service $chkconfig_state
else
  $service_util $service_operation $service
  $service_util $service_state $service
fi

# Test if local variable xinetd is empty using non-bashism.
# If empty, then xinetd is not being used.
if ! [ "x$xinetd" = x ] ; then
  grep -qi disable /etc/xinetd.d/$xinetd && \

  if ! [ "$service_operation" != 'disable' ] ; then
    sed -i "s/disable.*/disable         = no/gI" /etc/xinetd.d/$xinetd
  else
    sed -i "s/disable.*/disable         = yes/gI" /etc/xinetd.d/$xinetd
  fi
fi

}

service_command enable rsyslog
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
- name: Enable service rsyslog
  service:
    name="{{item}}"
    enabled="yes"
    state="started"
  with_items:
    - rsyslog

System Accounting with auditd   [ref]group

The audit service provides substantial capabilities for recording system activities. By default, the service audits about SELinux AVC denials and certain types of security-relevant events such as system logins, account modifications, and authentication events performed by programs such as sudo. Under its default configuration, auditd has modest disk space requirements, and should not noticeably impact system performance.

NOTE: The Linux Audit daemon auditd can be configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules files (*.rules) located in /etc/audit/rules.d location and compile them to create the resulting form of the /etc/audit/audit.rules configuration file during the daemon startup (default configuration). Alternatively, the auditd daemon can use the auditctl utility to read audit rules from the /etc/audit/audit.rules configuration file during daemon startup, and load them into the kernel. The expected behavior is configured via the appropriate ExecStartPost directive setting in the /usr/lib/systemd/system/auditd.service configuration file. To instruct the auditd daemon to use the augenrules program to read audit rules (default configuration), use the following setting:

ExecStartPost=-/sbin/augenrules --load
in the /usr/lib/systemd/system/auditd.service configuration file. In order to instruct the auditd daemon to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules, use the following setting:
ExecStartPost=-/sbin/auditctl -R /etc/audit/audit.rules
in the /usr/lib/systemd/system/auditd.service configuration file. Refer to [Service] section of the /usr/lib/systemd/system/auditd.service configuration file for further details.

Government networks often have substantial auditing requirements and auditd can be configured to meet these requirements. Examining some example audit records demonstrates how the Linux audit system satisfies common requirements. The following example from Fedora Documentation available at https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-US/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/7/html/SELinux_Users_and_Administrators_Guide/sect-Security-Enhanced_Linux-Troubleshooting-Fixing_Problems.html#sect-Security-Enhanced_Linux-Fixing_Problems-Raw_Audit_Messages shows the substantial amount of information captured in a two typical "raw" audit messages, followed by a breakdown of the most important fields. In this example the message is SELinux-related and reports an AVC denial (and the associated system call) that occurred when the Apache HTTP Server attempted to access the /var/www/html/file1 file (labeled with the samba_share_t type):
type=AVC msg=audit(1226874073.147:96): avc:  denied  { getattr } for pid=2465 comm="httpd"
path="/var/www/html/file1" dev=dm-0 ino=284133 scontext=unconfined_u:system_r:httpd_t:s0
tcontext=unconfined_u:object_r:samba_share_t:s0 tclass=file

type=SYSCALL msg=audit(1226874073.147:96): arch=40000003 syscall=196 success=no exit=-13
a0=b98df198 a1=bfec85dc a2=54dff4 a3=2008171 items=0 ppid=2463 pid=2465 auid=502 uid=48
gid=48 euid=48 suid=48 fsuid=48 egid=48 sgid=48 fsgid=48 tty=(none) ses=6 comm="httpd"
exe="/usr/sbin/httpd" subj=unconfined_u:system_r:httpd_t:s0 key=(null)
  • msg=audit(1226874073.147:96)
    • The number in parentheses is the unformatted time stamp (Epoch time) for the event, which can be converted to standard time by using the date command.
  • { getattr }
    • The item in braces indicates the permission that was denied. getattr indicates the source process was trying to read the target file's status information. This occurs before reading files. This action is denied due to the file being accessed having the wrong label. Commonly seen permissions include getattr, read, and write.
  • comm="httpd"
    • The executable that launched the process. The full path of the executable is found in the exe= section of the system call (SYSCALL) message, which in this case, is exe="/usr/sbin/httpd".
  • path="/var/www/html/file1"
    • The path to the object (target) the process attempted to access.
  • scontext="unconfined_u:system_r:httpd_t:s0"
    • The SELinux context of the process that attempted the denied action. In this case, it is the SELinux context of the Apache HTTP Server, which is running in the httpd_t domain.
  • tcontext="unconfined_u:object_r:samba_share_t:s0"
    • The SELinux context of the object (target) the process attempted to access. In this case, it is the SELinux context of file1. Note: the samba_share_t type is not accessible to processes running in the httpd_t domain.
  • From the system call (SYSCALL) message, two items are of interest:
    • success=no: indicates whether the denial (AVC) was enforced or not. success=no indicates the system call was not successful (SELinux denied access). success=yes indicates the system call was successful - this can be seen for permissive domains or unconfined domains, such as initrc_t and kernel_t.
    • exe="/usr/sbin/httpd": the full path to the executable that launched the process, which in this case, is exe="/usr/sbin/httpd".

contains 41 rules

Configure auditd Data Retention   [ref]group

The audit system writes data to /var/log/audit/audit.log. By default, auditd rotates 5 logs by size (6MB), retaining a maximum of 30MB of data in total, and refuses to write entries when the disk is too full. This minimizes the risk of audit data filling its partition and impacting other services. This also minimizes the risk of the audit daemon temporarily disabling the system if it cannot write audit log (which it can be configured to do). For a busy system or a system which is thoroughly auditing system activity, the default settings for data retention may be insufficient. The log file size needed will depend heavily on what types of events are being audited. First configure auditing to log all the events of interest. Then monitor the log size manually for awhile to determine what file size will allow you to keep the required data for the correct time period.

Using a dedicated partition for /var/log/audit prevents the auditd logs from disrupting system functionality if they fill, and, more importantly, prevents other activity in /var from filling the partition and stopping the audit trail. (The audit logs are size-limited and therefore unlikely to grow without bound unless configured to do so.) Some machines may have requirements that no actions occur which cannot be audited. If this is the case, then auditd can be configured to halt the machine if it runs out of space. Note: Since older logs are rotated, configuring auditd this way does not prevent older logs from being rotated away before they can be viewed. If your system is configured to halt when logging cannot be performed, make sure this can never happen under normal circumstances! Ensure that /var/log/audit is on its own partition, and that this partition is larger than the maximum amount of data auditd will retain normally.

references:  AU-11, 138

contains 7 rules

Configure auditd Number of Logs Retained   [ref]rule

Determine how many log files auditd should retain when it rotates logs. Edit the file /etc/audit/auditd.conf. Add or modify the following line, substituting NUMLOGS with the correct value of 5:

num_logs = NUMLOGS
Set the value to 5 for general-purpose systems. Note that values less than 2 result in no log rotation.

Rationale:

The total storage for audit log files must be large enough to retain log information over the period required. This is a function of the maximum log file size and the number of logs retained.

identifiers:  CCE-27348-2

references:  AU-1(b), AU-11, IR-5, Req-10.7, 5.4.1.1, 3.3.1

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable

var_auditd_num_logs="5"

AUDITCONFIG=/etc/audit/auditd.conf

grep -q ^num_logs $AUDITCONFIG && \
  sed -i 's/^num_logs.*/num_logs = '"$var_auditd_num_logs"'/g' $AUDITCONFIG
if ! [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
  echo "num_logs = $var_auditd_num_logs" >> $AUDITCONFIG
fi

Configure auditd Max Log File Size   [ref]rule

Determine the amount of audit data (in megabytes) which should be retained in each log file. Edit the file /etc/audit/auditd.conf. Add or modify the following line, substituting the correct value of 6 for STOREMB:

max_log_file = STOREMB
Set the value to 6 (MB) or higher for general-purpose systems. Larger values, of course, support retention of even more audit data.

Rationale:

The total storage for audit log files must be large enough to retain log information over the period required. This is a function of the maximum log file size and the number of logs retained.

identifiers:  CCE-27319-3

references:  AU-1(b), AU-11, IR-5, Req-10.7, 5.2.1.1, 5.4.1.1

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable

var_auditd_max_log_file="6"

AUDITCONFIG=/etc/audit/auditd.conf

grep -q ^max_log_file $AUDITCONFIG && \
  sed -i 's/^max_log_file.*/max_log_file = '"$var_auditd_max_log_file"'/g' $AUDITCONFIG
if ! [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
  echo "max_log_file = $var_auditd_max_log_file" >> $AUDITCONFIG
fi

Configure auditd max_log_file_action Upon Reaching Maximum Log Size   [ref]rule

The default action to take when the logs reach their maximum size is to rotate the log files, discarding the oldest one. To configure the action taken by auditd, add or correct the line in /etc/audit/auditd.conf:

max_log_file_action = ACTION
Possible values for ACTION are described in the auditd.conf man page. These include:
  • ignore
  • syslog
  • suspend
  • rotate
  • keep_logs
Set the ACTION to rotate to ensure log rotation occurs. This is the default. The setting is case-insensitive.

Rationale:

Automatically rotating logs (by setting this to rotate) minimizes the chances of the system unexpectedly running out of disk space by being overwhelmed with log data. However, for systems that must never discard log data, or which use external processes to transfer it and reclaim space, keep_logs can be employed.

identifiers:  CCE-27231-0

references:  AU-1(b), AU-4, AU-11, IR-5, Req-10.7, 5.2.1.3, 5.4.1.1

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable

var_auditd_max_log_file_action="rotate"

AUDITCONFIG=/etc/audit/auditd.conf

grep -q ^max_log_file_action $AUDITCONFIG && \
  sed -i 's/^max_log_file_action.*/max_log_file_action = '"$var_auditd_max_log_file_action"'/g' $AUDITCONFIG
if ! [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
  echo "max_log_file_action = $var_auditd_max_log_file_action" >> $AUDITCONFIG
fi

Configure auditd space_left Action on Low Disk Space   [ref]rule

The auditd service can be configured to take an action when disk space starts to run low. Edit the file /etc/audit/auditd.conf. Modify the following line, substituting ACTION appropriately:

space_left_action = ACTION
Possible values for ACTION are described in the auditd.conf man page. These include:
  • ignore
  • syslog
  • email
  • exec
  • suspend
  • single
  • halt
Set this to email (instead of the default, which is suspend) as it is more likely to get prompt attention. Acceptable values also include suspend, single, and halt.

Rationale:

Notifying administrators of an impending disk space problem may allow them to take corrective action prior to any disruption.

identifiers:  CCE-27375-5

references:  AU-1(b), AU-4, AU-5(1), AU-5(b), IR-5, 1855, Req-10.7, 5.2.1.2, SRG-OS-000343-GPOS-00134, 030340, 5.4.1.1, 3.3.1

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable

var_auditd_space_left_action="email"

grep -q ^space_left_action /etc/audit/auditd.conf && \
  sed -i "s/space_left_action.*/space_left_action = $var_auditd_space_left_action/g" /etc/audit/auditd.conf
if ! [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
    echo "space_left_action = $var_auditd_space_left_action" >> /etc/audit/auditd.conf
fi

Configure auditd admin_space_left Action on Low Disk Space   [ref]rule

The auditd service can be configured to take an action when disk space is running low but prior to running out of space completely. Edit the file /etc/audit/auditd.conf. Add or modify the following line, substituting ACTION appropriately:

admin_space_left_action = ACTION
Set this value to single to cause the system to switch to single user mode for corrective action. Acceptable values also include suspend and halt. For certain systems, the need for availability outweighs the need to log all actions, and a different setting should be determined. Details regarding all possible values for ACTION are described in the auditd.conf man page.

Rationale:

Administrators should be made aware of an inability to record audit records. If a separate partition or logical volume of adequate size is used, running low on space for audit records should never occur.

identifiers:  CCE-27370-6

references:  AU-1(b), AU-4, AU-5(b), IR-5, 140, 1343, Req-10.7, 5.2.1.2, 5.4.1.1, 3.3.1

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable

var_auditd_admin_space_left_action="single"

grep -q ^admin_space_left_action /etc/audit/auditd.conf && \
  sed -i "s/admin_space_left_action.*/admin_space_left_action = $var_auditd_admin_space_left_action/g" /etc/audit/auditd.conf
if ! [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
    echo "admin_space_left_action = $var_auditd_admin_space_left_action" >> /etc/audit/auditd.conf
fi

Configure auditd mail_acct Action on Low Disk Space   [ref]rule

The auditd service can be configured to send email to a designated account in certain situations. Add or correct the following line in /etc/audit/auditd.conf to ensure that administrators are notified via email for those situations:

action_mail_acct = root

Rationale:

Email sent to the root account is typically aliased to the administrators of the system, who can take appropriate action.

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable

var_auditd_action_mail_acct="root"

AUDITCONFIG=/etc/audit/auditd.conf

grep -q ^action_mail_acct $AUDITCONFIG && \
  sed -i 's/^action_mail_acct.*/action_mail_acct = '"$var_auditd_action_mail_acct"'/g' $AUDITCONFIG
if ! [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
  echo "action_mail_acct = $var_auditd_action_mail_acct" >> $AUDITCONFIG
fi

Configure auditd to use audispd's syslog plugin   [ref]rule

To configure the auditd service to use the syslog plug-in of the audispd audit event multiplexor, set the active line in /etc/audisp/plugins.d/syslog.conf to yes. Restart the auditd service:

$ sudo service auditd restart

Rationale:

The auditd service does not include the ability to send audit records to a centralized server for management directly. It does, however, include a plug-in for audit event multiplexor (audispd) to pass audit records to the local syslog server

identifiers:  CCE-27341-7

references:  AU-1(b), AU-3(2), IR-5, 136, Req-10.5.3, 5.4.1.1, 3.3.1

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable

grep -q ^active /etc/audisp/plugins.d/syslog.conf && \
  sed -i "s/active.*/active = yes/g" /etc/audisp/plugins.d/syslog.conf
if ! [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
    echo "active = yes" >> /etc/audisp/plugins.d/syslog.conf
fi

Configure auditd Rules for Comprehensive Auditing   [ref]group

The auditd program can perform comprehensive monitoring of system activity. This section describes recommended configuration settings for comprehensive auditing, but a full description of the auditing system's capabilities is beyond the scope of this guide. The mailing list linux-audit@redhat.com exists to facilitate community discussion of the auditing system.

The audit subsystem supports extensive collection of events, including:

  • Tracing of arbitrary system calls (identified by name or number) on entry or exit.
  • Filtering by PID, UID, call success, system call argument (with some limitations), etc.
  • Monitoring of specific files for modifications to the file's contents or metadata.

Auditing rules at startup are controlled by the file /etc/audit/audit.rules. Add rules to it to meet the auditing requirements for your organization. Each line in /etc/audit/audit.rules represents a series of arguments that can be passed to auditctl and can be individually tested during runtime. See documentation in /usr/share/doc/audit-VERSION and in the related man pages for more details.

If copying any example audit rulesets from /usr/share/doc/audit-VERSION, be sure to comment out the lines containing arch= which are not appropriate for your system's architecture. Then review and understand the following rules, ensuring rules are activated as needed for the appropriate architecture.

After reviewing all the rules, reading the following sections, and editing as needed, the new rules can be activated as follows:
$ sudo service auditd restart

contains 32 rules

Records Events that Modify Date and Time Information   [ref]group

Arbitrary changes to the system time can be used to obfuscate nefarious activities in log files, as well as to confuse network services that are highly dependent upon an accurate system time. All changes to the system time should be audited.

contains 5 rules

Record attempts to alter time through adjtimex   [ref]rule

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S adjtimex -F key=audit_time_rules
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S adjtimex -F key=audit_time_rules
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S adjtimex -F key=audit_time_rules
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S adjtimex -F key=audit_time_rules
The -k option allows for the specification of a key in string form that can be used for better reporting capability through ausearch and aureport. Multiple system calls can be defined on the same line to save space if desired, but is not required. See an example of multiple combined syscalls:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S adjtimex,settimeofday -F key=audit_time_rules

Rationale:

Arbitrary changes to the system time can be used to obfuscate nefarious activities in log files, as well as to confuse network services that are highly dependent upon an accurate system time (such as sshd). All changes to the system time should be audited.

identifiers:  CCE-27290-6

references:  AC-17(7), AU-1(b), AU-2(a), AU-2(c), AU-2(d), AU-12(a), AU-12(c), IR-5, 5.2.4, Req-10.4.2.b, 1487, 169, 5.4.1.1, 3.1.7

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable

function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
        echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
        echo "Aborting."
        exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
        echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
        echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
        exit 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
        files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
        # Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
        key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
        # Check if particular audit rule is already defined
        IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "/${pattern}/!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
        # Reset IFS back to default
        unset $IFS
        for match in "${matches[@]}"
        do
                files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
        done
        # Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
        if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
        then
                files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
                if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
                then
                        touch "$files_to_inspect"
                        chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
                fi
        fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

        # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
        # * follow the rule pattern, and
        # * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
        # * are current syscall group specific
        IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "/${pattern}/!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
        # Reset IFS back to default
        unset $IFS

        # Process rules found case-by-case
        for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
        do
                # Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
                if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
                then
                        # If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
                        rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
                        # Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
                        # of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
                        if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
                        then
                                # Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
                                # subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
                                # Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
                                sed -i -e "/$rule/d" "$audit_file"
                                existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
                        else
                                # Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
                                # for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
                                # group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
                                # since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
                                # Therefore:
                                # * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
                                # (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
                                # * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
                                # keep those not belonging to this syscall group
                                # (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
                                # * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
                                # if the same rule not already present
                                #
                                # 1) Delete the original rule
                                sed -i -e "/$rule/d" "$audit_file"
                                # 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
                                # Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
                                IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                                # Reset IFS back to default
                                unset $IFS
                                # Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
                                new_syscalls_for_rule=''
                                # Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
                                for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
                                do
                                        # Skip empty $syscall_arg values
                                        if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
                                        then
                                                continue
                                        fi
                                        # If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
                                        # (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
                                        if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
                                        then
                                                new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
                                        fi
                                done
                                # Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
                                updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
                                # Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
                                updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
                                # 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
                                #    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
                                if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
                                then
                                        echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
                                fi
                        fi
                else
                        # $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
                        # architecture & key => don't insert it second time
                        append_expected_rule=1
                fi
        done

        # We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
        # Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
        # Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
        if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
        then
                echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
        fi
done

}

function rhel7_fedora_perform_audit_adjtimex_settimeofday_stime_remediation {

# Perform the remediation for the 'adjtimex', 'settimeofday', and 'stime' audit
# system calls on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 or Fedora OSes
#
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ $(getconf LONG_BIT) = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do

        PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S .* -k *"
        # Create expected audit group and audit rule form for particular system call & architecture
        if [ ${ARCH} = "b32" ]
        then
                # stime system call is known at 32-bit arch (see e.g "$ ausyscall i386 stime" 's output)
                # so append it to the list of time group system calls to be audited
                GROUP="\(adjtimex\|settimeofday\|stime\)"
                FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S adjtimex -S settimeofday -S stime -k audit_time_rules"
        elif [ ${ARCH} = "b64" ]
        then
                # stime system call isn't known at 64-bit arch (see "$ ausyscall x86_64 stime" 's output)
                # therefore don't add it to the list of time group system calls to be audited
                GROUP="\(adjtimex\|settimeofday\)"
                FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S adjtimex -S settimeofday -k audit_time_rules"
        fi
        # Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
        fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
        fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done

}

rhel7_fedora_perform_audit_adjtimex_settimeofday_stime_remediation

Record attempts to alter time through settimeofday   [ref]rule

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S settimeofday -F key=audit_time_rules
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S settimeofday -F key=audit_time_rules
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S settimeofday -F key=audit_time_rules
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S settimeofday -F key=audit_time_rules
The -k option allows for the specification of a key in string form that can be used for better reporting capability through ausearch and aureport. Multiple system calls can be defined on the same line to save space if desired, but is not required. See an example of multiple combined syscalls:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S adjtimex,settimeofday -F key=audit_time_rules

Rationale:

Arbitrary changes to the system time can be used to obfuscate nefarious activities in log files, as well as to confuse network services that are highly dependent upon an accurate system time (such as sshd). All changes to the system time should be audited.

identifiers:  CCE-27216-1

references:  AC-17(7), AU-1(b), AU-2(a), AU-2(c), AU-2(d), AU-12(a), AU-12(c), IR-5, 5.2.4, Req-10.4.2.b, 1487, 169, 5.4.1.1, 3.1.7

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable

function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
        echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
        echo "Aborting."
        exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
        echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
        echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
        exit 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
        files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
        # Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
        key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
        # Check if particular audit rule is already defined
        IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "/${pattern}/!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
        # Reset IFS back to default
        unset $IFS
        for match in "${matches[@]}"
        do
                files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
        done
        # Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
        if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
        then
                files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
                if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
                then
                        touch "$files_to_inspect"
                        chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
                fi
        fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

        # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
        # * follow the rule pattern, and
        # * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
        # * are current syscall group specific
        IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "/${pattern}/!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
        # Reset IFS back to default
        unset $IFS

        # Process rules found case-by-case
        for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
        do
                # Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
                if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
                then
                        # If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
                        rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
                        # Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
                        # of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
                        if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
                        then
                                # Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
                                # subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
                                # Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
                                sed -i -e "/$rule/d" "$audit_file"
                                existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
                        else
                                # Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
                                # for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
                                # group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
                                # since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
                                # Therefore:
                                # * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
                                # (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
                                # * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
                                # keep those not belonging to this syscall group
                                # (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
                                # * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
                                # if the same rule not already present
                                #
                                # 1) Delete the original rule
                                sed -i -e "/$rule/d" "$audit_file"
                                # 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
                                # Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
                                IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                                # Reset IFS back to default
                                unset $IFS
                                # Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
                                new_syscalls_for_rule=''
                                # Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
                                for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
                                do
                                        # Skip empty $syscall_arg values
                                        if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
                                        then
                                                continue
                                        fi
                                        # If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
                                        # (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
                                        if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
                                        then
                                                new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
                                        fi
                                done
                                # Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
                                updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
                                # Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
                                updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
                                # 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
                                #    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
                                if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
                                then
                                        echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
                                fi
                        fi
                else
                        # $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
                        # architecture & key => don't insert it second time
                        append_expected_rule=1
                fi
        done

        # We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
        # Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
        # Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
        if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
        then
                echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
        fi
done

}

function rhel7_fedora_perform_audit_adjtimex_settimeofday_stime_remediation {

# Perform the remediation for the 'adjtimex', 'settimeofday', and 'stime' audit
# system calls on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 or Fedora OSes
#
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ $(getconf LONG_BIT) = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do

        PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S .* -k *"
        # Create expected audit group and audit rule form for particular system call & architecture
        if [ ${ARCH} = "b32" ]
        then
                # stime system call is known at 32-bit arch (see e.g "$ ausyscall i386 stime" 's output)
                # so append it to the list of time group system calls to be audited
                GROUP="\(adjtimex\|settimeofday\|stime\)"
                FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S adjtimex -S settimeofday -S stime -k audit_time_rules"
        elif [ ${ARCH} = "b64" ]
        then
                # stime system call isn't known at 64-bit arch (see "$ ausyscall x86_64 stime" 's output)
                # therefore don't add it to the list of time group system calls to be audited
                GROUP="\(adjtimex\|settimeofday\)"
                FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S adjtimex -S settimeofday -k audit_time_rules"
        fi
        # Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
        fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
        fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done

}

rhel7_fedora_perform_audit_adjtimex_settimeofday_stime_remediation

Record Attempts to Alter Time Through stime   [ref]rule

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d for both 32 bit and 64 bit systems:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S stime -F key=audit_time_rules
Since the 64 bit version of the "stime" system call is not defined in the audit lookup table, the corresponding "-F arch=b64" form of this rule is not expected to be defined on 64 bit systems (the aforementioned "-F arch=b32" stime rule form itself is sufficient for both 32 bit and 64 bit systems). If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file for both 32 bit and 64 bit systems:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S stime -F key=audit_time_rules
Since the 64 bit version of the "stime" system call is not defined in the audit lookup table, the corresponding "-F arch=b64" form of this rule is not expected to be defined on 64 bit systems (the aforementioned "-F arch=b32" stime rule form itself is sufficient for both 32 bit and 64 bit systems). The -k option allows for the specification of a key in string form that can be used for better reporting capability through ausearch and aureport. Multiple system calls can be defined on the same line to save space if desired, but is not required. See an example of multiple combined system calls:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S adjtimex,settimeofday -F key=audit_time_rules

Rationale:

Arbitrary changes to the system time can be used to obfuscate nefarious activities in log files, as well as to confuse network services that are highly dependent upon an accurate system time (such as sshd). All changes to the system time should be audited.

identifiers:  CCE-27299-7

references:  AC-17(7), AU-1(b), AU-2(a), AU-2(c), AU-2(d), AU-12(a), AU-12(c), IR-5, Req-10.4.2.b, 1487, 169, 5.4.1.1, 3.1.7

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable

function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
        echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
        echo "Aborting."
        exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
        echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
        echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
        exit 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
        files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
        # Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
        key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
        # Check if particular audit rule is already defined
        IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "/${pattern}/!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
        # Reset IFS back to default
        unset $IFS
        for match in "${matches[@]}"
        do
                files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
        done
        # Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
        if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
        then
                files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
                if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
                then
                        touch "$files_to_inspect"
                        chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
                fi
        fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

        # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
        # * follow the rule pattern, and
        # * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
        # * are current syscall group specific
        IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "/${pattern}/!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
        # Reset IFS back to default
        unset $IFS

        # Process rules found case-by-case
        for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
        do
                # Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
                if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
                then
                        # If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
                        rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
                        # Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
                        # of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
                        if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
                        then
                                # Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
                                # subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
                                # Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
                                sed -i -e "/$rule/d" "$audit_file"
                                existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
                        else
                                # Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
                                # for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
                                # group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
                                # since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
                                # Therefore:
                                # * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
                                # (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
                                # * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
                                # keep those not belonging to this syscall group
                                # (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
                                # * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
                                # if the same rule not already present
                                #
                                # 1) Delete the original rule
                                sed -i -e "/$rule/d" "$audit_file"
                                # 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
                                # Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
                                IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                                # Reset IFS back to default
                                unset $IFS
                                # Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
                                new_syscalls_for_rule=''
                                # Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
                                for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
                                do
                                        # Skip empty $syscall_arg values
                                        if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
                                        then
                                                continue
                                        fi
                                        # If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
                                        # (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
                                        if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
                                        then
                                                new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
                                        fi
                                done
                                # Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
                                updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
                                # Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
                                updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
                                # 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
                                #    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
                                if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
                                then
                                        echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
                                fi
                        fi
                else
                        # $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
                        # architecture & key => don't insert it second time
                        append_expected_rule=1
                fi
        done

        # We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
        # Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
        # Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
        if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
        then
                echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
        fi
done

}

function rhel7_fedora_perform_audit_adjtimex_settimeofday_stime_remediation {

# Perform the remediation for the 'adjtimex', 'settimeofday', and 'stime' audit
# system calls on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 or Fedora OSes
#
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ $(getconf LONG_BIT) = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do

        PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S .* -k *"
        # Create expected audit group and audit rule form for particular system call & architecture
        if [ ${ARCH} = "b32" ]
        then
                # stime system call is known at 32-bit arch (see e.g "$ ausyscall i386 stime" 's output)
                # so append it to the list of time group system calls to be audited
                GROUP="\(adjtimex\|settimeofday\|stime\)"
                FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S adjtimex -S settimeofday -S stime -k audit_time_rules"
        elif [ ${ARCH} = "b64" ]
        then
                # stime system call isn't known at 64-bit arch (see "$ ausyscall x86_64 stime" 's output)
                # therefore don't add it to the list of time group system calls to be audited
                GROUP="\(adjtimex\|settimeofday\)"
                FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S adjtimex -S settimeofday -k audit_time_rules"
        fi
        # Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
        fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
        fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done

}

rhel7_fedora_perform_audit_adjtimex_settimeofday_stime_remediation

Record Attempts to Alter Time Through clock_settime   [ref]rule

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S clock_settime -F a0=0x0 -F key=time-change
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S clock_settime -F a0=0x0 -F key=time-change
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S clock_settime -F a0=0x0 -F key=time-change
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S clock_settime -F a0=0x0 -F key=time-change
The -k option allows for the specification of a key in string form that can be used for better reporting capability through ausearch and aureport. Multiple system calls can be defined on the same line to save space if desired, but is not required. See an example of multiple combined syscalls:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S adjtimex,settimeofday -F key=audit_time_rules

Rationale:

Arbitrary changes to the system time can be used to obfuscate nefarious activities in log files, as well as to confuse network services that are highly dependent upon an accurate system time (such as sshd). All changes to the system time should be audited.

identifiers:  CCE-27219-5

references:  AC-17(7), AU-1(b), AU-2(a), AU-2(c), AU-2(d), AU-12(a), AU-12(c), IR-5, 5.2.4, Req-10.4.2.b, 1487, 169, 5.4.1.1, 3.1.7

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable


# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S clock_settime -F a0=.* \(-F key=\|-k \).*"
	GROUP="clock_settime"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S clock_settime -F a0=0x0 -k time-change"
	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'

function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
        echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
        echo "Aborting."
        exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
        echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
        echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
        exit 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
        files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
        # Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
        key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
        # Check if particular audit rule is already defined
        IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "/${pattern}/!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
        # Reset IFS back to default
        unset $IFS
        for match in "${matches[@]}"
        do
                files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
        done
        # Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
        if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
        then
                files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
                if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
                then
                        touch "$files_to_inspect"
                        chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
                fi
        fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

        # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
        # * follow the rule pattern, and
        # * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
        # * are current syscall group specific
        IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "/${pattern}/!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
        # Reset IFS back to default
        unset $IFS

        # Process rules found case-by-case
        for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
        do
                # Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
                if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
                then
                        # If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
                        rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
                        # Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
                        # of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
                        if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
                        then
                                # Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
                                # subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
                                # Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
                                sed -i -e "/$rule/d" "$audit_file"
                                existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
                        else
                                # Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
                                # for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
                                # group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
                                # since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
                                # Therefore:
                                # * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
                                # (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
                                # * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
                                # keep those not belonging to this syscall group
                                # (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
                                # * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
                                # if the same rule not already present
                                #
                                # 1) Delete the original rule
                                sed -i -e "/$rule/d" "$audit_file"
                                # 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
                                # Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
                                IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                                # Reset IFS back to default
                                unset $IFS
                                # Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
                                new_syscalls_for_rule=''
                                # Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
                                for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
                                do
                                        # Skip empty $syscall_arg values
                                        if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
                                        then
                                                continue
                                        fi
                                        # If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
                                        # (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
                                        if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
                                        then
                                                new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
                                        fi
                                done
                                # Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
                                updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
                                # Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
                                updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
                                # 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
                                #    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
                                if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
                                then
                                        echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
                                fi
                        fi
                else
                        # $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
                        # architecture & key => don't insert it second time
                        append_expected_rule=1
                fi
        done

        # We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
        # Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
        # Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
        if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
        then
                echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
        fi
done

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done

Record Attempts to Alter the localtime File   [ref]rule

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-w /etc/localtime -p wa -k audit_time_rules
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-w /etc/localtime -p wa -k audit_time_rules
The -k option allows for the specification of a key in string form that can be used for better reporting capability through ausearch and aureport and should always be used.

Rationale:

Arbitrary changes to the system time can be used to obfuscate nefarious activities in log files, as well as to confuse network services that are highly dependent upon an accurate system time (such as sshd). All changes to the system time should be audited.

identifiers:  CCE-27310-2

references:  AC-17(7), AU-1(b), AU-2(a), AU-2(c), AU-2(d), AU-12(a), AU-12(b), IR-5, 5.2.4, Req-10.4.2.b, 1487, 169, 5.4.1.1, 3.1.7

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable


# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'

function fix_audit_watch_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local path="$2"
local required_access_bits="$3"
local key="$4"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "4" ]
then
        echo "Usage: fix_audit_watch_rule 'tool' 'path' 'bits' 'key'"
        echo "Aborting."
        exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#       auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#       augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#       augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
declare -a files_to_inspect

# Check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
        echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
        echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
        exit 1
# If the audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# into the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
        files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules')
# If the audit is 'augenrules', then check if rule is already defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to list of files for inspection.
# If rule isn't defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to list of files for inspection.
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
        # Case when particular audit rule is already defined in some of /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules file
        # Get pair -- filepath : matching_row into @matches array
        IFS=$'\n' matches=($(grep -P "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
        # Reset IFS back to default
        unset $IFS
        # For each of the matched entries
        for match in "${matches[@]}"
        do
                # Extract filepath from the match
                rulesd_audit_file=$(echo $match | cut -f1 -d ':')
                # Append that path into list of files for inspection
                files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "$rulesd_audit_file")
        done
        # Case when particular audit rule isn't defined yet
        if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
        then
                # Append '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' into list of files for inspection
                files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
                # If the $key.rules file doesn't exist yet, create it with correct permissions
                if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
                then
                        touch "$files_to_inspect"
                        chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
                fi
        fi
fi

# Finally perform the inspection and possible subsequent audit rule
# correction for each of the files previously identified for inspection
for audit_rules_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

        # Check if audit watch file system object rule for given path already present
        if grep -q -P -- "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" "$audit_rules_file"
        then
                # Rule is found => verify yet if existing rule definition contains
                # all of the required access type bits

                # Escape slashes in path for use in sed pattern below
                local esc_path=${path//$'/'/$'\/'}
                # Define BRE whitespace class shortcut
                local sp="[[:space:]]"
                # Extract current permission access types (e.g. -p [r|w|x|a] values) from audit rule
                current_access_bits=$(sed -ne "s/$sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\).*/\1/p" "$audit_rules_file")
                # Split required access bits string into characters array
                # (to check bit's presence for one bit at a time)
                for access_bit in $(echo "$required_access_bits" | grep -o .)
                do
                        # For each from the required access bits (e.g. 'w', 'a') check
                        # if they are already present in current access bits for rule.
                        # If not, append that bit at the end
                        if ! grep -q "$access_bit" <<< "$current_access_bits"
                        then
                                # Concatenate the existing mask with the missing bit
                                current_access_bits="$current_access_bits$access_bit"
                        fi
                done
                # Propagate the updated rule's access bits (original + the required
                # ones) back into the /etc/audit/audit.rules file for that rule
                sed -i "s/\($sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\)\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\)\(.*\)/\1$current_access_bits\3/" "$audit_rules_file"
        else
                # Rule isn't present yet. Append it at the end of $audit_rules_file file
                # with proper key

                echo "-w $path -p $required_access_bits -k $key" >> "$audit_rules_file"
        fi
done
}

fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/localtime" "wa" "audit_time_rules"
fix_audit_watch_rule "augenrules" "/etc/localtime" "wa" "audit_time_rules"

Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls   [ref]group

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. Note that the "-F arch=b32" lines should be present even on a 64 bit system. These commands identify system calls for auditing. Even if the system is 64 bit it can still execute 32 bit system calls. Additionally, these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. An example of this is that the "-S" calls could be split up and placed on separate lines, however, this is less efficient. Add the following to /etc/audit/audit.rules:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chmod,fchmod,fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
    -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chown,fchown,fchownat,lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
    -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S setxattr,lsetxattr,fsetxattr,removexattr,lremovexattr,fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If your system is 64 bit then these lines should be duplicated and the arch=b32 replaced with arch=b64 as follows:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chmod,fchmod,fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
    -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chown,fchown,fchownat,lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
    -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S setxattr,lsetxattr,fsetxattr,removexattr,lremovexattr,fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod

contains 13 rules

Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - chmod   [ref]rule

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod

warning  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable


# Perform the remediation for the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ $(getconf LONG_BIT) = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S .* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -k *"
	GROUP="chmod"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S chmod -S fchmod -S fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -k perm_mod"
	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'

function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
        echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
        echo "Aborting."
        exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
        echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
        echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
        exit 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
        files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
        # Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
        key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
        # Check if particular audit rule is already defined
        IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "/${pattern}/!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
        # Reset IFS back to default
        unset $IFS
        for match in "${matches[@]}"
        do
                files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
        done
        # Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
        if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
        then
                files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
                if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
                then
                        touch "$files_to_inspect"
                        chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
                fi
        fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

        # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
        # * follow the rule pattern, and
        # * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
        # * are current syscall group specific
        IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "/${pattern}/!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
        # Reset IFS back to default
        unset $IFS

        # Process rules found case-by-case
        for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
        do
                # Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
                if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
                then
                        # If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
                        rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
                        # Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
                        # of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
                        if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
                        then
                                # Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
                                # subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
                                # Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
                                sed -i -e "/$rule/d" "$audit_file"
                                existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
                        else
                                # Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
                                # for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
                                # group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
                                # since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
                                # Therefore:
                                # * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
                                # (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
                                # * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
                                # keep those not belonging to this syscall group
                                # (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
                                # * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
                                # if the same rule not already present
                                #
                                # 1) Delete the original rule
                                sed -i -e "/$rule/d" "$audit_file"
                                # 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
                                # Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
                                IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                                # Reset IFS back to default
                                unset $IFS
                                # Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
                                new_syscalls_for_rule=''
                                # Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
                                for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
                                do
                                        # Skip empty $syscall_arg values
                                        if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
                                        then
                                                continue
                                        fi
                                        # If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
                                        # (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
                                        if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
                                        then
                                                new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
                                        fi
                                done
                                # Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
                                updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
                                # Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
                                updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
                                # 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
                                #    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
                                if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
                                then
                                        echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
                                fi
                        fi
                else
                        # $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
                        # architecture & key => don't insert it second time
                        append_expected_rule=1
                fi
        done

        # We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
        # Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
        # Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
        if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
        then
                echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
        fi
done

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done

Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - chown   [ref]rule

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod

warning  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable


# Perform the remediation for the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ $(getconf LONG_BIT) = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S .* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -k *"
	GROUP="chown"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S chown -S fchown -S fchownat -S lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -k perm_mod"
	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'

function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
        echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
        echo "Aborting."
        exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
        echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
        echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
        exit 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
        files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
        # Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
        key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
        # Check if particular audit rule is already defined
        IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "/${pattern}/!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
        # Reset IFS back to default
        unset $IFS
        for match in "${matches[@]}"
        do
                files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
        done
        # Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
        if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
        then
                files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
                if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
                then
                        touch "$files_to_inspect"
                        chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
                fi
        fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

        # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
        # * follow the rule pattern, and
        # * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
        # * are current syscall group specific
        IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "/${pattern}/!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
        # Reset IFS back to default
        unset $IFS

        # Process rules found case-by-case
        for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
        do
                # Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
                if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
                then
                        # If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
                        rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
                        # Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
                        # of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
                        if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
                        then
                                # Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
                                # subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
                                # Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
                                sed -i -e "/$rule/d" "$audit_file"
                                existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
                        else
                                # Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
                                # for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
                                # group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
                                # since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
                                # Therefore:
                                # * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
                                # (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
                                # * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
                                # keep those not belonging to this syscall group
                                # (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
                                # * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
                                # if the same rule not already present
                                #
                                # 1) Delete the original rule
                                sed -i -e "/$rule/d" "$audit_file"
                                # 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
                                # Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
                                IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                                # Reset IFS back to default
                                unset $IFS
                                # Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
                                new_syscalls_for_rule=''
                                # Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
                                for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
                                do
                                        # Skip empty $syscall_arg values
                                        if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
                                        then
                                                continue
                                        fi
                                        # If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
                                        # (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
                                        if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
                                        then
                                                new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
                                        fi
                                done
                                # Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
                                updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
                                # Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
                                updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
                                # 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
                                #    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
                                if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
                                then
                                        echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
                                fi
                        fi
                else
                        # $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
                        # architecture & key => don't insert it second time
                        append_expected_rule=1
                fi
        done

        # We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
        # Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
        # Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
        if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
        then
                echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
        fi
done

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done

Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - fchmod   [ref]rule

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod

warning  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable


# Perform the remediation for the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ $(getconf LONG_BIT) = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S .* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -k *"
	GROUP="chmod"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S chmod -S fchmod -S fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -k perm_mod"
	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'

function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
        echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
        echo "Aborting."
        exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
        echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
        echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
        exit 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
        files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
        # Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
        key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
        # Check if particular audit rule is already defined
        IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "/${pattern}/!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
        # Reset IFS back to default
        unset $IFS
        for match in "${matches[@]}"
        do
                files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
        done
        # Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
        if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
        then
                files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
                if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
                then
                        touch "$files_to_inspect"
                        chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
                fi
        fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

        # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
        # * follow the rule pattern, and
        # * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
        # * are current syscall group specific
        IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "/${pattern}/!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
        # Reset IFS back to default
        unset $IFS

        # Process rules found case-by-case
        for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
        do
                # Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
                if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
                then
                        # If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
                        rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
                        # Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
                        # of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
                        if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
                        then
                                # Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
                                # subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
                                # Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
                                sed -i -e "/$rule/d" "$audit_file"
                                existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
                        else
                                # Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
                                # for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
                                # group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
                                # since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
                                # Therefore:
                                # * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
                                # (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
                                # * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
                                # keep those not belonging to this syscall group
                                # (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
                                # * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
                                # if the same rule not already present
                                #
                                # 1) Delete the original rule
                                sed -i -e "/$rule/d" "$audit_file"
                                # 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
                                # Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
                                IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                                # Reset IFS back to default
                                unset $IFS
                                # Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
                                new_syscalls_for_rule=''
                                # Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
                                for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
                                do
                                        # Skip empty $syscall_arg values
                                        if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
                                        then
                                                continue
                                        fi
                                        # If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
                                        # (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
                                        if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
                                        then
                                                new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
                                        fi
                                done
                                # Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
                                updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
                                # Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
                                updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
                                # 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
                                #    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
                                if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
                                then
                                        echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
                                fi
                        fi
                else
                        # $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
                        # architecture & key => don't insert it second time
                        append_expected_rule=1
                fi
        done

        # We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
        # Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
        # Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
        if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
        then
                echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
        fi
done

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done

Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - fchmodat   [ref]rule

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod

warning  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable


# Perform the remediation for the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ $(getconf LONG_BIT) = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S .* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -k *"
	GROUP="chmod"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S chmod -S fchmod -S fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -k perm_mod"
	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'

function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
        echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
        echo "Aborting."
        exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
        echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
        echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
        exit 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
        files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
        # Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
        key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
        # Check if particular audit rule is already defined
        IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "/${pattern}/!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
        # Reset IFS back to default
        unset $IFS
        for match in "${matches[@]}"
        do
                files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
        done
        # Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
        if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
        then
                files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
                if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
                then
                        touch "$files_to_inspect"
                        chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
                fi
        fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

        # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
        # * follow the rule pattern, and
        # * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
        # * are current syscall group specific
        IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "/${pattern}/!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
        # Reset IFS back to default
        unset $IFS

        # Process rules found case-by-case
        for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
        do
                # Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
                if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
                then
                        # If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
                        rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
                        # Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
                        # of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
                        if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
                        then
                                # Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
                                # subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
                                # Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
                                sed -i -e "/$rule/d" "$audit_file"
                                existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
                        else
                                # Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
                                # for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
                                # group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
                                # since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
                                # Therefore:
                                # * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
                                # (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
                                # * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
                                # keep those not belonging to this syscall group
                                # (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
                                # * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
                                # if the same rule not already present
                                #
                                # 1) Delete the original rule
                                sed -i -e "/$rule/d" "$audit_file"
                                # 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
                                # Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
                                IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                                # Reset IFS back to default
                                unset $IFS
                                # Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
                                new_syscalls_for_rule=''
                                # Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
                                for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
                                do
                                        # Skip empty $syscall_arg values
                                        if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
                                        then
                                                continue
                                        fi
                                        # If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
                                        # (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
                                        if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
                                        then
                                                new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
                                        fi
                                done
                                # Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
                                updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
                                # Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
                                updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
                                # 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
                                #    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
                                if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
                                then
                                        echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
                                fi
                        fi
                else
                        # $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
                        # architecture & key => don't insert it second time
                        append_expected_rule=1
                fi
        done

        # We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
        # Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
        # Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
        if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
        then
                echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
        fi
done

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done

Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - fchown   [ref]rule

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod

warning  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable


# Perform the remediation for the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ $(getconf LONG_BIT) = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S .* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -k *"
	GROUP="chown"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S chown -S fchown -S fchownat -S lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -k perm_mod"
	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'

function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
        echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
        echo "Aborting."
        exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
        echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
        echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
        exit 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
        files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
        # Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
        key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
        # Check if particular audit rule is already defined
        IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "/${pattern}/!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
        # Reset IFS back to default
        unset $IFS
        for match in "${matches[@]}"
        do
                files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
        done
        # Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
        if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
        then
                files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
                if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
                then
                        touch "$files_to_inspect"
                        chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
                fi
        fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

        # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
        # * follow the rule pattern, and
        # * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
        # * are current syscall group specific
        IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "/${pattern}/!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
        # Reset IFS back to default
        unset $IFS

        # Process rules found case-by-case
        for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
        do
                # Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
                if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
                then
                        # If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
                        rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
                        # Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
                        # of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
                        if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
                        then
                                # Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
                                # subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
                                # Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
                                sed -i -e "/$rule/d" "$audit_file"
                                existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
                        else
                                # Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
                                # for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
                                # group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
                                # since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
                                # Therefore:
                                # * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
                                # (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
                                # * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
                                # keep those not belonging to this syscall group
                                # (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
                                # * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
                                # if the same rule not already present
                                #
                                # 1) Delete the original rule
                                sed -i -e "/$rule/d" "$audit_file"
                                # 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
                                # Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
                                IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                                # Reset IFS back to default
                                unset $IFS
                                # Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
                                new_syscalls_for_rule=''
                                # Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
                                for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
                                do
                                        # Skip empty $syscall_arg values
                                        if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
                                        then
                                                continue
                                        fi
                                        # If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
                                        # (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
                                        if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
                                        then
                                                new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
                                        fi
                                done
                                # Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
                                updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
                                # Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
                                updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
                                # 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
                                #    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
                                if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
                                then
                                        echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
                                fi
                        fi
                else
                        # $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
                        # architecture & key => don't insert it second time
                        append_expected_rule=1
                fi
        done

        # We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
        # Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
        # Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
        if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
        then
                echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
        fi
done

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done

Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - fchownat   [ref]rule

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchownat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchownat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchownat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchownat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod

warning  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable


# Perform the remediation for the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ $(getconf LONG_BIT) = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S .* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -k *"
	GROUP="chown"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S chown -S fchown -S fchownat -S lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -k perm_mod"
	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'

function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
        echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
        echo "Aborting."
        exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
        echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
        echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
        exit 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
        files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
        # Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
        key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
        # Check if particular audit rule is already defined
        IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "/${pattern}/!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
        # Reset IFS back to default
        unset $IFS
        for match in "${matches[@]}"
        do
                files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
        done
        # Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
        if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
        then
                files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
                if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
                then
                        touch "$files_to_inspect"
                        chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
                fi
        fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

        # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
        # * follow the rule pattern, and
        # * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
        # * are current syscall group specific
        IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "/${pattern}/!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
        # Reset IFS back to default
        unset $IFS

        # Process rules found case-by-case
        for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
        do
                # Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
                if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
                then
                        # If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
                        rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
                        # Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
                        # of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
                        if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
                        then
                                # Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
                                # subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
                                # Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
                                sed -i -e "/$rule/d" "$audit_file"
                                existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
                        else
                                # Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
                                # for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
                                # group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
                                # since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
                                # Therefore:
                                # * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
                                # (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
                                # * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
                                # keep those not belonging to this syscall group
                                # (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
                                # * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
                                # if the same rule not already present
                                #
                                # 1) Delete the original rule
                                sed -i -e "/$rule/d" "$audit_file"
                                # 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
                                # Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
                                IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                                # Reset IFS back to default
                                unset $IFS
                                # Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
                                new_syscalls_for_rule=''
                                # Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
                                for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
                                do
                                        # Skip empty $syscall_arg values
                                        if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
                                        then
                                                continue
                                        fi
                                        # If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
                                        # (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
                                        if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
                                        then
                                                new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
                                        fi
                                done
                                # Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
                                updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
                                # Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
                                updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
                                # 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
                                #    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
                                if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
                                then
                                        echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
                                fi
                        fi
                else
                        # $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
                        # architecture & key => don't insert it second time
                        append_expected_rule=1
                fi
        done

        # We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
        # Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
        # Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
        if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
        then
                echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
        fi
done

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done

Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - fremovexattr   [ref]rule

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root.

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod


If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod


If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod


If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod

warning  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable


# Perform the remediation for the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ $(getconf LONG_BIT) = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit .* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -k *"
	GROUP="xattr"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S setxattr -S lsetxattr -S fsetxattr -S removexattr -S lremovexattr -S fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -k perm_mod"
	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'

function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
        echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
        echo "Aborting."
        exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
        echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
        echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
        exit 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
        files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
        # Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
        key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
        # Check if particular audit rule is already defined
        IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "/${pattern}/!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
        # Reset IFS back to default
        unset $IFS
        for match in "${matches[@]}"
        do
                files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
        done
        # Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
        if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
        then
                files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
                if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
                then
                        touch "$files_to_inspect"
                        chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
                fi
        fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

        # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
        # * follow the rule pattern, and
        # * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
        # * are current syscall group specific
        IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "/${pattern}/!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
        # Reset IFS back to default
        unset $IFS

        # Process rules found case-by-case
        for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
        do
                # Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
                if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
                then
                        # If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
                        rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
                        # Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
                        # of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
                        if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
                        then
                                # Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
                                # subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
                                # Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
                                sed -i -e "/$rule/d" "$audit_file"
                                existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
                        else
                                # Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
                                # for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
                                # group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
                                # since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
                                # Therefore:
                                # * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
                                # (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
                                # * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
                                # keep those not belonging to this syscall group
                                # (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
                                # * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
                                # if the same rule not already present
                                #
                                # 1) Delete the original rule
                                sed -i -e "/$rule/d" "$audit_file"
                                # 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
                                # Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
                                IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                                # Reset IFS back to default
                                unset $IFS
                                # Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
                                new_syscalls_for_rule=''
                                # Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
                                for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
                                do
                                        # Skip empty $syscall_arg values
                                        if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
                                        then
                                                continue
                                        fi
                                        # If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
                                        # (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
                                        if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
                                        then
                                                new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
                                        fi
                                done
                                # Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
                                updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
                                # Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
                                updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
                                # 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
                                #    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
                                if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
                                then
                                        echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
                                fi
                        fi
                else
                        # $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
                        # architecture & key => don't insert it second time
                        append_expected_rule=1
                fi
        done

        # We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
        # Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
        # Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
        if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
        then
                echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
        fi
done

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done

Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - fsetxattr   [ref]rule

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod

warning  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable


# Perform the remediation for the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ $(getconf LONG_BIT) = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit .* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -k *"
	GROUP="xattr"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S setxattr -S lsetxattr -S fsetxattr -S removexattr -S lremovexattr -S fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -k perm_mod"
	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'

function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
        echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
        echo "Aborting."
        exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
        echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
        echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
        exit 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
        files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
        # Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
        key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
        # Check if particular audit rule is already defined
        IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "/${pattern}/!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
        # Reset IFS back to default
        unset $IFS
        for match in "${matches[@]}"
        do
                files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
        done
        # Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
        if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
        then
                files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
                if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
                then
                        touch "$files_to_inspect"
                        chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
                fi
        fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

        # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
        # * follow the rule pattern, and
        # * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
        # * are current syscall group specific
        IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "/${pattern}/!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
        # Reset IFS back to default
        unset $IFS

        # Process rules found case-by-case
        for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
        do
                # Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
                if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
                then
                        # If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
                        rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
                        # Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
                        # of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
                        if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
                        then
                                # Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
                                # subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
                                # Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
                                sed -i -e "/$rule/d" "$audit_file"
                                existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
                        else
                                # Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
                                # for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
                                # group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
                                # since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
                                # Therefore:
                                # * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
                                # (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
                                # * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
                                # keep those not belonging to this syscall group
                                # (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
                                # * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
                                # if the same rule not already present
                                #
                                # 1) Delete the original rule
                                sed -i -e "/$rule/d" "$audit_file"
                                # 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
                                # Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
                                IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                                # Reset IFS back to default
                                unset $IFS
                                # Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
                                new_syscalls_for_rule=''
                                # Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
                                for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
                                do
                                        # Skip empty $syscall_arg values
                                        if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
                                        then
                                                continue
                                        fi
                                        # If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
                                        # (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
                                        if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
                                        then
                                                new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
                                        fi
                                done
                                # Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
                                updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
                                # Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
                                updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
                                # 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
                                #    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
                                if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
                                then
                                        echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
                                fi
                        fi
                else
                        # $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
                        # architecture & key => don't insert it second time
                        append_expected_rule=1
                fi
        done

        # We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
        # Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
        # Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
        if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
        then
                echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
        fi
done

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done

Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - lchown   [ref]rule

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod

warning  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable


# Perform the remediation for the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ $(getconf LONG_BIT) = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S .* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -k *"
	GROUP="chown"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S chown -S fchown -S fchownat -S lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -k perm_mod"
	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'

function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
        echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
        echo "Aborting."
        exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
        echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
        echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
        exit 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
        files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
        # Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
        key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
        # Check if particular audit rule is already defined
        IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "/${pattern}/!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
        # Reset IFS back to default
        unset $IFS
        for match in "${matches[@]}"
        do
                files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
        done
        # Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
        if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
        then
                files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
                if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
                then
                        touch "$files_to_inspect"
                        chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
                fi
        fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

        # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
        # * follow the rule pattern, and
        # * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
        # * are current syscall group specific
        IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "/${pattern}/!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
        # Reset IFS back to default
        unset $IFS

        # Process rules found case-by-case
        for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
        do
                # Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
                if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
                then
                        # If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
                        rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
                        # Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
                        # of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
                        if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
                        then
                                # Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
                                # subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
                                # Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
                                sed -i -e "/$rule/d" "$audit_file"
                                existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
                        else
                                # Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
                                # for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
                                # group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
                                # since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
                                # Therefore:
                                # * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
                                # (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
                                # * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
                                # keep those not belonging to this syscall group
                                # (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
                                # * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
                                # if the same rule not already present
                                #
                                # 1) Delete the original rule
                                sed -i -e "/$rule/d" "$audit_file"
                                # 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
                                # Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
                                IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                                # Reset IFS back to default
                                unset $IFS
                                # Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
                                new_syscalls_for_rule=''
                                # Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
                                for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
                                do
                                        # Skip empty $syscall_arg values
                                        if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
                                        then
                                                continue
                                        fi
                                        # If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
                                        # (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
                                        if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
                                        then
                                                new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
                                        fi
                                done
                                # Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
                                updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
                                # Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
                                updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
                                # 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
                                #    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
                                if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
                                then
                                        echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
                                fi
                        fi
                else
                        # $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
                        # architecture & key => don't insert it second time
                        append_expected_rule=1
                fi
        done

        # We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
        # Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
        # Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
        if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
        then
                echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
        fi
done

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done

Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - lremovexattr   [ref]rule

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root.

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S lremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod


If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S lremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod


If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S lremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod


If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S lremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod

warning  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable


# Perform the remediation for the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ $(getconf LONG_BIT) = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit .* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -k *"
	GROUP="xattr"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S setxattr -S lsetxattr -S fsetxattr -S removexattr -S lremovexattr -S fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -k perm_mod"
	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'

function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
        echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
        echo "Aborting."
        exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
        echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
        echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
        exit 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
        files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
        # Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
        key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
        # Check if particular audit rule is already defined
        IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "/${pattern}/!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
        # Reset IFS back to default
        unset $IFS
        for match in "${matches[@]}"
        do
                files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
        done
        # Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
        if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
        then
                files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
                if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
                then
                        touch "$files_to_inspect"
                        chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
                fi
        fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

        # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
        # * follow the rule pattern, and
        # * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
        # * are current syscall group specific
        IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "/${pattern}/!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
        # Reset IFS back to default
        unset $IFS

        # Process rules found case-by-case
        for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
        do
                # Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
                if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
                then
                        # If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
                        rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
                        # Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
                        # of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
                        if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
                        then
                                # Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
                                # subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
                                # Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
                                sed -i -e "/$rule/d" "$audit_file"
                                existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
                        else
                                # Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
                                # for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
                                # group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
                                # since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
                                # Therefore:
                                # * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
                                # (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
                                # * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
                                # keep those not belonging to this syscall group
                                # (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
                                # * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
                                # if the same rule not already present
                                #
                                # 1) Delete the original rule
                                sed -i -e "/$rule/d" "$audit_file"
                                # 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
                                # Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
                                IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                                # Reset IFS back to default
                                unset $IFS
                                # Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
                                new_syscalls_for_rule=''
                                # Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
                                for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
                                do
                                        # Skip empty $syscall_arg values
                                        if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
                                        then
                                                continue
                                        fi
                                        # If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
                                        # (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
                                        if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
                                        then
                                                new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
                                        fi
                                done
                                # Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
                                updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
                                # Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
                                updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
                                # 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
                                #    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
                                if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
                                then
                                        echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
                                fi
                        fi
                else
                        # $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
                        # architecture & key => don't insert it second time
                        append_expected_rule=1
                fi
        done

        # We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
        # Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
        # Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
        if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
        then
                echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
        fi
done

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done

Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - lsetxattr   [ref]rule

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S lsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S lsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S lsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S lsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod

warning  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable


# Perform the remediation for the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ $(getconf LONG_BIT) = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit .* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -k *"
	GROUP="xattr"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S setxattr -S lsetxattr -S fsetxattr -S removexattr -S lremovexattr -S fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -k perm_mod"
	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'

function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
        echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
        echo "Aborting."
        exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
        echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
        echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
        exit 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
        files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
        # Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
        key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
        # Check if particular audit rule is already defined
        IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "/${pattern}/!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
        # Reset IFS back to default
        unset $IFS
        for match in "${matches[@]}"
        do
                files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
        done
        # Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
        if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
        then
                files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
                if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
                then
                        touch "$files_to_inspect"
                        chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
                fi
        fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

        # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
        # * follow the rule pattern, and
        # * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
        # * are current syscall group specific
        IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "/${pattern}/!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
        # Reset IFS back to default
        unset $IFS

        # Process rules found case-by-case
        for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
        do
                # Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
                if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
                then
                        # If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
                        rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
                        # Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
                        # of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
                        if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
                        then
                                # Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
                                # subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
                                # Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
                                sed -i -e "/$rule/d" "$audit_file"
                                existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
                        else
                                # Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
                                # for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
                                # group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
                                # since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
                                # Therefore:
                                # * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
                                # (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
                                # * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
                                # keep those not belonging to this syscall group
                                # (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
                                # * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
                                # if the same rule not already present
                                #
                                # 1) Delete the original rule
                                sed -i -e "/$rule/d" "$audit_file"
                                # 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
                                # Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
                                IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                                # Reset IFS back to default
                                unset $IFS
                                # Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
                                new_syscalls_for_rule=''
                                # Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
                                for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
                                do
                                        # Skip empty $syscall_arg values
                                        if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
                                        then
                                                continue
                                        fi
                                        # If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
                                        # (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
                                        if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
                                        then
                                                new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
                                        fi
                                done
                                # Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
                                updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
                                # Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
                                updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
                                # 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
                                #    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
                                if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
                                then
                                        echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
                                fi
                        fi
                else
                        # $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
                        # architecture & key => don't insert it second time
                        append_expected_rule=1
                fi
        done

        # We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
        # Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
        # Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
        if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
        then
                echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
        fi
done

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done

Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - removexattr   [ref]rule

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root.

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S removexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod


If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S removexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod


If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S removexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod


If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S removexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod

warning  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable


# Perform the remediation for the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ $(getconf LONG_BIT) = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit .* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -k *"
	GROUP="xattr"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S setxattr -S lsetxattr -S fsetxattr -S removexattr -S lremovexattr -S fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -k perm_mod"
	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'

function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
        echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
        echo "Aborting."
        exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
        echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
        echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
        exit 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
        files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
        # Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
        key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
        # Check if particular audit rule is already defined
        IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "/${pattern}/!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
        # Reset IFS back to default
        unset $IFS
        for match in "${matches[@]}"
        do
                files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
        done
        # Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
        if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
        then
                files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
                if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
                then
                        touch "$files_to_inspect"
                        chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
                fi
        fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

        # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
        # * follow the rule pattern, and
        # * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
        # * are current syscall group specific
        IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "/${pattern}/!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
        # Reset IFS back to default
        unset $IFS

        # Process rules found case-by-case
        for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
        do
                # Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
                if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
                then
                        # If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
                        rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
                        # Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
                        # of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
                        if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
                        then
                                # Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
                                # subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
                                # Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
                                sed -i -e "/$rule/d" "$audit_file"
                                existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
                        else
                                # Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
                                # for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
                                # group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
                                # since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
                                # Therefore:
                                # * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
                                # (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
                                # * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
                                # keep those not belonging to this syscall group
                                # (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
                                # * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
                                # if the same rule not already present
                                #
                                # 1) Delete the original rule
                                sed -i -e "/$rule/d" "$audit_file"
                                # 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
                                # Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
                                IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                                # Reset IFS back to default
                                unset $IFS
                                # Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
                                new_syscalls_for_rule=''
                                # Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
                                for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
                                do
                                        # Skip empty $syscall_arg values
                                        if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
                                        then
                                                continue
                                        fi
                                        # If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
                                        # (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
                                        if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
                                        then
                                                new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
                                        fi
                                done
                                # Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
                                updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
                                # Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
                                updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
                                # 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
                                #    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
                                if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
                                then
                                        echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
                                fi
                        fi
                else
                        # $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
                        # architecture & key => don't insert it second time
                        append_expected_rule=1
                fi
        done

        # We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
        # Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
        # Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
        if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
        then
                echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
        fi
done

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done

Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - setxattr   [ref]rule

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S setxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S setxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S setxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S setxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod

warning  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable


# Perform the remediation for the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ $(getconf LONG_BIT) = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit .* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -k *"
	GROUP="xattr"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S setxattr -S lsetxattr -S fsetxattr -S removexattr -S lremovexattr -S fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -k perm_mod"
	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'

function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
        echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
        echo "Aborting."
        exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
        echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
        echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
        exit 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
        files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
        # Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
        key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
        # Check if particular audit rule is already defined
        IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "/${pattern}/!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
        # Reset IFS back to default
        unset $IFS
        for match in "${matches[@]}"
        do
                files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
        done
        # Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
        if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
        then
                files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
                if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
                then
                        touch "$files_to_inspect"
                        chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
                fi
        fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

        # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
        # * follow the rule pattern, and
        # * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
        # * are current syscall group specific
        IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "/${pattern}/!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
        # Reset IFS back to default
        unset $IFS

        # Process rules found case-by-case
        for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
        do
                # Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
                if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
                then
                        # If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
                        rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
                        # Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
                        # of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
                        if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
                        then
                                # Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
                                # subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
                                # Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
                                sed -i -e "/$rule/d" "$audit_file"
                                existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
                        else
                                # Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
                                # for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
                                # group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
                                # since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
                                # Therefore:
                                # * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
                                # (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
                                # * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
                                # keep those not belonging to this syscall group
                                # (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
                                # * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
                                # if the same rule not already present
                                #
                                # 1) Delete the original rule
                                sed -i -e "/$rule/d" "$audit_file"
                                # 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
                                # Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
                                IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                                # Reset IFS back to default
                                unset $IFS
                                # Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
                                new_syscalls_for_rule=''
                                # Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
                                for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
                                do
                                        # Skip empty $syscall_arg values
                                        if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
                                        then
                                                continue
                                        fi
                                        # If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
                                        # (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
                                        if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
                                        then
                                                new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
                                        fi
                                done
                                # Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
                                updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
                                # Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
                                updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
                                # 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
                                #    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
                                if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
                                then
                                        echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
                                fi
                        fi
                else
                        # $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
                        # architecture & key => don't insert it second time
                        append_expected_rule=1
                fi
        done

        # We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
        # Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
        # Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
        if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
        then
                echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
        fi
done

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done
contains 1 rule

Record Unauthorized Access Attempts Events to Files (unsuccessful)   [ref]group

At a minimum, the audit system should collect unauthorized file accesses for all users and root. Note that the "-F arch=b32" lines should be present even on a 64 bit system. These commands identify system calls for auditing. Even if the system is 64 bit it can still execute 32 bit system calls. Additionally, these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. An example of this is that the "-S" calls could be split up and placed on separate lines, however, this is less efficient. Add the following to /etc/audit/audit.rules:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
    -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
If your system is 64 bit then these lines should be duplicated and the arch=b32 replaced with arch=b64 as follows:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
    -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access

contains 1 rule

Ensure auditd Collects Unauthorized Access Attempts to Files (unsuccessful)   [ref]rule

At a minimum the audit system should collect unauthorized file accesses for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/ru