Guide to the Secure Configuration of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7

with profile CIS Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Benchmark
This profile defines a baseline that aligns to the Center for Internet Security® Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Benchmark™, v2.2.0, released 12-27-2017. This profile includes Center for Internet Security® Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 CIS Benchmarks™ content.
This guide presents a catalog of security-relevant configuration settings for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7. It is a rendering of content structured in the eXtensible Configuration Checklist Description Format (XCCDF) in order to support security automation. The SCAP content is is available in the scap-security-guide package which is developed at https://www.open-scap.org/security-policies/scap-security-guide.

Providing system administrators with such guidance informs them how to securely configure systems under their control in a variety of network roles. Policy makers and baseline creators can use this catalog of settings, with its associated references to higher-level security control catalogs, in order to assist them in security baseline creation. This guide is a catalog, not a checklist, and satisfaction of every item is not likely to be possible or sensible in many operational scenarios. However, the XCCDF format enables granular selection and adjustment of settings, and their association with OVAL and OCIL content provides an automated checking capability. Transformations of this document, and its associated automated checking content, are capable of providing baselines that meet a diverse set of policy objectives. Some example XCCDF Profiles, which are selections of items that form checklists and can be used as baselines, are available with this guide. They can be processed, in an automated fashion, with tools that support the Security Content Automation Protocol (SCAP). The DISA STIG, which provides required settings for US Department of Defense systems, is one example of a baseline created from this guidance.
Do not attempt to implement any of the settings in this guide without first testing them in a non-operational environment. The creators of this guidance assume no responsibility whatsoever for its use by other parties, and makes no guarantees, expressed or implied, about its quality, reliability, or any other characteristic.

Profile Information

Profile TitleCIS Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Benchmark
Profile IDxccdf_org.ssgproject.content_profile_cis

CPE Platforms

  • cpe:/o:redhat:enterprise_linux:7
  • cpe:/o:redhat:enterprise_linux:7::client
  • cpe:/o:redhat:enterprise_linux:7::computenode

Revision History

Current version: 0.1.51

  • draft (as of 2020-07-20)

Table of Contents

  1. System Settings
    1. Account and Access Control
    2. System Accounting with auditd
    3. Installing and Maintaining Software
    4. GRUB2 bootloader configuration
    5. File Permissions and Masks
    6. Network Configuration and Firewalls
    7. Configure Syslog
    8. SELinux
  2. Services
    1. X Window System
    2. Samba(SMB) Microsoft Windows File Sharing Server
    3. Network Time Protocol
    4. Web Server
    5. IMAP and POP3 Server
    6. SSH Server
    7. Mail Server Software
    8. Proxy Server
    9. Cron and At Daemons
    10. Print Support
    11. DHCP
    12. NFS and RPC
    13. LDAP
    14. DNS Server
    15. Base Services
    16. Avahi Server
    17. SNMP Server
    18. Obsolete Services
    19. FTP Server

Checklist

Group   Guide to the Secure Configuration of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7   Group contains 106 groups and 277 rules
Group   System Settings   Group contains 61 groups and 198 rules

[ref]   Contains rules that check correct system settings.

Group   Account and Access Control   Group contains 15 groups and 28 rules

[ref]   In traditional Unix security, if an attacker gains shell access to a certain login account, they can perform any action or access any file to which that account has access. Therefore, making it more difficult for unauthorized people to gain shell access to accounts, particularly to privileged accounts, is a necessary part of securing a system. This section introduces mechanisms for restricting access to accounts under Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.

Group   Warning Banners for System Accesses   Group contains 1 group and 4 rules

[ref]   Each system should expose as little information about itself as possible.

System banners, which are typically displayed just before a login prompt, give out information about the service or the host's operating system. This might include the distribution name and the system kernel version, and the particular version of a network service. This information can assist intruders in gaining access to the system as it can reveal whether the system is running vulnerable software. Most network services can be configured to limit what information is displayed.

Many organizations implement security policies that require a system banner provide notice of the system's ownership, provide warning to unauthorized users, and remind authorized users of their consent to monitoring.

Group   Implement a GUI Warning Banner   Group contains 2 rules

Rule   Enable GNOME3 Login Warning Banner   [ref]

In the default graphical environment, displaying a login warning banner in the GNOME Display Manager's login screen can be enabled on the login screen by setting banner-message-enable to true.

To enable, add or edit banner-message-enable to /etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/00-security-settings. For example:

[org/gnome/login-screen]
banner-message-enable=true
Once the setting has been added, add a lock to /etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock to prevent user modification. For example:
/org/gnome/login-screen/banner-message-enable
After the settings have been set, run dconf update. The banner text must also be set.

Rationale:

Display of a standardized and approved use notification before granting access to the operating system ensures privacy and security notification verbiage used is consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance.

For U.S. Government systems, system use notifications are required only for access via login interfaces with human users and are not required when such human interfaces do not exist.

Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_dconf_gnome_banner_enabled
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-26970-4

References:  3.1.9, CCI-000048, CCI-000050, CCI-001384, CCI-001385, CCI-001386, CCI-001387, CCI-001388, AC-8(a), AC-8(b), AC-8(c), PR.AC-7, FMT_MOF_EXT.1, SRG-OS-000023-GPOS-00006, SRG-OS-000024-GPOS-00007, SRG-OS-000228-GPOS-00088, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, DSS05.04, DSS05.10, DSS06.10, A.18.1.4, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.4, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, 1, 12, 15, 16, RHEL-07-010030, SV-86483r4_rule





# Check for setting in any of the DConf db directories
# If files contain ibus or distro, ignore them.
# The assignment assumes that individual filenames don't contain :
readarray -t SETTINGSFILES < <(grep -r "\\[org/gnome/login-screen\\]" "/etc/dconf/db/" | grep -v 'distro\|ibus' | cut -d":" -f1)
DCONFFILE="/etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/00-security-settings"
DBDIR="/etc/dconf/db/gdm.d"

mkdir -p "${DBDIR}"

if [ "${#SETTINGSFILES[@]}" -eq 0 ]
then
    [ ! -z ${DCONFFILE} ] || echo "" >> ${DCONFFILE}
    printf '%s\n' "[org/gnome/login-screen]" >> ${DCONFFILE}
    printf '%s=%s\n' "banner-message-enable" "true" >> ${DCONFFILE}
else
    escaped_value="$(sed -e 's/\\/\\\\/g' <<< "true")"
    if grep -q "^\\s*banner-message-enable" "${SETTINGSFILES[@]}"
    then
        sed -i "s/\\s*banner-message-enable\\s*=\\s*.*/banner-message-enable=${escaped_value}/g" "${SETTINGSFILES[@]}"
    else
        sed -i "\\|\\[org/gnome/login-screen\\]|a\\banner-message-enable=${escaped_value}" "${SETTINGSFILES[@]}"
    fi
fi

dconf update
# Check for setting in any of the DConf db directories
LOCKFILES=$(grep -r "^/org/gnome/login-screen/banner-message-enable$" "/etc/dconf/db/" | grep -v 'distro\|ibus' | cut -d":" -f1)
LOCKSFOLDER="/etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/locks"

mkdir -p "${LOCKSFOLDER}"

if [[ -z "${LOCKFILES}" ]]
then
    echo "/org/gnome/login-screen/banner-message-enable" >> "/etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock"
fi

dconf update


Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
- name: Enable GNOME3 Login Warning Banner
  ini_file:
    dest: /etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/00-security-settings
    section: org/gnome/login-screen
    option: banner-message-enable
    value: 'true'
    create: true
    no_extra_spaces: true
  tags:
    - CCE-26970-4
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-010030
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.9
    - NIST-800-53-AC-8(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-8(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-8(c)
    - dconf_gnome_banner_enabled
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - unknown_strategy

- name: Prevent user modification of GNOME banner-message-enabled
  lineinfile:
    path: /etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock
    regexp: ^/org/gnome/login-screen/banner-message-enable
    line: /org/gnome/login-screen/banner-message-enable
    create: true
  tags:
    - CCE-26970-4
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-010030
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.9
    - NIST-800-53-AC-8(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-8(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-8(c)
    - dconf_gnome_banner_enabled
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - unknown_strategy

Rule   Modify the System Message of the Day Banner   [ref]

To configure the system message banner edit /etc/motd. Replace the default text with a message compliant with the local site policy or a legal disclaimer. The DoD required text is either:

You are accessing a U.S. Government (USG) Information System (IS) that is provided for USG-authorized use only. By using this IS (which includes any device attached to this IS), you consent to the following conditions:
-The USG routinely intercepts and monitors communications on this IS for purposes including, but not limited to, penetration testing, COMSEC monitoring, network operations and defense, personnel misconduct (PM), law enforcement (LE), and counterintelligence (CI) investigations.
-At any time, the USG may inspect and seize data stored on this IS.
-Communications using, or data stored on, this IS are not private, are subject to routine monitoring, interception, and search, and may be disclosed or used for any USG-authorized purpose.
-This IS includes security measures (e.g., authentication and access controls) to protect USG interests -- not for your personal benefit or privacy.
-Notwithstanding the above, using this IS does not constitute consent to PM, LE or CI investigative searching or monitoring of the content of privileged communications, or work product, related to personal representation or services by attorneys, psychotherapists, or clergy, and their assistants. Such communications and work product are private and confidential. See User Agreement for details.


OR:

I've read & consent to terms in IS user agreem't.

Rationale:

Display of a standardized and approved use notification before granting access to the operating system ensures privacy and security notification verbiage used is consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance.

System use notifications are required only for access via login interfaces with human users and are not required when such human interfaces do not exist.

Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_banner_etc_motd
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-83394-7




login_banner_text="(N/A)"

# Multiple regexes transform the banner regex into a usable banner
# 0 - Remove anchors around the banner text
login_banner_text=$(echo "$login_banner_text" | sed 's/^\^\(.*\)\$$/\1/g')
# 1 - Keep only the first banners if there are multiple
#    (dod_banners contains the long and short banner)
login_banner_text=$(echo "$login_banner_text" | sed 's/^(\(.*\)|.*)$/\1/g')
# 2 - Add spaces ' '. (Transforms regex for "space or newline" into a " ")
login_banner_text=$(echo "$login_banner_text" | sed 's/\[\\s\\n\]+/ /g')
# 3 - Adds newlines. (Transforms "(?:\[\\n\]+|(?:\\n)+)" into "\n")
login_banner_text=$(echo "$login_banner_text" | sed 's/(?:\[\\n\]+|(?:\\n)+)/\n/g')
# 4 - Remove any leftover backslash. (From any parethesis in the banner, for example).
login_banner_text=$(echo "$login_banner_text" | sed 's/\\//g')
formatted=$(echo "$login_banner_text" | fold -sw 80)

cat <<EOF >/etc/motd
$formatted
EOF


Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
- name: XCCDF Value login_banner_text # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    login_banner_text: !!str (N/A)
  tags:
    - always

- name: Modify the System Message of the Day Banner - remove incorrect banner
  file:
    state: absent
    path: /etc/motd
  tags:
    - CCE-83394-7
    - banner_etc_motd
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - unknown_strategy

- name: Modify the System Message of the Day Banner - add correct banner
  lineinfile:
    dest: /etc/motd
    line: '{{ login_banner_text | regex_replace("^\^(.*)\$$", "\1") | regex_replace("^\((.*)\|.*\)$",
      "\1") | regex_replace("\[\\s\\n\]\+"," ") | regex_replace("\(\?:\[\\n\]\+\|\(\?:\\\\n\)\+\)",
      "\n") | regex_replace("\\", "") | wordwrap() }}'
    create: true
  tags:
    - CCE-83394-7
    - banner_etc_motd
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - unknown_strategy

Rule   Modify the System Login Banner   [ref]

To configure the system login banner edit /etc/issue. Replace the default text with a message compliant with the local site policy or a legal disclaimer. The DoD required text is either:

You are accessing a U.S. Government (USG) Information System (IS) that is provided for USG-authorized use only. By using this IS (which includes any device attached to this IS), you consent to the following conditions:
-The USG routinely intercepts and monitors communications on this IS for purposes including, but not limited to, penetration testing, COMSEC monitoring, network operations and defense, personnel misconduct (PM), law enforcement (LE), and counterintelligence (CI) investigations.
-At any time, the USG may inspect and seize data stored on this IS.
-Communications using, or data stored on, this IS are not private, are subject to routine monitoring, interception, and search, and may be disclosed or used for any USG-authorized purpose.
-This IS includes security measures (e.g., authentication and access controls) to protect USG interests -- not for your personal benefit or privacy.
-Notwithstanding the above, using this IS does not constitute consent to PM, LE or CI investigative searching or monitoring of the content of privileged communications, or work product, related to personal representation or services by attorneys, psychotherapists, or clergy, and their assistants. Such communications and work product are private and confidential. See User Agreement for details.


OR:

I've read & consent to terms in IS user agreem't.

Rationale:

Display of a standardized and approved use notification before granting access to the operating system ensures privacy and security notification verbiage used is consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance.

System use notifications are required only for access via login interfaces with human users and are not required when such human interfaces do not exist.

Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_banner_etc_issue
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-27303-7

References:  3.1.9, CCI-000048, CCI-000050, AC-8(a), AC-8(c), PR.AC-7, FMT_MOF_EXT.1, SRG-OS-000023-GPOS-00006, SRG-OS-000024-GPOS-00007, SRG-OS-000023-VMM-000060, SRG-OS-000024-VMM-000070, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, DSS05.04, DSS05.10, DSS06.10, A.18.1.4, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.4, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, 1, 12, 15, 16, RHEL-07-010050, SV-86487r3_rule




login_banner_text="(N/A)"

# Multiple regexes transform the banner regex into a usable banner
# 0 - Remove anchors around the banner text
login_banner_text=$(echo "$login_banner_text" | sed 's/^\^\(.*\)\$$/\1/g')
# 1 - Keep only the first banners if there are multiple
#    (dod_banners contains the long and short banner)
login_banner_text=$(echo "$login_banner_text" | sed 's/^(\(.*\)|.*)$/\1/g')
# 2 - Add spaces ' '. (Transforms regex for "space or newline" into a " ")
login_banner_text=$(echo "$login_banner_text" | sed 's/\[\\s\\n\]+/ /g')
# 3 - Adds newlines. (Transforms "(?:\[\\n\]+|(?:\\n)+)" into "\n")
login_banner_text=$(echo "$login_banner_text" | sed 's/(?:\[\\n\]+|(?:\\n)+)/\n/g')
# 4 - Remove any leftover backslash. (From any parethesis in the banner, for example).
login_banner_text=$(echo "$login_banner_text" | sed 's/\\//g')
formatted=$(echo "$login_banner_text" | fold -sw 80)

cat <<EOF >/etc/issue
$formatted
EOF


Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
- name: XCCDF Value login_banner_text # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    login_banner_text: !!str (N/A)
  tags:
    - always

- name: Modify the System Login Banner - remove incorrect banner
  file:
    state: absent
    path: /etc/issue
  tags:
    - CCE-27303-7
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-010050
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.9
    - NIST-800-53-AC-8(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-8(c)
    - banner_etc_issue
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - unknown_strategy

- name: Modify the System Login Banner - add correct banner
  lineinfile:
    dest: /etc/issue
    line: '{{ login_banner_text | regex_replace("^\^(.*)\$$", "\1") | regex_replace("^\((.*)\|.*\)$",
      "\1") | regex_replace("\[\\s\\n\]\+"," ") | regex_replace("\(\?:\[\\n\]\+\|\(\?:\\\\n\)\+\)",
      "\n") | regex_replace("\\", "") | wordwrap() }}'
    create: true
  tags:
    - CCE-27303-7
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-010050
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.9
    - NIST-800-53-AC-8(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-8(c)
    - banner_etc_issue
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - unknown_strategy
Group   Protect Accounts by Configuring PAM   Group contains 4 groups and 10 rules

[ref]   PAM, or Pluggable Authentication Modules, is a system which implements modular authentication for Linux programs. PAM provides a flexible and configurable architecture for authentication, and it should be configured to minimize exposure to unnecessary risk. This section contains guidance on how to accomplish that.

PAM is implemented as a set of shared objects which are loaded and invoked whenever an application wishes to authenticate a user. Typically, the application must be running as root in order to take advantage of PAM, because PAM's modules often need to be able to access sensitive stores of account information, such as /etc/shadow. Traditional privileged network listeners (e.g. sshd) or SUID programs (e.g. sudo) already meet this requirement. An SUID root application, userhelper, is provided so that programs which are not SUID or privileged themselves can still take advantage of PAM.

PAM looks in the directory /etc/pam.d for application-specific configuration information. For instance, if the program login attempts to authenticate a user, then PAM's libraries follow the instructions in the file /etc/pam.d/login to determine what actions should be taken.

One very important file in /etc/pam.d is /etc/pam.d/system-auth. This file, which is included by many other PAM configuration files, defines 'default' system authentication measures. Modifying this file is a good way to make far-reaching authentication changes, for instance when implementing a centralized authentication service.

Warning:  Be careful when making changes to PAM's configuration files. The syntax for these files is complex, and modifications can have unexpected consequences. The default configurations shipped with applications should be sufficient for most users.
Warning:  Running authconfig or system-config-authentication will re-write the PAM configuration files, destroying any manually made changes and replacing them with a series of system defaults. One reference to the configuration file syntax can be found at http://www.linux-pam.org/Linux-PAM-html/sag-configuration-file.html.
Group   Set Password Quality Requirements   Group contains 1 group and 6 rules

[ref]   The default pam_pwquality PAM module provides strength checking for passwords. It performs a number of checks, such as making sure passwords are not similar to dictionary words, are of at least a certain length, are not the previous password reversed, and are not simply a change of case from the previous password. It can also require passwords to be in certain character classes. The pam_pwquality module is the preferred way of configuring password requirements.

The pam_cracklib PAM module can also provide strength checking for passwords as the pam_pwquality module. It performs a number of checks, such as making sure passwords are not similar to dictionary words, are of at least a certain length, are not the previous password reversed, and are not simply a change of case from the previous password. It can also require passwords to be in certain character classes.

The man pages pam_pwquality(8) and pam_cracklib(8) provide information on the capabilities and configuration of each.

Group   Set Password Quality Requirements with pam_pwquality   Group contains 6 rules

[ref]   The pam_pwquality PAM module can be configured to meet requirements for a variety of policies.

For example, to configure pam_pwquality to require at least one uppercase character, lowercase character, digit, and other (special) character, make sure that pam_pwquality exists in /etc/pam.d/system-auth:

password    requisite     pam_pwquality.so try_first_pass local_users_only retry=3 authtok_type=
If no such line exists, add one as the first line of the password section in /etc/pam.d/system-auth. Next, modify the settings in /etc/security/pwquality.conf to match the following:
difok = 4
minlen = 14
dcredit = -1
ucredit = -1
lcredit = -1
ocredit = -1
maxrepeat = 3
The arguments can be modified to ensure compliance with your organization's security policy. Discussion of each parameter follows.

Rule   Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Special Characters   [ref]

The pam_pwquality module's ocredit= parameter controls requirements for usage of special (or "other") characters in a password. When set to a negative number, any password will be required to contain that many special characters. When set to a positive number, pam_pwquality will grant +1 additional length credit for each special character. Modify the ocredit setting in /etc/security/pwquality.conf to equal -1 to require use of a special character in passwords.

Rationale:

Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks.

Password complexity is one factor of several that determines how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possble combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Requiring a minimum number of special characters makes password guessing attacks more difficult by ensuring a larger search space.

Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_password_pam_ocredit
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-27360-7

References:  CCI-001619, IA-5(c), IA-5(1)(a), CM-6(a), IA-5(4), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, FMT_MOF_EXT.1, SRG-OS-000266-GPOS-00101, SRG-OS-000266-VMM-000940, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, 1, 12, 15, 16, 5, RHEL-07-010150, SV-86533r2_rule



Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict

var_password_pam_ocredit="-1"
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}
replace_or_append '/etc/security/pwquality.conf' '^ocredit' $var_password_pam_ocredit 'CCE-27360-7' '%s = %s'


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value var_password_pam_ocredit # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_password_pam_ocredit: !!str -1
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure PAM variable ocredit is set accordingly
  lineinfile:
    create: true
    dest: /etc/security/pwquality.conf
    regexp: ^#?\s*ocredit
    line: ocredit = {{ var_password_pam_ocredit }}
  tags:
    - CCE-27360-7
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-010150
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
    - accounts_password_pam_ocredit
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

Rule   Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Length   [ref]

The pam_pwquality module's minlen parameter controls requirements for minimum characters required in a password. Add minlen=14 after pam_pwquality to set minimum password length requirements.

Rationale:

The shorter the password, the lower the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised.
Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password length is one factor of several that helps to determine strength and how long it takes to crack a password. Use of more characters in a password helps to exponentially increase the time and/or resources required to compromose the password.

Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_password_pam_minlen
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-27293-0

References:  6.3.2, 5.6.2.1.1, CCI-000205, IA-5(c), IA-5(1)(a), CM-6(a), IA-5(4), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, FMT_MOF_EXT.1, Req-8.2.3, SRG-OS-000078-GPOS-00046, SRG-OS-000072-VMM-000390, SRG-OS-000078-VMM-000450, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, 1, 12, 15, 16, 5, RHEL-07-010280, SV-86559r2_rule



Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict

var_password_pam_minlen="14"
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}
replace_or_append '/etc/security/pwquality.conf' '^minlen' $var_password_pam_minlen 'CCE-27293-0' '%s = %s'


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value var_password_pam_minlen # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_password_pam_minlen: !!str 14
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure PAM variable minlen is set accordingly
  lineinfile:
    create: true
    dest: /etc/security/pwquality.conf
    regexp: ^#?\s*minlen
    line: minlen = {{ var_password_pam_minlen }}
  tags:
    - CCE-27293-0
    - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-010280
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
    - accounts_password_pam_minlen
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

Rule   Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Digit Characters   [ref]

The pam_pwquality module's dcredit parameter controls requirements for usage of digits in a password. When set to a negative number, any password will be required to contain that many digits. When set to a positive number, pam_pwquality will grant +1 additional length credit for each digit. Modify the dcredit setting in /etc/security/pwquality.conf to require the use of a digit in passwords.

Rationale:

Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks.

Password complexity is one factor of several that determines how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Requiring digits makes password guessing attacks more difficult by ensuring a larger search space.

Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_password_pam_dcredit
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-27214-6

References:  6.3.2, CCI-000194, IA-5(c), IA-5(1)(a), CM-6(a), IA-5(4), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, FMT_MOF_EXT.1, Req-8.2.3, SRG-OS-000071-GPOS-00039, SRG-OS-000071-VMM-000380, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, 1, 12, 15, 16, 5, RHEL-07-010140, SV-86531r3_rule



Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict

var_password_pam_dcredit="-1"
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}
replace_or_append '/etc/security/pwquality.conf' '^dcredit' $var_password_pam_dcredit 'CCE-27214-6' '%s = %s'


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value var_password_pam_dcredit # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_password_pam_dcredit: !!str -1
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure PAM variable dcredit is set accordingly
  lineinfile:
    create: true
    dest: /etc/security/pwquality.conf
    regexp: ^#?\s*dcredit
    line: dcredit = {{ var_password_pam_dcredit }}
  tags:
    - CCE-27214-6
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-010140
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
    - accounts_password_pam_dcredit
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

Rule   Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Authentication Retry Prompts Permitted Per-Session   [ref]

To configure the number of retry prompts that are permitted per-session: Edit the pam_pwquality.so statement in /etc/pam.d/system-auth to show retry=3, or a lower value if site policy is more restrictive. The DoD requirement is a maximum of 3 prompts per session.

Rationale:

Setting the password retry prompts that are permitted on a per-session basis to a low value requires some software, such as SSH, to re-connect. This can slow down and draw additional attention to some types of password-guessing attacks. Note that this is different from account lockout, which is provided by the pam_faillock module.

Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_password_pam_retry
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-27160-1

References:  6.3.2, 5.5.3, CCI-000192, CCI-000366, CM-6(a), AC-7(a), IA-5(4), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, PR.IP-1, FMT_MOF_EXT.1, SRG-OS-000069-GPOS-00037, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00225, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00229, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 7.6, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, 1, 11, 12, 15, 16, 3, 5, 9, RHEL-07-010119, SV-87811r4_rule




var_password_pam_retry="3"

if grep -q "retry=" /etc/pam.d/system-auth ; then
	sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/\(retry *= *\).*/\1$var_password_pam_retry/" /etc/pam.d/system-auth
else
	sed -i --follow-symlinks "/pam_pwquality.so/ s/$/ retry=$var_password_pam_retry/" /etc/pam.d/system-auth
fi


Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Strategy:configure
- name: XCCDF Value var_password_pam_retry # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_password_pam_retry: !!str 3
  tags:
    - always

- name: Set Password Retry Prompts Permitted Per-Session - system-auth (change)
  replace:
    dest: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    follow: true
    regexp: (^.*\spam_pwquality.so\s.*retry\s*=\s*)(\S+)(.*$)
    replace: \g<1>{{ var_password_pam_retry }}\g<3>
  tags:
    - CCE-27160-1
    - CJIS-5.5.3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-010119
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
    - accounts_password_pam_retry
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed

- name: Set Password Retry Prompts Permitted Per-Session - system-auth (add)
  replace:
    dest: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    follow: true
    regexp: ^.*\spam_pwquality.so\s(?!.*retry\s*=\s*).*$
    replace: \g<0> retry={{ var_password_pam_retry }}
  tags:
    - CCE-27160-1
    - CJIS-5.5.3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-010119
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
    - accounts_password_pam_retry
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed

Rule   Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Uppercase Characters   [ref]

The pam_pwquality module's ucredit= parameter controls requirements for usage of uppercase letters in a password. When set to a negative number, any password will be required to contain that many uppercase characters. When set to a positive number, pam_pwquality will grant +1 additional length credit for each uppercase character. Modify the ucredit setting in /etc/security/pwquality.conf to require the use of an uppercase character in passwords.

Rationale:

Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources reuiqred to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks.

Password complexity is one factor of several that determines how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised.

Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_password_pam_ucredit
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-27200-5

References:  6.3.2, CCI-000192, IA-5(c), IA-5(1)(a), CM-6(a), IA-5(4), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, FMT_MOF_EXT.1, Req-8.2.3, SRG-OS-000069-GPOS-00037, SRG-OS-000069-VMM-000360, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, 1, 12, 15, 16, 5, RHEL-07-010120, SV-86527r3_rule



Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict

var_password_pam_ucredit="-1"
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}
replace_or_append '/etc/security/pwquality.conf' '^ucredit' $var_password_pam_ucredit 'CCE-27200-5' '%s = %s'


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value var_password_pam_ucredit # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_password_pam_ucredit: !!str -1
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure PAM variable ucredit is set accordingly
  lineinfile:
    create: true
    dest: /etc/security/pwquality.conf
    regexp: ^#?\s*ucredit
    line: ucredit = {{ var_password_pam_ucredit }}
  tags:
    - CCE-27200-5
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-010120
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
    - accounts_password_pam_ucredit
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

Rule   Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Lowercase Characters   [ref]

The pam_pwquality module's lcredit parameter controls requirements for usage of lowercase letters in a password. When set to a negative number, any password will be required to contain that many lowercase characters. When set to a positive number, pam_pwquality will grant +1 additional length credit for each lowercase character. Modify the lcredit setting in /etc/security/pwquality.conf to require the use of a lowercase character in passwords.

Rationale:

Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks.

Password complexity is one factor of several that determines how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possble combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Requiring a minimum number of lowercase characters makes password guessing attacks more difficult by ensuring a larger search space.

Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_password_pam_lcredit
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-27345-8

References:  CCI-000193, IA-5(c), IA-5(1)(a), CM-6(a), IA-5(4), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, FMT_MOF_EXT.1, Req-8.2.3, SRG-OS-000070-GPOS-00038, SRG-OS-000070-VMM-000370, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, 1, 12, 15, 16, 5, RHEL-07-010130, SV-86529r5_rule



Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict

var_password_pam_lcredit="-1"
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}
replace_or_append '/etc/security/pwquality.conf' '^lcredit' $var_password_pam_lcredit 'CCE-27345-8' '%s = %s'


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value var_password_pam_lcredit # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_password_pam_lcredit: !!str -1
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure PAM variable lcredit is set accordingly
  lineinfile:
    create: true
    dest: /etc/security/pwquality.conf
    regexp: ^#?\s*lcredit
    line: lcredit = {{ var_password_pam_lcredit }}
  tags:
    - CCE-27345-8
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-010130
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
    - accounts_password_pam_lcredit
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy
Group   Set Lockouts for Failed Password Attempts   Group contains 3 rules

[ref]   The pam_faillock PAM module provides the capability to lock out user accounts after a number of failed login attempts. Its documentation is available in /usr/share/doc/pam-VERSION/txts/README.pam_faillock.

Warning:  Locking out user accounts presents the risk of a denial-of-service attack. The lockout policy must weigh whether the risk of such a denial-of-service attack outweighs the benefits of thwarting password guessing attacks.

Rule   Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts   [ref]

To configure the system to lock out accounts after a number of incorrect login attempts and require an administrator to unlock the account using pam_faillock.so, modify the content of both /etc/pam.d/system-auth and /etc/pam.d/password-auth as follows:

  • add the following line immediately before the pam_unix.so statement in the AUTH section:
    auth required pam_faillock.so preauth silent deny=5 unlock_time=900 fail_interval=900
  • add the following line immediately after the pam_unix.so statement in the AUTH section:
    auth [default=die] pam_faillock.so authfail deny=5 unlock_time=900 fail_interval=900
  • add the following line immediately before the pam_unix.so statement in the ACCOUNT section:
    account required pam_faillock.so
If unlock_time is set to 0, manual intervention by an administrator is required to unlock a user.

Rationale:

Locking out user accounts after a number of incorrect attempts prevents direct password guessing attacks. Ensuring that an administrator is involved in unlocking locked accounts draws appropriate attention to such situations.

Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-26884-7

References:  5.3.2, 5.5.3, 3.1.8, CCI-000044, CCI-002238, CM-6(a), AC-7(b), PR.AC-7, FMT_MOF_EXT.1, Req-8.1.7, SRG-OS-000329-GPOS-00128, SRG-OS-000021-GPOS-00005, SRG-OS-000329-VMM-001180, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, DSS05.04, DSS05.10, DSS06.10, A.18.1.4, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.4, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, 1, 12, 15, 16, RHEL-07-010320, SV-86567r5_rule




var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time="900"

AUTH_FILES=("/etc/pam.d/system-auth" "/etc/pam.d/password-auth")

for pam_file in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
do
    # is auth required pam_faillock.so preauth present?
    if grep -qE '^\s*auth\s+required\s+pam_faillock\.so\s+preauth.*$' "$pam_file" ; then
        # is the option set?
        if grep -qE '^\s*auth\s+required\s+pam_faillock\.so\s+preauth.*'"unlock_time"'=([0-9]*).*$' "$pam_file" ; then
            # just change the value of option to a correct value
            sed -i --follow-symlinks 's/\(^auth.*required.*pam_faillock.so.*preauth.*silent.*\)\('"unlock_time"' *= *\).*/\1\2'"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time"'/' "$pam_file"
        # the option is not set.
        else
            # append the option
            sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*required.*pam_faillock.so.*preauth.*silent.*/ s/$/ '"unlock_time"'='"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time"'/' "$pam_file"
        fi
    # auth required pam_faillock.so preauth is not present, insert the whole line
    else
        sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so.*/i auth        required      pam_faillock.so preauth silent '"unlock_time"'='"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time" "$pam_file"
    fi
    # is auth default pam_faillock.so authfail present?
    if grep -qE '^\s*auth\s+(\[default=die\])\s+pam_faillock\.so\s+authfail.*$' "$pam_file" ; then
        # is the option set?
        if grep -qE '^\s*auth\s+(\[default=die\])\s+pam_faillock\.so\s+authfail.*'"unlock_time"'=([0-9]*).*$' "$pam_file" ; then
            # just change the value of option to a correct value
            sed -i --follow-symlinks 's/\(^auth.*[default=die].*pam_faillock.so.*authfail.*\)\('"unlock_time"' *= *\).*/\1\2'"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time"'/' "$pam_file"
        # the option is not set.
        else
            # append the option
            sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*[default=die].*pam_faillock.so.*authfail.*/ s/$/ '"unlock_time"'='"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time"'/' "$pam_file"
        fi
    # auth default pam_faillock.so authfail is not present, insert the whole line
    else
        sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so.*/a auth        [default=die] pam_faillock.so authfail '"unlock_time"'='"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time" "$pam_file"
    fi
    if ! grep -qE '^\s*account\s+required\s+pam_faillock\.so.*$' "$pam_file" ; then
        sed -E -i --follow-symlinks '/^\s*account\s*required\s*pam_unix.so/i account     required      pam_faillock.so' "$pam_file"
    fi
done


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time: !!str 900
  tags:
    - always

- name: Add auth pam_faillock preauth unlock_time before pam_unix.so
  pamd:
    name: '{{ item }}'
    type: auth
    control: sufficient
    module_path: pam_unix.so
    new_type: auth
    new_control: required
    new_module_path: pam_faillock.so
    module_arguments: preauth silent unlock_time={{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time
      }}
    state: before
  loop:
    - system-auth
    - password-auth
  tags:
    - CCE-26884-7
    - CJIS-5.5.3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-010320
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.7
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Add unlock_time argument to pam_faillock preauth
  pamd:
    name: '{{ item }}'
    type: auth
    control: required
    module_path: pam_faillock.so
    module_arguments: preauth silent unlock_time={{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time
      }}
    state: args_present
  loop:
    - system-auth
    - password-auth
  tags:
    - CCE-26884-7
    - CJIS-5.5.3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-010320
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.7
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Add auth pam_faillock authfail unlock_interval after pam_unix.so
  pamd:
    name: '{{ item }}'
    type: auth
    control: sufficient
    module_path: pam_unix.so
    new_type: auth
    new_control: '[default=die]'
    new_module_path: pam_faillock.so
    module_arguments: authfail unlock_time={{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time
      }}
    state: after
  loop:
    - system-auth
    - password-auth
  tags:
    - CCE-26884-7
    - CJIS-5.5.3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-010320
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.7
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Add unlock_time argument to auth pam_faillock authfail
  pamd:
    name: '{{ item }}'
    type: auth
    control: '[default=die]'
    module_path: pam_faillock.so
    module_arguments: authfail unlock_time={{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time
      }}
    state: args_present
  loop:
    - system-auth
    - password-auth
  tags:
    - CCE-26884-7
    - CJIS-5.5.3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-010320
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.7
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Add account pam_faillock before pam_unix.so
  pamd:
    name: '{{ item }}'
    type: account
    control: required
    module_path: pam_unix.so
    new_type: account
    new_control: required
    new_module_path: pam_faillock.so
    state: before
  loop:
    - system-auth
    - password-auth
  tags:
    - CCE-26884-7
    - CJIS-5.5.3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-010320
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.7
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

Rule   Set Deny For Failed Password Attempts   [ref]

To configure the system to lock out accounts after a number of incorrect login attempts using pam_faillock.so, modify the content of both /etc/pam.d/system-auth and /etc/pam.d/password-auth as follows:

  • add the following line immediately before the pam_unix.so statement in the AUTH section:
    auth required pam_faillock.so preauth silent deny=5 unlock_time=900 fail_interval=900
  • add the following line immediately after the pam_unix.so statement in the AUTH section:
    auth [default=die] pam_faillock.so authfail deny=5 unlock_time=900 fail_interval=900
  • add the following line immediately before the pam_unix.so statement in the ACCOUNT section:
    account required pam_faillock.so

Rationale:

Locking out user accounts after a number of incorrect attempts prevents direct password guessing attacks.

Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-27350-8

References:  5.3.2, 5.5.3, 3.1.8, CCI-000044, CCI-002238, CM-6(a), AC-7(a), PR.AC-7, FMT_MOF_EXT.1, Req-8.1.6, SRG-OS-000329-GPOS-00128, SRG-OS-000021-GPOS-00005, SRG-OS-000021-VMM-000050, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, DSS05.04, DSS05.10, DSS06.10, A.18.1.4, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.4, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, 1, 12, 15, 16, RHEL-07-010320, SV-86567r5_rule




var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny="5"

AUTH_FILES=("/etc/pam.d/system-auth" "/etc/pam.d/password-auth")

for pam_file in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
do
    # is auth required pam_faillock.so preauth present?
    if grep -qE '^\s*auth\s+required\s+pam_faillock\.so\s+preauth.*$' "$pam_file" ; then
        # is the option set?
        if grep -qE '^\s*auth\s+required\s+pam_faillock\.so\s+preauth.*'"deny"'=([0-9]*).*$' "$pam_file" ; then
            # just change the value of option to a correct value
            sed -i --follow-symlinks 's/\(^auth.*required.*pam_faillock.so.*preauth.*silent.*\)\('"deny"' *= *\).*/\1\2'"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny"'/' "$pam_file"
        # the option is not set.
        else
            # append the option
            sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*required.*pam_faillock.so.*preauth.*silent.*/ s/$/ '"deny"'='"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny"'/' "$pam_file"
        fi
    # auth required pam_faillock.so preauth is not present, insert the whole line
    else
        sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so.*/i auth        required      pam_faillock.so preauth silent '"deny"'='"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny" "$pam_file"
    fi
    # is auth default pam_faillock.so authfail present?
    if grep -qE '^\s*auth\s+(\[default=die\])\s+pam_faillock\.so\s+authfail.*$' "$pam_file" ; then
        # is the option set?
        if grep -qE '^\s*auth\s+(\[default=die\])\s+pam_faillock\.so\s+authfail.*'"deny"'=([0-9]*).*$' "$pam_file" ; then
            # just change the value of option to a correct value
            sed -i --follow-symlinks 's/\(^auth.*[default=die].*pam_faillock.so.*authfail.*\)\('"deny"' *= *\).*/\1\2'"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny"'/' "$pam_file"
        # the option is not set.
        else
            # append the option
            sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*[default=die].*pam_faillock.so.*authfail.*/ s/$/ '"deny"'='"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny"'/' "$pam_file"
        fi
    # auth default pam_faillock.so authfail is not present, insert the whole line
    else
        sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so.*/a auth        [default=die] pam_faillock.so authfail '"deny"'='"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny" "$pam_file"
    fi
    if ! grep -qE '^\s*account\s+required\s+pam_faillock\.so.*$' "$pam_file" ; then
        sed -E -i --follow-symlinks '/^\s*account\s*required\s*pam_unix.so/i account     required      pam_faillock.so' "$pam_file"
    fi
done


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny: !!str 5
  tags:
    - always

- name: Add auth pam_faillock preauth deny before pam_unix.so
  pamd:
    name: '{{ item }}'
    type: auth
    control: sufficient
    module_path: pam_unix.so
    new_type: auth
    new_control: required
    new_module_path: pam_faillock.so
    module_arguments: preauth silent deny={{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny
      }}
    state: before
  loop:
    - system-auth
    - password-auth
  tags:
    - CCE-27350-8
    - CJIS-5.5.3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-010320
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.6
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Add deny argument to auth pam_faillock preauth
  pamd:
    name: '{{ item }}'
    type: auth
    control: required
    module_path: pam_faillock.so
    module_arguments: preauth silent deny={{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny
      }}
    state: args_present
  loop:
    - system-auth
    - password-auth
  tags:
    - CCE-27350-8
    - CJIS-5.5.3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-010320
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.6
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Add auth pam_faillock authfail deny after pam_unix.so
  pamd:
    name: '{{ item }}'
    type: auth
    control: sufficient
    module_path: pam_unix.so
    new_type: auth
    new_control: '[default=die]'
    new_module_path: pam_faillock.so
    module_arguments: authfail deny={{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny }}
    state: after
  loop:
    - system-auth
    - password-auth
  tags:
    - CCE-27350-8
    - CJIS-5.5.3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-010320
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.6
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Add deny argument to auth pam_faillock authfail
  pamd:
    name: '{{ item }}'
    type: auth
    new_type: auth
    control: '[default=die]'
    module_path: pam_faillock.so
    module_arguments: authfail deny={{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny }}
    state: args_present
  loop:
    - system-auth
    - password-auth
  tags:
    - CCE-27350-8
    - CJIS-5.5.3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-010320
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.6
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Add account pam_faillock before pam_unix.so
  pamd:
    name: '{{ item }}'
    type: account
    control: required
    module_path: pam_unix.so
    new_type: account
    new_control: required
    new_module_path: pam_faillock.so
    state: before
  loop:
    - system-auth
    - password-auth
  tags:
    - CCE-27350-8
    - CJIS-5.5.3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-010320
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.6
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

Rule   Limit Password Reuse   [ref]

Do not allow users to reuse recent passwords. This can be accomplished by using the remember option for the pam_unix or pam_pwhistory PAM modules.

In the file /etc/pam.d/system-auth, append remember=5 to the line which refers to the pam_unix.so or pam_pwhistory.somodule, as shown below:

  • for the pam_unix.so case:
    password sufficient pam_unix.so ...existing_options... remember=5
  • for the pam_pwhistory.so case:
    password requisite pam_pwhistory.so ...existing_options... remember=5
The DoD STIG requirement is 5 passwords.

Rationale:

Preventing re-use of previous passwords helps ensure that a compromised password is not re-used by a user.

Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-82030-8

References:  5.3.3, 5.6.2.1.1, 3.5.8, CCI-000200, IA-5(f), IA-5(1)(e), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, Req-8.2.5, SRG-OS-000077-GPOS-00045, SRG-OS-000077-VMM-000440, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, 1, 12, 15, 16, 5, RHEL-07-010270, SV-86557r3_rule




var_password_pam_unix_remember="5"

AUTH_FILES[0]="/etc/pam.d/system-auth"
AUTH_FILES[1]="/etc/pam.d/password-auth"

for pamFile in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
do
	if grep -q "remember=" $pamFile; then
		sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/\(^password.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so.*\)\(\(remember *= *\)[^ $]*\)/\1remember=$var_password_pam_unix_remember/" $pamFile
	else
		sed -i --follow-symlinks "/^password[[:space:]]\+sufficient[[:space:]]\+pam_unix.so/ s/$/ remember=$var_password_pam_unix_remember/" $pamFile
	fi
done


Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Strategy:configure
- name: XCCDF Value var_password_pam_unix_remember # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_password_pam_unix_remember: !!str 5
  tags:
    - always

- name: Do not allow users to reuse recent passwords - system-auth (change)
  replace:
    dest: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    follow: true
    regexp: ^(password\s+sufficient\s+pam_unix\.so\s.*remember\s*=\s*)(\S+)(.*)$
    replace: \g<1>{{ var_password_pam_unix_remember }}\g<3>
  tags:
    - CCE-82030-8
    - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-010270
    - NIST-800-171-3.5.8
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(e)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.5
    - accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed

- name: Do not allow users to reuse recent passwords - system-auth (add)
  replace:
    dest: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    follow: true
    regexp: ^password\s+sufficient\s+pam_unix\.so\s(?!.*remember\s*=\s*).*$
    replace: \g<0> remember={{ var_password_pam_unix_remember }}
  tags:
    - CCE-82030-8
    - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-010270
    - NIST-800-171-3.5.8
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(e)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.5
    - accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
Group   Set Password Hashing Algorithm   Group contains 1 rule

[ref]   The system's default algorithm for storing password hashes in /etc/shadow is SHA-512. This can be configured in several locations.

Rule   Set PAM's Password Hashing Algorithm   [ref]

The PAM system service can be configured to only store encrypted representations of passwords. In /etc/pam.d/system-auth, the password section of the file controls which PAM modules execute during a password change. Set the pam_unix.so module in the password section to include the argument sha512, as shown below:

password    sufficient    pam_unix.so sha512 other arguments...

This will help ensure when local users change their passwords, hashes for the new passwords will be generated using the SHA-512 algorithm. This is the default.

Rationale:

Passwords need to be protected at all times, and encryption is the standard method for protecting passwords. If passwords are not encrypted, they can be plainly read (i.e., clear text) and easily compromised. Passwords that are encrypted with a weak algorithm are no more protected than if they are kepy in plain text.

This setting ensures user and group account administration utilities are configured to store only encrypted representations of passwords. Additionally, the crypt_style configuration option ensures the use of a strong hashing algorithm that makes password cracking attacks more difficult.

Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_set_password_hashing_algorithm_systemauth
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-82043-1

References:  5.6.2.2, 3.13.11, CCI-000196, IA-5(c), IA-5(1)(c), CM-6(a), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, Req-8.2.1, SRG-OS-000073-GPOS-00041, SRG-OS-000480-VMM-002000, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, 1, 12, 15, 16, 5, RHEL-07-010200, SV-86543r3_rule




AUTH_FILES[0]="/etc/pam.d/system-auth"
AUTH_FILES[1]="/etc/pam.d/password-auth"

for pamFile in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
do
	if ! grep -q "^password.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so.*sha512" $pamFile; then
		sed -i --follow-symlinks "/^password.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so/ s/$/ sha512/" $pamFile
	fi
done
Group   Secure Session Configuration Files for Login Accounts   Group contains 1 group and 3 rules

[ref]   When a user logs into a Unix account, the system configures the user's session by reading a number of files. Many of these files are located in the user's home directory, and may have weak permissions as a result of user error or misconfiguration. If an attacker can modify or even read certain types of account configuration information, they can often gain full access to the affected user's account. Therefore, it is important to test and correct configuration file permissions for interactive accounts, particularly those of privileged users such as root or system administrators.

Group   Ensure that Users Have Sensible Umask Values   Group contains 2 rules

[ref]   The umask setting controls the default permissions for the creation of new files. With a default umask setting of 077, files and directories created by users will not be readable by any other user on the system. Users who wish to make specific files group- or world-readable can accomplish this by using the chmod command. Additionally, users can make all their files readable to their group by default by setting a umask of 027 in their shell configuration files. If default per-user groups exist (that is, if every user has a default group whose name is the same as that user's username and whose only member is the user), then it may even be safe for users to select a umask of 007, making it very easy to intentionally share files with groups of which the user is a member.

Rule   Ensure the Default Umask is Set Correctly in /etc/profile   [ref]

To ensure the default umask controlled by /etc/profile is set properly, add or correct the umask setting in /etc/profile to read as follows:

umask 027

Rationale:

The umask value influences the permissions assigned to files when they are created. A misconfigured umask value could result in files with excessive permissions that can be read or written to by unauthorized users.

Severity: 
unknown
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_umask_etc_profile
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80204-1

References:  5.4.4, CCI-000366, AC-6(1), CM-6(a), PR.IP-2, 4.3.4.3.3, APO13.01, BAI03.01, BAI03.02, BAI03.03, A.14.1.1, A.14.2.1, A.14.2.5, A.6.1.5, 18, NT28(R35), SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00228




var_accounts_user_umask="027"

grep -q umask /etc/profile && \
  sed -i "s/umask.*/umask $var_accounts_user_umask/g" /etc/profile
if ! [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
    echo "umask $var_accounts_user_umask" >> /etc/profile
fi


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value var_accounts_user_umask # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_accounts_user_umask: !!str 027
  tags:
    - always

- name: Set user umask in /etc/profile
  replace:
    path: /etc/profile
    regexp: umask.*
    replace: umask {{ var_accounts_user_umask }}
  tags:
    - CCE-80204-1
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - accounts_umask_etc_profile
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy
    - unknown_severity

Rule   Ensure the Default Bash Umask is Set Correctly   [ref]

To ensure the default umask for users of the Bash shell is set properly, add or correct the umask setting in /etc/bashrc to read as follows:

umask 027

Rationale:

The umask value influences the permissions assigned to files when they are created. A misconfigured umask value could result in files with excessive permissions that can be read or written to by unauthorized users.

Severity: 
unknown
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_umask_etc_bashrc
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80202-5

References:  5.4.4, CCI-000366, AC-6(1), CM-6(a), PR.IP-2, 4.3.4.3.3, APO13.01, BAI03.01, BAI03.02, BAI03.03, A.14.1.1, A.14.2.1, A.14.2.5, A.6.1.5, 18, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00228




var_accounts_user_umask="027"

grep -q umask /etc/bashrc && \
  sed -i "s/umask.*/umask $var_accounts_user_umask/g" /etc/bashrc
if ! [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
    echo "umask $var_accounts_user_umask" >> /etc/bashrc
fi


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value var_accounts_user_umask # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_accounts_user_umask: !!str 027
  tags:
    - always

- name: Set user umask in /etc/bashrc
  replace:
    path: /etc/bashrc
    regexp: umask.*
    replace: umask {{ var_accounts_user_umask }}
  tags:
    - CCE-80202-5
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - accounts_umask_etc_bashrc
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy
    - unknown_severity

Rule   Set Interactive Session Timeout   [ref]

Setting the TMOUT option in /etc/profile ensures that all user sessions will terminate based on inactivity. The TMOUT setting in /etc/profile should read as follows:

TMOUT=600

Rationale:

Terminating an idle session within a short time period reduces the window of opportunity for unauthorized personnel to take control of a management session enabled on the console or console port that has been left unattended.

Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_tmout
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-27557-8

References:  3.1.11, CCI-000361, CCI-001133, AC-12, SC-10, AC-2(5), CM-6(a), PR.AC-7, FMT_MOF_EXT.1, SRG-OS-000163-GPOS-00072, SRG-OS-000163-VMM-000700, SRG-OS-000279-VMM-001010, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, DSS05.04, DSS05.10, DSS06.10, A.18.1.4, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.4, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, 1, 12, 15, 16, NT28(R29), RHEL-07-040160, SV-86847r4_rule




var_accounts_tmout="600"

if grep --silent ^TMOUT /etc/profile ; then
        sed -i "s/^TMOUT.*/TMOUT=$var_accounts_tmout/g" /etc/profile
else
        echo -e "\n# Set TMOUT to $var_accounts_tmout per security requirements" >> /etc/profile
        echo "TMOUT=$var_accounts_tmout" >> /etc/profile
fi


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value var_accounts_tmout # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_accounts_tmout: !!str 600
  tags:
    - always

- name: Set Interactive Session Timeout
  block:

    - name: Deduplicate values from /etc/profile
      lineinfile:
        path: /etc/profile
        create: false
        regexp: ^\s*TMOUT=
        state: absent

    - name: Check if /etc/profile.d exists
      stat:
        path: /etc/profile.d
      register: _etc_profile_d_exists

    - name: Check if the parameter TMOUT is present in /etc/profile.d
      find:
        paths: /etc/profile.d
        recurse: 'yes'
        follow: 'no'
        contains: ^\s*TMOUT=
      register: _etc_profile_d_has_parameter
      when: _etc_profile_d_exists.stat.isdir is defined and _etc_profile_d_exists.stat.isdir

    - name: Remove parameter from files in /etc/profile.d
      lineinfile:
        path: '{{ item.path }}'
        create: false
        regexp: ^\s*TMOUT=
        state: absent
      with_items: '{{ _etc_profile_d_has_parameter.files }}'
      when: _etc_profile_d_has_parameter.matched

    - name: Insert correct line to /etc/profile
      lineinfile:
        path: /etc/profile
        create: true
        line: TMOUT={{ var_accounts_tmout }}
        state: present
        validate: bash -n %s
  tags:
    - CCE-27557-8
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-040160
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.11
    - NIST-800-53-AC-12
    - NIST-800-53-AC-2(5)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-SC-10
    - accounts_tmout
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy
Group   Protect Accounts by Restricting Password-Based Login   Group contains 4 groups and 10 rules

[ref]   Conventionally, Unix shell accounts are accessed by providing a username and password to a login program, which tests these values for correctness using the /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow files. Password-based login is vulnerable to guessing of weak passwords, and to sniffing and man-in-the-middle attacks against passwords entered over a network or at an insecure console. Therefore, mechanisms for accessing accounts by entering usernames and passwords should be restricted to those which are operationally necessary.

Group   Verify Proper Storage and Existence of Password Hashes   Group contains 3 rules

[ref]   By default, password hashes for local accounts are stored in the second field (colon-separated) in /etc/shadow. This file should be readable only by processes running with root credentials, preventing users from casually accessing others' password hashes and attempting to crack them. However, it remains possible to misconfigure the system and store password hashes in world-readable files such as /etc/passwd, or to even store passwords themselves in plaintext on the system. Using system-provided tools for password change/creation should allow administrators to avoid such misconfiguration.

Rule   Ensure there are no legacy + NIS entries in /etc/passwd   [ref]

The + character in /etc/passwd file marks a place where entries from a network information service (NIS) should be directly inserted.

Rationale:

Using this method to include entries into /etc/passwd is considered legacy and should be avoided. These entries may provide a way for an attacker to gain access to the system.

Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_no_legacy_plus_entries_etc_passwd
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-82889-7

References:  6.2.2




if grep -q '^\+' /etc/passwd; then
# backup old file to /etc/passwd-
	cp /etc/passwd /etc/passwd-
	sed -i '/^\+.*$/d' /etc/passwd
fi


Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Strategy:restrict
- name: Backup the old /etc/passwd file
  copy:
    src: /etc/passwd
    dest: /etc/passwd-
    remote_src: true
  tags:
    - CCE-82889-7
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_legacy_plus_entries_etc_passwd
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Remove lines starting with + from /etc/passwd
  lineinfile:
    regexp: ^\+.*$
    state: absent
    path: /etc/passwd
  tags:
    - CCE-82889-7
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_legacy_plus_entries_etc_passwd
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

Rule   Ensure there are no legacy + NIS entries in /etc/group   [ref]

The + character in /etc/group file marks a place where entries from a network information service (NIS) should be directly inserted.

Rationale:

Using this method to include entries into /etc/group is considered legacy and should be avoided. These entries may provide a way for an attacker to gain access to the system.

Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_no_legacy_plus_entries_etc_group
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-83388-9

References:  6.2.4




if grep -q '^\+' /etc/group; then
# backup old file to /etc/group-
	cp /etc/group /etc/group-
	sed -i '/^\+.*$/d' /etc/group
fi


Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Strategy:restrict
- name: Backup the old /etc/group file
  copy:
    src: /etc/group
    dest: /etc/group-
    remote_src: true
  tags:
    - CCE-83388-9
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_legacy_plus_entries_etc_group
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Remove lines starting with + from /etc/group
  lineinfile:
    regexp: ^\+.*$
    state: absent
    path: /etc/group
  tags:
    - CCE-83388-9
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_legacy_plus_entries_etc_group
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

Rule   Ensure there are no legacy + NIS entries in /etc/shadow   [ref]

The + character in /etc/shadow file marks a place where entries from a network information service (NIS) should be directly inserted.

Rationale:

Using this method to include entries into /etc/shadow is considered legacy and should be avoided. These entries may provide a way for an attacker to gain access to the system.

Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_no_legacy_plus_entries_etc_shadow
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-83390-5

References:  6.2.3




if grep -q '^\+' /etc/shadow; then
# backup old file to /etc/shadow-
	cp /etc/shadow /etc/shadow-
	sed -i '/^\+.*$/d' /etc/shadow
fi


Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Strategy:restrict
- name: Backup the old /etc/shadow file
  copy:
    src: /etc/shadow
    dest: /etc/shadow-
    remote_src: true
  tags:
    - CCE-83390-5
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_legacy_plus_entries_etc_shadow
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Remove lines starting with + from /etc/shadow
  lineinfile:
    regexp: ^\+.*$
    state: absent
    path: /etc/shadow
  tags:
    - CCE-83390-5
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_legacy_plus_entries_etc_shadow
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy
Group   Restrict Root Logins   Group contains 3 rules

[ref]   Direct root logins should be allowed only for emergency use. In normal situations, the administrator should access the system via a unique unprivileged account, and then use su or sudo to execute privileged commands. Discouraging administrators from accessing the root account directly ensures an audit trail in organizations with multiple administrators. Locking down the channels through which root can connect directly also reduces opportunities for password-guessing against the root account. The login program uses the file /etc/securetty to determine which interfaces should allow root logins. The virtual devices /dev/console and /dev/tty* represent the system consoles (accessible via the Ctrl-Alt-F1 through Ctrl-Alt-F6 keyboard sequences on a default installation). The default securetty file also contains /dev/vc/*. These are likely to be deprecated in most environments, but may be retained for compatibility. Root should also be prohibited from connecting via network protocols. Other sections of this document include guidance describing how to prevent root from logging in via SSH.

Rule   Ensure that System Accounts Do Not Run a Shell Upon Login   [ref]

Some accounts are not associated with a human user of the system, and exist to perform some administrative function. Should an attacker be able to log into these accounts, they should not be granted access to a shell.

The login shell for each local account is stored in the last field of each line in /etc/passwd. System accounts are those user accounts with a user ID less than UID_MIN, where value of UID_MIN directive is set in /etc/login.defs configuration file. In the default configuration UID_MIN is set to 1000, thus system accounts are those user accounts with a user ID less than 1000. The user ID is stored in the third field. If any system account SYSACCT (other than root) has a login shell, disable it with the command:

$ sudo usermod -s /sbin/nologin SYSACCT

Warning:  Do not perform the steps in this section on the root account. Doing so might cause the system to become inaccessible.
Rationale:

Ensuring shells are not given to system accounts upon login makes it more difficult for attackers to make use of system accounts.

Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_no_shelllogin_for_systemaccounts
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-82015-9

References:  5.4.2, AC-6, CM-6(a), DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, PR.AC-1, PR.AC-4, PR.AC-6, SR 1.1, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 6.2, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, DSS01.03, DSS03.05, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS06.03, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.3, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, 1, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, 7, 8

Rule   Verify Only Root Has UID 0   [ref]

If any account other than root has a UID of 0, this misconfiguration should be investigated and the accounts other than root should be removed or have their UID changed.
If the account is associated with system commands or applications the UID should be changed to one greater than "0" but less than "1000." Otherwise assign a UID greater than "1000" that has not already been assigned.

Rationale:

An account has root authority if it has a UID of 0. Multiple accounts with a UID of 0 afford more opportunity for potential intruders to guess a password for a privileged account. Proper configuration of sudo is recommended to afford multiple system administrators access to root privileges in an accountable manner.

Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_no_uid_except_zero
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-82054-8

References:  3.1.1, 3.1.5, CCI-000366, IA-2, AC-6(5), IA-4(b), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-4, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, PR.DS-5, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 5.2, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, APO01.06, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.02, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.18.1.4, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, 1, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, RHEL-07-020310, SV-86629r2_rule



awk -F: '$3 == 0 && $1 != "root" { print $1 }' /etc/passwd | xargs passwd -l

Rule   Direct root Logins Not Allowed   [ref]

To further limit access to the root account, administrators can disable root logins at the console by editing the /etc/securetty file. This file lists all devices the root user is allowed to login to. If the file does not exist at all, the root user can login through any communication device on the system, whether via the console or via a raw network interface. This is dangerous as user can login to the system as root via Telnet, which sends the password in plain text over the network. By default, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7's /etc/securetty file only allows the root user to login at the console physically attached to the system. To prevent root from logging in, remove the contents of this file. To prevent direct root logins, remove the contents of this file by typing the following command:

$ sudo echo > /etc/securetty

Rationale:

Disabling direct root logins ensures proper accountability and multifactor authentication to privileged accounts. Users will first login, then escalate to privileged (root) access via su / sudo. This is required for FISMA Low and FISMA Moderate systems.

Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_no_direct_root_logins
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-27294-8

References:  3.1.1, 3.1.6, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B), 164.308(a)(7)(i), 164.308(a)(7)(ii)(A), 164.310(a)(1), 164.310(a)(2)(i), 164.310(a)(2)(ii), 164.310(a)(2)(iii), 164.310(b), 164.310(c), 164.310(d)(1), 164.310(d)(2)(iii), IA-2, CM-6(a), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, 1, 12, 15, 16, 5, NT28(R19)



echo > /etc/securetty


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: Direct root Logins Not Allowed
  copy:
    dest: /etc/securetty
    content: ''
  tags:
    - CCE-27294-8
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.6
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-2
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_direct_root_logins
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy


apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
kind: MachineConfig
spec:
  config:
    ignition:
      version: 2.2.0
    storage:
      files:
      - contents:
          source: data:,
        filesystem: root
        mode: 0600
        path: /etc/securetty
Group   Set Account Expiration Parameters   Group contains 1 rule
Group   Set Password Expiration Parameters   Group contains 3 rules

[ref]   The file /etc/login.defs controls several password-related settings. Programs such as passwd, su, and login consult /etc/login.defs to determine behavior with regard to password aging, expiration warnings, and length. See the man page login.defs(5) for more information.

Users should be forced to change their passwords, in order to decrease the utility of compromised passwords. However, the need to change passwords often should be balanced against the risk that users will reuse or write down passwords if forced to change them too often. Forcing password changes every 90-360 days, depending on the environment, is recommended. Set the appropriate value as PASS_MAX_DAYS and apply it to existing accounts with the -M flag.

The PASS_MIN_DAYS (-m) setting prevents password changes for 7 days after the first change, to discourage password cycling. If you use this setting, train users to contact an administrator for an emergency password change in case a new password becomes compromised. The PASS_WARN_AGE (-W) setting gives users 7 days of warnings at login time that their passwords are about to expire.

For example, for each existing human user USER, expiration parameters could be adjusted to a 180 day maximum password age, 7 day minimum password age, and 7 day warning period with the following command:

$ sudo chage -M 180 -m 7 -W 7 USER

Group   Protect Physical Console Access   Group contains 1 rule

[ref]   It is impossible to fully protect a system from an attacker with physical access, so securing the space in which the system is located should be considered a necessary step. However, there are some steps which, if taken, make it more difficult for an attacker to quickly or undetectably modify a system from its console.

Rule   Require Authentication for Single User Mode   [ref]

Single-user mode is intended as a system recovery method, providing a single user root access to the system by providing a boot option at startup. By default, no authentication is performed if single-user mode is selected.

By default, single-user mode is protected by requiring a password and is set in /usr/lib/systemd/system/rescue.service.

Rationale:

This prevents attackers with physical access from trivially bypassing security on the machine and gaining root access. Such accesses are further prevented by configuring the bootloader password.

Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_require_singleuser_auth
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-27287-2

References:  1.4.3, 3.1.1, 3.4.5, CCI-000213, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B), 164.308(a)(7)(i), 164.308(a)(7)(ii)(A), 164.310(a)(1), 164.310(a)(2)(i), 164.310(a)(2)(ii), 164.310(a)(2)(iii), 164.310(b), 164.310(c), 164.310(d)(1), 164.310(d)(2)(iii), IA-2, AC-3, CM-6(a), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-4, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, PR.PT-3, FIA_AFL.1, SRG-OS-000080-GPOS-00048, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, DSS05.02, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.06, DSS06.10, A.18.1.4, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, 1, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, RHEL-07-010481, SV-92519r2_rule




service_file="/usr/lib/systemd/system/rescue.service"

sulogin='/bin/sh -c "/sbin/sulogin; /usr/bin/systemctl --fail --no-block default"'

if grep "^ExecStart=.*" "$service_file" ; then
    sed -i "s%^ExecStart=.*%ExecStart=-$sulogin%" "$service_file"
else
    echo "ExecStart=-$sulogin" >> "$service_file"
fi


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: require single user mode password
  lineinfile:
    create: true
    dest: /usr/lib/systemd/system/rescue.service
    regexp: ^#?ExecStart=
    line: ExecStart=-/bin/sh -c "/sbin/sulogin; /usr/bin/systemctl --fail --no-block
      default"
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-27287-2
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-010481
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.5
    - NIST-800-53-AC-3
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-2
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - require_singleuser_auth
    - restrict_strategy
Group   System Accounting with auditd   Group contains 9 groups and 51 rules

[ref]   The audit service provides substantial capabilities for recording system activities. By default, the service audits about SELinux AVC denials and certain types of security-relevant events such as system logins, account modifications, and authentication events performed by programs such as sudo. Under its default configuration, auditd has modest disk space requirements, and should not noticeably impact system performance.

NOTE: The Linux Audit daemon auditd can be configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules files (*.rules) located in /etc/audit/rules.d location and compile them to create the resulting form of the /etc/audit/audit.rules configuration file during the daemon startup (default configuration). Alternatively, the auditd daemon can use the auditctl utility to read audit rules from the /etc/audit/audit.rules configuration file during daemon startup, and load them into the kernel. The expected behavior is configured via the appropriate ExecStartPost directive setting in the /usr/lib/systemd/system/auditd.service configuration file. To instruct the auditd daemon to use the augenrules program to read audit rules (default configuration), use the following setting:

ExecStartPost=-/sbin/augenrules --load
in the /usr/lib/systemd/system/auditd.service configuration file. In order to instruct the auditd daemon to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules, use the following setting:
ExecStartPost=-/sbin/auditctl -R /etc/audit/audit.rules
in the /usr/lib/systemd/system/auditd.service configuration file. Refer to [Service] section of the /usr/lib/systemd/system/auditd.service configuration file for further details.

Government networks often have substantial auditing requirements and auditd can be configured to meet these requirements. Examining some example audit records demonstrates how the Linux audit system satisfies common requirements. The following example from Fedora Documentation available at https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-US/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/7/html/SELinux_Users_and_Administrators_Guide/sect-Security-Enhanced_Linux-Troubleshooting-Fixing_Problems.html#sect-Security-Enhanced_Linux-Fixing_Problems-Raw_Audit_Messages shows the substantial amount of information captured in a two typical "raw" audit messages, followed by a breakdown of the most important fields. In this example the message is SELinux-related and reports an AVC denial (and the associated system call) that occurred when the Apache HTTP Server attempted to access the /var/www/html/file1 file (labeled with the samba_share_t type):
type=AVC msg=audit(1226874073.147:96): avc:  denied  { getattr } for pid=2465 comm="httpd"
path="/var/www/html/file1" dev=dm-0 ino=284133 scontext=unconfined_u:system_r:httpd_t:s0
tcontext=unconfined_u:object_r:samba_share_t:s0 tclass=file

type=SYSCALL msg=audit(1226874073.147:96): arch=40000003 syscall=196 success=no exit=-13
a0=b98df198 a1=bfec85dc a2=54dff4 a3=2008171 items=0 ppid=2463 pid=2465 auid=502 uid=48
gid=48 euid=48 suid=48 fsuid=48 egid=48 sgid=48 fsgid=48 tty=(none) ses=6 comm="httpd"
exe="/usr/sbin/httpd" subj=unconfined_u:system_r:httpd_t:s0 key=(null)
  • msg=audit(1226874073.147:96)
    • The number in parentheses is the unformatted time stamp (Epoch time) for the event, which can be converted to standard time by using the date command.
  • { getattr }
    • The item in braces indicates the permission that was denied. getattr indicates the source process was trying to read the target file's status information. This occurs before reading files. This action is denied due to the file being accessed having the wrong label. Commonly seen permissions include getattr, read, and write.
  • comm="httpd"
    • The executable that launched the process. The full path of the executable is found in the exe= section of the system call (SYSCALL) message, which in this case, is exe="/usr/sbin/httpd".
  • path="/var/www/html/file1"
    • The path to the object (target) the process attempted to access.
  • scontext="unconfined_u:system_r:httpd_t:s0"
    • The SELinux context of the process that attempted the denied action. In this case, it is the SELinux context of the Apache HTTP Server, which is running in the httpd_t domain.
  • tcontext="unconfined_u:object_r:samba_share_t:s0"
    • The SELinux context of the object (target) the process attempted to access. In this case, it is the SELinux context of file1. Note: the samba_share_t type is not accessible to processes running in the httpd_t domain.
  • From the system call (SYSCALL) message, two items are of interest:
    • success=no: indicates whether the denial (AVC) was enforced or not. success=no indicates the system call was not successful (SELinux denied access). success=yes indicates the system call was successful - this can be seen for permissive domains or unconfined domains, such as initrc_t and kernel_t.
    • exe="/usr/sbin/httpd": the full path to the executable that launched the process, which in this case, is exe="/usr/sbin/httpd".

Group   Configure auditd Rules for Comprehensive Auditing   Group contains 7 groups and 44 rules

[ref]   The auditd program can perform comprehensive monitoring of system activity. This section describes recommended configuration settings for comprehensive auditing, but a full description of the auditing system's capabilities is beyond the scope of this guide. The mailing list linux-audit@redhat.com exists to facilitate community discussion of the auditing system.

The audit subsystem supports extensive collection of events, including:

  • Tracing of arbitrary system calls (identified by name or number) on entry or exit.
  • Filtering by PID, UID, call success, system call argument (with some limitations), etc.
  • Monitoring of specific files for modifications to the file's contents or metadata.

Auditing rules at startup are controlled by the file /etc/audit/audit.rules. Add rules to it to meet the auditing requirements for your organization. Each line in /etc/audit/audit.rules represents a series of arguments that can be passed to auditctl and can be individually tested during runtime. See documentation in /usr/share/doc/audit-VERSION and in the related man pages for more details.

If copying any example audit rulesets from /usr/share/doc/audit-VERSION, be sure to comment out the lines containing arch= which are not appropriate for your system's architecture. Then review and understand the following rules, ensuring rules are activated as needed for the appropriate architecture.

After reviewing all the rules, reading the following sections, and editing as needed, the new rules can be activated as follows:
$ sudo service auditd restart

Group   Record Information on Kernel Modules Loading and Unloading   Group contains 1 rule

[ref]   To capture kernel module loading and unloading events, use following lines, setting ARCH to either b32 for 32-bit system, or having two lines for both b32 and b64 in case your system is 64-bit:

-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S init_module,delete_module -F key=modules
Place to add the lines depends on a way auditd daemon is configured. If it is configured to use the augenrules program (the default), add the lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility, add the lines to file /etc/audit/audit.rules.

Rule   Ensure auditd Collects Information on Kernel Module Loading and Unloading   [ref]

To capture kernel module loading and unloading events, use following lines, setting ARCH to either b32 for 32-bit system, or having two lines for both b32 and b64 in case your system is 64-bit:


-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S init_module,finit_module,delete_module -F key=modules

The place to add the lines depends on a way auditd daemon is configured. If it is configured to use the augenrules program (the default), add the lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility, add the lines to file /etc/audit/audit.rules.

Rationale:

The addition/removal of kernel modules can be used to alter the behavior of the kernel and potentially introduce malicious code into kernel space. It is important to have an audit trail of modules that have been introduced into the kernel.

Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_kernel_module_loading
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-27129-6

References:  5.2.17, 5.4.1.1, 3.1.7, CCI-000172, AU-2(d), AU-12(c), AC-6(9), CM-6(a), DE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4, Req-10.2.7, SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, 4.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01, A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9





# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
# Note: 32-bit and 64-bit kernel syscall numbers not always line up =>
#       it's required on a 64-bit system to check also for the presence
#       of 32-bit's equivalent of the corresponding rule.
#       (See `man 7 audit.rules` for details )
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
        GROUP="modules"

        PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S init_module -S delete_module -S finit_module \(-F key=\|-k \).*"
        FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S init_module -S delete_module -S finit_module -k modules"

        # Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect+=('/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
	matches=()
	key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)' '|' "$full_rule" : '.*-F[[:space:]]key=\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
	readarray -t matches < <(sed -s -n -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules)
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		files_to_inspect+=("${match}")
	done
	# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		file_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		files_to_inspect=("$file_to_inspect")
		if [ ! -e "$file_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$file_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$file_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
	# Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
	# * follow the rule pattern, and
	# * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
	# * are current syscall group specific
	readarray -t existing_rules < <(sed -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file")
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi

	# Process rules found case-by-case
	for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
	do
		# Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
		if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
		then
			# If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
			rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
			# Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
			# of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
			if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
			then
				# Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
				# subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
				# Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
			else
				# Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
				# for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
				# group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
				# since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
				# Therefore:
				# * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
				# * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
				# keep those not belonging to this syscall group
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
				# * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
				# if the same rule not already present
				#
				# 1) Delete the original rule
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi

				# 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
				# Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
				IFS_BKP="$IFS"
				IFS=$'-S'
				read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
				# Reset IFS back to default
				IFS="$IFS_BKP"
				# Splitting by "-S" can't be replaced by the readarray functionality easily

				# Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
				new_syscalls_for_rule=''
				# Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
				for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
				do
					# Skip empty $syscall_arg values
					if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
					then
						continue
					fi
					# If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
					# (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
					if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
					then
						new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
					fi
				done
				# Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
				updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
				# Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
				updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
				# 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
				#    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
				if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
				then
					echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
				fi
			fi
		else
			# $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
			# architecture & key => don't insert it second time
			append_expected_rule=1
		fi
	done

	# We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
	# Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
	# Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
	if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
	then
		echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
	fi
done

return $retval

}
        fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
        fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
- name: Set architecture for audit tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: b{{ ansible_architecture | regex_replace('.*(\d\d$)','\1') }}
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-27129-6
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6(9)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
    - audit_rules_kernel_module_loading
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for kernel module loading for x86 platform
  block:

    - name: Declare list of syscals
      set_fact:
        syscalls:
          - init_module
          - delete_module
          - finit_module

    - name: Declare number of syscalls
      set_fact: audit_syscalls_number_of_syscalls="{{ syscalls|length|int }}"

    - name: Check existence of syscalls for architecture b32 in /etc/audit/rules.d/
      find:
        paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
        contains: ^[\s]*-a[\s]+always,exit[\s]+(?:.*-F[\s]+arch=b32[\s]+)(?:.*(-S[\s]+{{
          item }}[\s]+|([\s]+|[,]){{ item }}([\s]+|[,]))).*(-k[\s]+|-F[\s]+key=)[\S]+[\s]*$
        patterns: '*.rules'
      register: audit_syscalls_found_b32_rules_d
      loop: '{{ syscalls }}'

    - name: Get number of matched syscalls for architecture b32 in /etc/audit/rules.d/
      set_fact: audit_syscalls_matched_b32_rules_d="{{ audit_syscalls_found_b32_rules_d.results|sum(attribute='matched')|int
        }}"

    - name: Search /etc/audit/rules.d for other rules with the key modules
      find:
        paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
        contains: ^.*(?:-F key=|-k\s+)modules$
        patterns: '*.rules'
      register: find_syscalls_files

    - name: Use /etc/audit/rules.d/modules.rules as the recipient for the rule
      set_fact:
        all_files:
          - /etc/audit/rules.d/modules.rules
      when: find_syscalls_files.matched is defined and find_syscalls_files.matched
        == 0

    - name: Use matched file as the recipient for the rule
      set_fact:
        all_files:
          - '{{ find_syscalls_files.files | map(attribute=''path'') | list | first
            }}'
      when: find_syscalls_files.matched is defined and find_syscalls_files.matched
        > 0

    - name: Insert the syscall rule in {{ all_files[0] }}
      block:

        - name: 'Construct rule: add rule list, action and arch'
          set_fact: tmpline="-a always,exit -F arch=b32"

        - name: 'Construct rule: add syscalls'
          set_fact: tmpline="{{ tmpline + ' -S ' + item.item }}"
          loop: '{{ audit_syscalls_found_b32_rules_d.results }}'
          when: item.matched is defined and item.matched == 0

        - name: 'Construct rule: add fields and key'
          set_fact: tmpline="{{ tmpline + ' -k modules' }}"

        - name: Insert the line in {{ all_files[0] }}
          lineinfile:
            path: '{{ all_files[0] }}'
            line: '{{ tmpline }}'
            create: true
            state: present
      when: audit_syscalls_matched_b32_rules_d < audit_syscalls_number_of_syscalls

    - name: Declare list of syscals
      set_fact:
        syscalls:
          - init_module
          - delete_module
          - finit_module

    - name: Declare number of syscalls
      set_fact: audit_syscalls_number_of_syscalls="{{ syscalls|length|int }}"

    - name: Check existence of syscalls for architecture b32 in /etc/audit/audit.rules
      find:
        paths: /etc/audit
        contains: ^[\s]*-a[\s]+always,exit[\s]+(?:.*-F[\s]+arch=b32[\s]+)(?:.*(-S[\s]+{{
          item }}[\s]+|([\s]+|[,]){{ item }}([\s]+|[,]))).*(-k[\s]+|-F[\s]+key=)[\S]+[\s]*$
        patterns: audit.rules
      register: audit_syscalls_found_b32_audit_rules
      loop: '{{ syscalls }}'

    - name: Get number of matched syscalls for architecture b32 in /etc/audit/audit.rules
      set_fact: audit_syscalls_matched_b32_audit_rules="{{ audit_syscalls_found_b32_audit_rules.results|sum(attribute='matched')|int
        }}"

    - name: Insert the syscall rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules
      block:

        - name: 'Construct rule: add rule list, action and arch'
          set_fact: tmpline="-a always,exit -F arch=b32"

        - name: 'Construct rule: add syscalls'
          set_fact: tmpline="{{ tmpline + ' -S ' + item.item }}"
          loop: '{{ audit_syscalls_found_b32_audit_rules.results }}'
          when: item.matched is defined and item.matched == 0

        - name: 'Construct rule: add fields and key'
          set_fact: tmpline="{{ tmpline + ' -k modules' }}"

        - name: Insert the line in /etc/audit/audit.rules
          lineinfile:
            path: /etc/audit/audit.rules
            line: '{{ tmpline }}'
            create: true
            state: present
      when: audit_syscalls_matched_b32_audit_rules < audit_syscalls_number_of_syscalls
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-27129-6
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6(9)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
    - audit_rules_kernel_module_loading
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for kernel module loading for x86_64 platform
  block:

    - name: Declare list of syscals
      set_fact:
        syscalls:
          - init_module
          - delete_module
          - finit_module

    - name: Declare number of syscalls
      set_fact: audit_syscalls_number_of_syscalls="{{ syscalls|length|int }}"

    - name: Check existence of syscalls for architecture b64 in /etc/audit/rules.d/
      find:
        paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
        contains: ^[\s]*-a[\s]+always,exit[\s]+(?:.*-F[\s]+arch=b64[\s]+)(?:.*(-S[\s]+{{
          item }}[\s]+|([\s]+|[,]){{ item }}([\s]+|[,]))).*(-k[\s]+|-F[\s]+key=)[\S]+[\s]*$
        patterns: '*.rules'
      register: audit_syscalls_found_b64_rules_d
      loop: '{{ syscalls }}'

    - name: Get number of matched syscalls for architecture b64 in /etc/audit/rules.d/
      set_fact: audit_syscalls_matched_b64_rules_d="{{ audit_syscalls_found_b64_rules_d.results|sum(attribute='matched')|int
        }}"

    - name: Search /etc/audit/rules.d for other rules with the key modules
      find:
        paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
        contains: ^.*(?:-F key=|-k\s+)modules$
        patterns: '*.rules'
      register: find_syscalls_files

    - name: Use /etc/audit/rules.d/modules.rules as the recipient for the rule
      set_fact:
        all_files:
          - /etc/audit/rules.d/modules.rules
      when: find_syscalls_files.matched is defined and find_syscalls_files.matched
        == 0

    - name: Use matched file as the recipient for the rule
      set_fact:
        all_files:
          - '{{ find_syscalls_files.files | map(attribute=''path'') | list | first
            }}'
      when: find_syscalls_files.matched is defined and find_syscalls_files.matched
        > 0

    - name: Insert the syscall rule in {{ all_files[0] }}
      block:

        - name: 'Construct rule: add rule list, action and arch'
          set_fact: tmpline="-a always,exit -F arch=b64"

        - name: 'Construct rule: add syscalls'
          set_fact: tmpline="{{ tmpline + ' -S ' + item.item }}"
          loop: '{{ audit_syscalls_found_b64_rules_d.results }}'
          when: item.matched is defined and item.matched == 0

        - name: 'Construct rule: add fields and key'
          set_fact: tmpline="{{ tmpline + ' -k modules' }}"

        - name: Insert the line in {{ all_files[0] }}
          lineinfile:
            path: '{{ all_files[0] }}'
            line: '{{ tmpline }}'
            create: true
            state: present
      when: audit_syscalls_matched_b64_rules_d < audit_syscalls_number_of_syscalls

    - name: Declare list of syscals
      set_fact:
        syscalls:
          - init_module
          - delete_module
          - finit_module

    - name: Declare number of syscalls
      set_fact: audit_syscalls_number_of_syscalls="{{ syscalls|length|int }}"

    - name: Check existence of syscalls for architecture b64 in /etc/audit/audit.rules
      find:
        paths: /etc/audit
        contains: ^[\s]*-a[\s]+always,exit[\s]+(?:.*-F[\s]+arch=b64[\s]+)(?:.*(-S[\s]+{{
          item }}[\s]+|([\s]+|[,]){{ item }}([\s]+|[,]))).*(-k[\s]+|-F[\s]+key=)[\S]+[\s]*$
        patterns: audit.rules
      register: audit_syscalls_found_b64_audit_rules
      loop: '{{ syscalls }}'

    - name: Get number of matched syscalls for architecture b64 in /etc/audit/audit.rules
      set_fact: audit_syscalls_matched_b64_audit_rules="{{ audit_syscalls_found_b64_audit_rules.results|sum(attribute='matched')|int
        }}"

    - name: Insert the syscall rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules
      block:

        - name: 'Construct rule: add rule list, action and arch'
          set_fact: tmpline="-a always,exit -F arch=b64"

        - name: 'Construct rule: add syscalls'
          set_fact: tmpline="{{ tmpline + ' -S ' + item.item }}"
          loop: '{{ audit_syscalls_found_b64_audit_rules.results }}'
          when: item.matched is defined and item.matched == 0

        - name: 'Construct rule: add fields and key'
          set_fact: tmpline="{{ tmpline + ' -k modules' }}"

        - name: Insert the line in /etc/audit/audit.rules
          lineinfile:
            path: /etc/audit/audit.rules
            line: '{{ tmpline }}'
            create: true
            state: present
      when: audit_syscalls_matched_b64_audit_rules < audit_syscalls_number_of_syscalls
  when:
    - audit_arch == "b64"
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-27129-6
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6(9)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
    - audit_rules_kernel_module_loading
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy
Group   Record Unauthorized Access Attempts Events to Files (unsuccessful)   Group contains 6 rules

[ref]   At a minimum, the audit system should collect unauthorized file accesses for all users and root. Note that the "-F arch=b32" lines should be present even on a 64 bit system. These commands identify system calls for auditing. Even if the system is 64 bit it can still execute 32 bit system calls. Additionally, these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. An example of this is that the "-S" calls could be split up and placed on separate lines, however, this is less efficient. Add the following to /etc/audit/audit.rules:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
    -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
If your system is 64 bit then these lines should be duplicated and the arch=b32 replaced with arch=b64 as follows:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
    -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access

Rule   Record Unsuccessful Access Attempts to Files - ftruncate   [ref]

At a minimum, the audit system should collect unauthorized file accesses for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following lines:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S ftruncate -F exiu=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following lines:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access

Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

Unsuccessful attempts to access files could be an indicator of malicious activity on a system. Auditing these events could serve as evidence of potential system compromise.

Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_ftruncate
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80390-8

References:  5.2.10, 3.1.7, CCI-000172, CCI-002884, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.312(a)(2)(i), 164.312(b), 164.312(d), 164.312(e), AU-2(d), AU-12(c), CM-6(a), DE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4, FAU_GEN.1.1.c, Req-10.2.4, Req-10.2.1, SRG-OS-000064-GPOS-00033, SRG-OS-000458-GPOS-00203, SRG-OS-000461-GPOS-00205, SRG-OS-000392-GPOS-00172, SRG-OS-000458-VMM-001810, SRG-OS-000461-VMM-001830, SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, 4.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01, A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, RHEL-07-030550, SV-86757r5_rule



function create_audit_remediation_unsuccessful_file_modification_detailed {
	mkdir -p "$(dirname "$1")"
	# The - option to mark a here document limit string (<<-EOF) suppresses leading tabs (but not spaces) in the output.
	cat <<-EOF > "$1"
		## This content is a section of an Audit config snapshot recommended for linux systems that target OSPP compliance.
		## The following content has been retreived on 2019-03-11 from: https://github.com/linux-audit/audit-userspace/blob/master/rules/30-ospp-v42.rules

		## The purpose of these rules is to meet the requirements for Operating
		## System Protection Profile (OSPP)v4.2. These rules depends on having
		## 10-base-config.rules, 11-loginuid.rules, and 43-module-load.rules installed.

		## Unsuccessful file creation (open with O_CREAT)
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&0100 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&0100 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F a1&0100 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F a1&0100 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&0100 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&0100 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F a1&0100 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F a1&0100 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create

		## Unsuccessful file modifications (open for write or truncate)
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&01003 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&01003 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F a1&01003 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F a1&01003 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&01003 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&01003 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F a1&01003 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F a1&01003 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification

		## Unsuccessful file access (any other opens) This has to go last.
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open,creat,truncate,ftruncate,openat,open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-access
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open,creat,truncate,ftruncate,openat,open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-access
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open,creat,truncate,ftruncate,openat,open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-access
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open,creat,truncate,ftruncate,openat,open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-access
	EOF
}
create_audit_remediation_unsuccessful_file_modification_detailed /etc/audit/rules.d/30-ospp-v42-remediation.rules


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
- name: Set architecture for audit ftruncate tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: b{{ ansible_architecture | regex_replace('.*(\d\d$)','\1') }}
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80390-8
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030550
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_ftruncate
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Search /etc/audit/rules.d for other DAC audit rules
  find:
    paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
    recurse: false
    contains: -F key=perm_mod$
    patterns: '*.rules'
  register: find_ftruncate
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80390-8
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030550
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_ftruncate
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: If existing DAC ruleset not found, use /etc/audit/rules.d/access.rules as
    the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - /etc/audit/rules.d/access.rules
  when:
    - find_ftruncate.matched is defined and find_ftruncate.matched == 0
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80390-8
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030550
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_ftruncate
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Use matched file as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - '{{ find_ftruncate.files | map(attribute=''path'') | list | first }}'
  when:
    - find_ftruncate.matched is defined and find_ftruncate.matched > 0
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80390-8
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030550
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_ftruncate
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the ftruncate rule in rules.d when on x86
  lineinfile:
    path: '{{ all_files[0] }}'
    line: '{{ item }}'
    create: true
  with_items:
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset
      -F key=access
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset
      -F key=access
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80390-8
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030550
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_ftruncate
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the ftruncate rule in rules.d when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    path: '{{ all_files[0] }}'
    line: '{{ item }}'
    create: true
  with_items:
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset
      -F key=access
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset
      -F key=access
  when:
    - audit_arch is defined and audit_arch == 'b64'
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80390-8
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030550
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_ftruncate
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the ftruncate rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules when on x86
  lineinfile:
    line: '{{ item }}'
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: true
  with_items:
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset
      -F key=access
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset
      -F key=access
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80390-8
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030550
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_ftruncate
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the ftruncate rule in audit.rules when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    line: '{{ item }}'
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: true
  with_items:
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset
      -F key=access
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset
      -F key=access
  when:
    - audit_arch is defined and audit_arch == 'b64'
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80390-8
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030550
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_ftruncate
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

Rule   Record Unsuccessful Access Attempts to Files - open_by_handle_at   [ref]

At a minimum, the audit system should collect unauthorized file accesses for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following lines:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following lines:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access

Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

Unsuccessful attempts to access files could be an indicator of malicious activity on a system. Auditing these events could serve as evidence of potential system compromise.

Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_open_by_handle_at
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80388-2

References:  5.2.10, 3.1.7, CCI-000172, CCI-002884, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.312(a)(2)(i), 164.312(b), 164.312(d), 164.312(e), AU-2(d), AU-12(c), CM-6(a), DE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4, FAU_GEN.1.1.c, Req-10.2.4, Req-10.2.1, SRG-OS-000064-GPOS-00033, SRG-OS-000458-GPOS-00203, SRG-OS-000461-GPOS-00205, SRG-OS-000392-GPOS-00172, SRG-OS-000458-VMM-001810, SRG-OS-000461-VMM-001830, SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, 4.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01, A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, RHEL-07-030530, SV-86753r5_rule



function create_audit_remediation_unsuccessful_file_modification_detailed {
	mkdir -p "$(dirname "$1")"
	# The - option to mark a here document limit string (<<-EOF) suppresses leading tabs (but not spaces) in the output.
	cat <<-EOF > "$1"
		## This content is a section of an Audit config snapshot recommended for linux systems that target OSPP compliance.
		## The following content has been retreived on 2019-03-11 from: https://github.com/linux-audit/audit-userspace/blob/master/rules/30-ospp-v42.rules

		## The purpose of these rules is to meet the requirements for Operating
		## System Protection Profile (OSPP)v4.2. These rules depends on having
		## 10-base-config.rules, 11-loginuid.rules, and 43-module-load.rules installed.

		## Unsuccessful file creation (open with O_CREAT)
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&0100 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&0100 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F a1&0100 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F a1&0100 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&0100 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&0100 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F a1&0100 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F a1&0100 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create

		## Unsuccessful file modifications (open for write or truncate)
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&01003 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&01003 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F a1&01003 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F a1&01003 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&01003 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&01003 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F a1&01003 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F a1&01003 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification

		## Unsuccessful file access (any other opens) This has to go last.
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open,creat,truncate,ftruncate,openat,open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-access
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open,creat,truncate,ftruncate,openat,open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-access
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open,creat,truncate,ftruncate,openat,open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-access
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open,creat,truncate,ftruncate,openat,open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-access
	EOF
}
create_audit_remediation_unsuccessful_file_modification_detailed /etc/audit/rules.d/30-ospp-v42-remediation.rules


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
- name: Set architecture for audit open_by_handle_at tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: b{{ ansible_architecture | regex_replace('.*(\d\d$)','\1') }}
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80388-2
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030530
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_open_by_handle_at
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Search /etc/audit/rules.d for other DAC audit rules
  find:
    paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
    recurse: false
    contains: -F key=perm_mod$
    patterns: '*.rules'
  register: find_open_by_handle_at
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80388-2
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030530
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_open_by_handle_at
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: If existing DAC ruleset not found, use /etc/audit/rules.d/access.rules as
    the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - /etc/audit/rules.d/access.rules
  when:
    - find_open_by_handle_at.matched is defined and find_open_by_handle_at.matched
      == 0
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80388-2
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030530
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_open_by_handle_at
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Use matched file as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - '{{ find_open_by_handle_at.files | map(attribute=''path'') | list | first
        }}'
  when:
    - find_open_by_handle_at.matched is defined and find_open_by_handle_at.matched
      > 0
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80388-2
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030530
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_open_by_handle_at
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the open_by_handle_at rule in rules.d when on x86
  lineinfile:
    path: '{{ all_files[0] }}'
    line: '{{ item }}'
    create: true
  with_items:
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000
      -F auid!=unset -F key=access
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000
      -F auid!=unset -F key=access
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80388-2
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030530
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_open_by_handle_at
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the open_by_handle_at rule in rules.d when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    path: '{{ all_files[0] }}'
    line: '{{ item }}'
    create: true
  with_items:
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000
      -F auid!=unset -F key=access
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000
      -F auid!=unset -F key=access
  when:
    - audit_arch is defined and audit_arch == 'b64'
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80388-2
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030530
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_open_by_handle_at
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the open_by_handle_at rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules when
    on x86
  lineinfile:
    line: '{{ item }}'
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: true
  with_items:
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000
      -F auid!=unset -F key=access
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000
      -F auid!=unset -F key=access
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80388-2
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030530
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_open_by_handle_at
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the open_by_handle_at rule in audit.rules when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    line: '{{ item }}'
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: true
  with_items:
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000
      -F auid!=unset -F key=access
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000
      -F auid!=unset -F key=access
  when:
    - audit_arch is defined and audit_arch == 'b64'
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80388-2
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030530
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_open_by_handle_at
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

Rule   Record Unsuccessful Access Attempts to Files - open   [ref]

At a minimum, the audit system should collect unauthorized file accesses for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following lines:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following lines:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access

Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

Unsuccessful attempts to access files could be an indicator of malicious activity on a system. Auditing these events could serve as evidence of potential system compromise.

Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_open
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80386-6

References:  5.2.10, 3.1.7, CCI-000172, CCI-002884, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.312(a)(2)(i), 164.312(b), 164.312(d), 164.312(e), AU-2(d), AU-12(c), CM-6(a), DE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4, FAU_GEN.1.1.c, Req-10.2.4, Req-10.2.1, SRG-OS-000064-GPOS-00033, SRG-OS-000458-GPOS-00203, SRG-OS-000461-GPOS-00205, SRG-OS-000392-GPOS-00172, SRG-OS-000458-VMM-001810, SRG-OS-000461-VMM-001830, SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, 4.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01, A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, RHEL-07-030510, SV-86749r5_rule



function create_audit_remediation_unsuccessful_file_modification_detailed {
	mkdir -p "$(dirname "$1")"
	# The - option to mark a here document limit string (<<-EOF) suppresses leading tabs (but not spaces) in the output.
	cat <<-EOF > "$1"
		## This content is a section of an Audit config snapshot recommended for linux systems that target OSPP compliance.
		## The following content has been retreived on 2019-03-11 from: https://github.com/linux-audit/audit-userspace/blob/master/rules/30-ospp-v42.rules

		## The purpose of these rules is to meet the requirements for Operating
		## System Protection Profile (OSPP)v4.2. These rules depends on having
		## 10-base-config.rules, 11-loginuid.rules, and 43-module-load.rules installed.

		## Unsuccessful file creation (open with O_CREAT)
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&0100 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&0100 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F a1&0100 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F a1&0100 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&0100 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&0100 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F a1&0100 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F a1&0100 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create

		## Unsuccessful file modifications (open for write or truncate)
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&01003 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&01003 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F a1&01003 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F a1&01003 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&01003 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&01003 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F a1&01003 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F a1&01003 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification

		## Unsuccessful file access (any other opens) This has to go last.
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open,creat,truncate,ftruncate,openat,open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-access
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open,creat,truncate,ftruncate,openat,open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-access
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open,creat,truncate,ftruncate,openat,open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-access
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open,creat,truncate,ftruncate,openat,open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-access
	EOF
}
create_audit_remediation_unsuccessful_file_modification_detailed /etc/audit/rules.d/30-ospp-v42-remediation.rules


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
- name: Set architecture for audit open tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: b{{ ansible_architecture | regex_replace('.*(\d\d$)','\1') }}
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80386-6
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030510
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_open
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Search /etc/audit/rules.d for other DAC audit rules
  find:
    paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
    recurse: false
    contains: -F key=perm_mod$
    patterns: '*.rules'
  register: find_open
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80386-6
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030510
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_open
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: If existing DAC ruleset not found, use /etc/audit/rules.d/access.rules as
    the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - /etc/audit/rules.d/access.rules
  when:
    - find_open.matched is defined and find_open.matched == 0
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80386-6
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030510
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_open
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Use matched file as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - '{{ find_open.files | map(attribute=''path'') | list | first }}'
  when:
    - find_open.matched is defined and find_open.matched > 0
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80386-6
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030510
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_open
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the open rule in rules.d when on x86
  lineinfile:
    path: '{{ all_files[0] }}'
    line: '{{ item }}'
    create: true
  with_items:
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset
      -F key=access
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset
      -F key=access
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80386-6
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030510
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_open
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the open rule in rules.d when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    path: '{{ all_files[0] }}'
    line: '{{ item }}'
    create: true
  with_items:
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset
      -F key=access
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset
      -F key=access
  when:
    - audit_arch is defined and audit_arch == 'b64'
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80386-6
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030510
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_open
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the open rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules when on x86
  lineinfile:
    line: '{{ item }}'
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: true
  with_items:
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset
      -F key=access
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset
      -F key=access
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80386-6
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030510
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_open
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the open rule in audit.rules when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    line: '{{ item }}'
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: true
  with_items:
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset
      -F key=access
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset
      -F key=access
  when:
    - audit_arch is defined and audit_arch == 'b64'
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80386-6
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030510
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_open
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

Rule   Record Unsuccessful Access Attempts to Files - openat   [ref]

At a minimum, the audit system should collect unauthorized file accesses for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following lines:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following lines:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access

Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

Unsuccessful attempts to access files could be an indicator of malicious activity on a system. Auditing these events could serve as evidence of potential system compromise.

Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_openat
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80387-4

References:  5.2.10, 3.1.7, CCI-000172, CCI-002884, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.312(a)(2)(i), 164.312(b), 164.312(d), 164.312(e), AU-2(d), AU-12(c), CM-6(a), DE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4, FAU_GEN.1.1.c, Req-10.2.4, Req-10.2.1, SRG-OS-000064-GPOS-00033, SRG-OS-000458-GPOS-00203, SRG-OS-000461-GPOS-00205, SRG-OS-000392-GPOS-00172, SRG-OS-000458-VMM-001810, SRG-OS-000461-VMM-001830, SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, 4.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01, A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, RHEL-07-030520, SV-86751r5_rule



function create_audit_remediation_unsuccessful_file_modification_detailed {
	mkdir -p "$(dirname "$1")"
	# The - option to mark a here document limit string (<<-EOF) suppresses leading tabs (but not spaces) in the output.
	cat <<-EOF > "$1"
		## This content is a section of an Audit config snapshot recommended for linux systems that target OSPP compliance.
		## The following content has been retreived on 2019-03-11 from: https://github.com/linux-audit/audit-userspace/blob/master/rules/30-ospp-v42.rules

		## The purpose of these rules is to meet the requirements for Operating
		## System Protection Profile (OSPP)v4.2. These rules depends on having
		## 10-base-config.rules, 11-loginuid.rules, and 43-module-load.rules installed.

		## Unsuccessful file creation (open with O_CREAT)
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&0100 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&0100 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F a1&0100 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F a1&0100 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&0100 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&0100 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F a1&0100 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F a1&0100 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create

		## Unsuccessful file modifications (open for write or truncate)
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&01003 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&01003 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F a1&01003 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F a1&01003 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&01003 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&01003 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F a1&01003 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F a1&01003 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification

		## Unsuccessful file access (any other opens) This has to go last.
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open,creat,truncate,ftruncate,openat,open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-access
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open,creat,truncate,ftruncate,openat,open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-access
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open,creat,truncate,ftruncate,openat,open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-access
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open,creat,truncate,ftruncate,openat,open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-access
	EOF
}
create_audit_remediation_unsuccessful_file_modification_detailed /etc/audit/rules.d/30-ospp-v42-remediation.rules


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
- name: Set architecture for audit openat tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: b{{ ansible_architecture | regex_replace('.*(\d\d$)','\1') }}
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80387-4
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030520
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_openat
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Search /etc/audit/rules.d for other DAC audit rules
  find:
    paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
    recurse: false
    contains: -F key=perm_mod$
    patterns: '*.rules'
  register: find_openat
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80387-4
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030520
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_openat
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: If existing DAC ruleset not found, use /etc/audit/rules.d/access.rules as
    the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - /etc/audit/rules.d/access.rules
  when:
    - find_openat.matched is defined and find_openat.matched == 0
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80387-4
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030520
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_openat
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Use matched file as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - '{{ find_openat.files | map(attribute=''path'') | list | first }}'
  when:
    - find_openat.matched is defined and find_openat.matched > 0
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80387-4
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030520
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_openat
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the openat rule in rules.d when on x86
  lineinfile:
    path: '{{ all_files[0] }}'
    line: '{{ item }}'
    create: true
  with_items:
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset
      -F key=access
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset
      -F key=access
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80387-4
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030520
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_openat
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the openat rule in rules.d when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    path: '{{ all_files[0] }}'
    line: '{{ item }}'
    create: true
  with_items:
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset
      -F key=access
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset
      -F key=access
  when:
    - audit_arch is defined and audit_arch == 'b64'
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80387-4
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030520
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_openat
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the openat rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules when on x86
  lineinfile:
    line: '{{ item }}'
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: true
  with_items:
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset
      -F key=access
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset
      -F key=access
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80387-4
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030520
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_openat
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the openat rule in audit.rules when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    line: '{{ item }}'
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: true
  with_items:
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset
      -F key=access
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset
      -F key=access
  when:
    - audit_arch is defined and audit_arch == 'b64'
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80387-4
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030520
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_openat
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

Rule   Record Unsuccessful Access Attempts to Files - truncate   [ref]

At a minimum, the audit system should collect unauthorized file accesses for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S truncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S truncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following lines:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S truncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S truncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S truncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S truncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following lines:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S truncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S truncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access

Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

Unsuccessful attempts to access files could be an indicator of malicious activity on a system. Auditing these events could serve as evidence of potential system compromise.

Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_truncate
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80389-0

References:  5.2.10, 3.1.7, CCI-000172, CCI-002884, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.312(a)(2)(i), 164.312(b), 164.312(d), 164.312(e), AU-2(d), AU-12(c), CM-6(a), DE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4, FAU_GEN.1.1.c, Req-10.2.4, Req-10.2.1, SRG-OS-000064-GPOS-00033, SRG-OS-000458-GPOS-00203, SRG-OS-000461-GPOS-00205, SRG-OS-000392-GPOS-00172, SRG-OS-000458-VMM-001810, SRG-OS-000461-VMM-001830, SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, 4.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01, A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, RHEL-07-030540, SV-86755r5_rule



function create_audit_remediation_unsuccessful_file_modification_detailed {
	mkdir -p "$(dirname "$1")"
	# The - option to mark a here document limit string (<<-EOF) suppresses leading tabs (but not spaces) in the output.
	cat <<-EOF > "$1"
		## This content is a section of an Audit config snapshot recommended for linux systems that target OSPP compliance.
		## The following content has been retreived on 2019-03-11 from: https://github.com/linux-audit/audit-userspace/blob/master/rules/30-ospp-v42.rules

		## The purpose of these rules is to meet the requirements for Operating
		## System Protection Profile (OSPP)v4.2. These rules depends on having
		## 10-base-config.rules, 11-loginuid.rules, and 43-module-load.rules installed.

		## Unsuccessful file creation (open with O_CREAT)
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&0100 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&0100 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F a1&0100 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F a1&0100 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&0100 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&0100 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F a1&0100 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F a1&0100 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create

		## Unsuccessful file modifications (open for write or truncate)
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&01003 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&01003 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F a1&01003 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F a1&01003 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&01003 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&01003 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F a1&01003 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F a1&01003 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification

		## Unsuccessful file access (any other opens) This has to go last.
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open,creat,truncate,ftruncate,openat,open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-access
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open,creat,truncate,ftruncate,openat,open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-access
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open,creat,truncate,ftruncate,openat,open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-access
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open,creat,truncate,ftruncate,openat,open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-access
	EOF
}
create_audit_remediation_unsuccessful_file_modification_detailed /etc/audit/rules.d/30-ospp-v42-remediation.rules


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
- name: Set architecture for audit truncate tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: b{{ ansible_architecture | regex_replace('.*(\d\d$)','\1') }}
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80389-0
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030540
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_truncate
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Search /etc/audit/rules.d for other DAC audit rules
  find:
    paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
    recurse: false
    contains: -F key=perm_mod$
    patterns: '*.rules'
  register: find_truncate
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80389-0
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030540
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_truncate
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: If existing DAC ruleset not found, use /etc/audit/rules.d/access.rules as
    the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - /etc/audit/rules.d/access.rules
  when:
    - find_truncate.matched is defined and find_truncate.matched == 0
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80389-0
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030540
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_truncate
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Use matched file as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - '{{ find_truncate.files | map(attribute=''path'') | list | first }}'
  when:
    - find_truncate.matched is defined and find_truncate.matched > 0
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80389-0
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030540
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_truncate
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the truncate rule in rules.d when on x86
  lineinfile:
    path: '{{ all_files[0] }}'
    line: '{{ item }}'
    create: true
  with_items:
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S truncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset
      -F key=access
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S truncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset
      -F key=access
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80389-0
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030540
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_truncate
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the truncate rule in rules.d when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    path: '{{ all_files[0] }}'
    line: '{{ item }}'
    create: true
  with_items:
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S truncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset
      -F key=access
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S truncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset
      -F key=access
  when:
    - audit_arch is defined and audit_arch == 'b64'
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80389-0
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030540
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_truncate
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the truncate rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules when on x86
  lineinfile:
    line: '{{ item }}'
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: true
  with_items:
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S truncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset
      -F key=access
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S truncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset
      -F key=access
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80389-0
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030540
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_truncate
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the truncate rule in audit.rules when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    line: '{{ item }}'
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: true
  with_items:
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S truncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset
      -F key=access
    - -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S truncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset
      -F key=access
  when:
    - audit_arch is defined and audit_arch == 'b64'
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80389-0
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030540
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_truncate
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

Rule   Record Unsuccessful Access Attempts to Files - creat   [ref]

At a minimum, the audit system should collect unauthorized file accesses for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following lines:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following lines:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access

Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

Unsuccessful attempts to access files could be an indicator of malicious activity on a system. Auditing these events could serve as evidence of potential system compromise.

Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_creat
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80385-8

References:  5.2.10, 3.1.7, CCI-000172, CCI-002884, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.312(a)(2)(i), 164.312(b), 164.312(d), 164.312(e), AU-2(d), AU-12(c), CM-6(a), DE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4, FAU_GEN.1.1.c, Req-10.2.4, Req-10.2.1, SRG-OS-000064-GPOS-00033, SRG-OS-000458-GPOS-00203, SRG-OS-000461-GPOS-00205, SRG-OS-000392-GPOS-00172, SRG-OS-000458-VMM-001810, SRG-OS-000461-VMM-001830, SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, 4.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01, A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, RHEL-07-030500, SV-86747r5_rule



function create_audit_remediation_unsuccessful_file_modification_detailed {
	mkdir -p "$(dirname "$1")"
	# The - option to mark a here document limit string (<<-EOF) suppresses leading tabs (but not spaces) in the output.
	cat <<-EOF > "$1"
		## This content is a section of an Audit config snapshot recommended for linux systems that target OSPP compliance.
		## The following content has been retreived on 2019-03-11 from: https://github.com/linux-audit/audit-userspace/blob/master/rules/30-ospp-v42.rules

		## The purpose of these rules is to meet the requirements for Operating
		## System Protection Profile (OSPP)v4.2. These rules depends on having
		## 10-base-config.rules, 11-loginuid.rules, and 43-module-load.rules installed.

		## Unsuccessful file creation (open with O_CREAT)
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&0100 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&0100 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F a1&0100 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F a1&0100 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&0100 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&0100 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F a1&0100 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F a1&0100 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create

		## Unsuccessful file modifications (open for write or truncate)
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&01003 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&01003 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F a1&01003 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F a1&01003 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&01003 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&01003 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F a1&01003 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F a1&01003 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification

		## Unsuccessful file access (any other opens) This has to go last.
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open,creat,truncate,ftruncate,openat,open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-access
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open,creat,truncate,ftruncate,openat,open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-access
		-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open,creat,truncate,ftruncate,openat,open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-access
		-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open,creat,truncate,ftruncate,openat,open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-access
	EOF
}
create_audit_remediation_unsuccessful_file_modification_detailed /etc/audit/rules.d/30-ospp-v42-remediation.rules


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: Add unsuccessful file operations audit rules
  blockinfile:
    path: /etc/audit/rules.d/30-ospp-v42-remediation.rules
    create: true
    block: |-
      ## This content is a section of an Audit config snapshot recommended for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 systems that target OSPP compliance.
      ## The following content has been retreived on 2019-03-11 from: https://github.com/linux-audit/audit-userspace/blob/master/rules/30-ospp-v42.rules

      ## The purpose of these rules is to meet the requirements for Operating
      ## System Protection Profile (OSPP)v4.2. These rules depends on having
      ## 10-base-config.rules, 11-loginuid.rules, and 43-module-load.rules installed.

      ## Unsuccessful file creation (open with O_CREAT)
      -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&0100 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
      -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&0100 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
      -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F a1&0100 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
      -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F a1&0100 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
      -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&0100 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
      -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&0100 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
      -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F a1&0100 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
      -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F a1&0100 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
      -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
      -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
      -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create
      -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-create

      ## Unsuccessful file modifications (open for write or truncate)
      -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&01003 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
      -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&01003 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
      -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F a1&01003 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
      -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F a1&01003 -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
      -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&01003 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
      -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat,open_by_handle_at -F a2&01003 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
      -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F a1&01003 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
      -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F a1&01003 -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
      -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
      -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
      -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification
      -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-modification

      ## Unsuccessful file access (any other opens) This has to go last.
      -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open,creat,truncate,ftruncate,openat,open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-access
      -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open,creat,truncate,ftruncate,openat,open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-access
      -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open,creat,truncate,ftruncate,openat,open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-access
      -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open,creat,truncate,ftruncate,openat,open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=unsuccesful-access
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80385-8
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030500
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.4
    - audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_creat
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy
Group   Record Information on the Use of Privileged Commands   Group contains 1 rule

[ref]   At a minimum, the audit system should collect the execution of privileged commands for all users and root.

Rule   Ensure auditd Collects Information on the Use of Privileged Commands   [ref]

At a minimum, the audit system should collect the execution of privileged commands for all users and root. To find the relevant setuid / setgid programs, run the following command for each local partition PART:

$ sudo find PART -xdev -type f -perm -4000 -o -type f -perm -2000 2>/dev/null
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add a line of the following form to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d for each setuid / setgid program on the system, replacing the SETUID_PROG_PATH part with the full path of that setuid / setgid program in the list:
-a always,exit -F path=SETUID_PROG_PATH -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=special-config-changes
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add a line of the following form to /etc/audit/audit.rules for each setuid / setgid program on the system, replacing the SETUID_PROG_PATH part with the full path of that setuid / setgid program in the list:
-a always,exit -F path=SETUID_PROG_PATH -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=special-config-changes

Warning:  This rule checks for multiple syscalls related to privileged commands; it was written with DISA STIG in mind. Other policies should use a separate rule for each syscall that needs to be checked. For example:
  • audit_rules_privileged_commands_su
  • audit_rules_privileged_commands_umount
  • audit_rules_privileged_commands_passwd
Rationale:

Misuse of privileged functions, either intentionally or unintentionally by authorized users, or by unauthorized external entities that have compromised system accounts, is a serious and ongoing concern and can have significant adverse impacts on organizations. Auditing the use of privileged functions is one way to detect such misuse and identify the risk from insider and advanced persistent threast.

Privileged programs are subject to escalation-of-privilege attacks, which attempt to subvert their normal role of providing some necessary but limited capability. As such, motivation exists to monitor these programs for unusual activity.

Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_privileged_commands
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-27437-3

References:  5.2.10, 5.4.1.1, 3.1.7, CCI-002234, AC-2(4), AU-2(d), AU-12(c), AC-6(9), CM-6(a), DE.AE-2, DE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, DE.DP-4, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4, RS.CO-2, Req-10.2.2, SRG-OS-000327-GPOS-00127, SRG-OS-000471-VMM-001910, SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 3.9, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, 4.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.5, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.3.4.5.9, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, APO08.04, APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.05, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01, A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.1, A.16.1.2, A.16.1.3, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.1.3, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, RHEL-07-030360, SV-86719r7_rule





# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to perform remediation for 'audit_rules_privileged_commands' rule
#
# Expects two arguments:
#
# audit_tool		tool used to load audit rules
# 			One of 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'
#
# min_auid		Minimum original ID the user logged in with
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#      perform_audit_rules_privileged_commands_remediation "auditctl" "500"
#      perform_audit_rules_privileged_commands_remediation "augenrules"	"1000"
#
function perform_audit_rules_privileged_commands_remediation {
#
# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local min_auid="$2"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "2" ]
then
	echo "Usage: perform_audit_rules_privileged_commands_remediation 'auditctl | augenrules' '500 | 1000'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

declare -a files_to_inspect=()

# Check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	exit 1
# If the audit tool is 'auditctl', then:
# * add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'to the list of files to be inspected,
# * specify '/etc/audit/audit.rules' as the output audit file, where
#   missing rules should be inserted
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("/etc/audit/audit.rules")
	output_audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"
#
# If the audit tool is 'augenrules', then:
# * add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list of files to be inspected
#   (split by newline),
# * specify /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules' as the output file, where
#   missing rules should be inserted
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	readarray -t files_to_inspect < <(find /etc/audit/rules.d -maxdepth 1 -type f -name '*.rules' -print)
	output_audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules"
fi

# Obtain the list of SUID/SGID binaries on the particular system (split by newline)
# into privileged_binaries array
privileged_binaries=()
readarray -t privileged_binaries < <(find / -xdev -type f -perm -4000 -o -type f -perm -2000 2>/dev/null)

# Keep list of SUID/SGID binaries that have been already handled within some previous iteration
declare -a sbinaries_to_skip=()

# For each found sbinary in privileged_binaries list
for sbinary in "${privileged_binaries[@]}"
do

	# Check if this sbinary wasn't already handled in some of the previous sbinary iterations
	# Return match only if whole sbinary definition matched (not in the case just prefix matched!!!)
	if [[ $(sed -ne "\|${sbinary}|p" <<< "${sbinaries_to_skip[*]}") ]]
	then
		# If so, don't process it second time & go to process next sbinary
		continue
	fi

	# Reset the counter of inspected files when starting to check
	# presence of existing audit rule for new sbinary
	local count_of_inspected_files=0

	# Define expected rule form for this binary
	expected_rule="-a always,exit -F path=${sbinary} -F perm=x -F auid>=${min_auid} -F auid!=unset -k privileged"

	# If list of audit rules files to be inspected is empty, just add new rule and move on to next binary
	if [[ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq 0 ]]; then
		echo "$expected_rule" >> "$output_audit_file"
		continue
	fi

	# Replace possible slash '/' character in sbinary definition so we could use it in sed expressions below
	sbinary_esc=${sbinary//$'/'/$'\/'}

	# For each audit rules file from the list of files to be inspected
	for afile in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
	do

		# Search current audit rules file's content for match. Match criteria:
		# * existing rule is for the same SUID/SGID binary we are currently processing (but
		#   can contain multiple -F path= elements covering multiple SUID/SGID binaries)
		# * existing rule contains all arguments from expected rule form (though can contain
		#   them in arbitrary order)
	
		base_search=$(sed -e '/-a always,exit/!d' -e '/-F path='"${sbinary_esc}"'[^[:graph:]]/!d'		\
				-e '/-F path=[^[:space:]]\+/!d'   -e '/-F perm=.*/!d'						\
				-e '/-F auid>='"${min_auid}"'/!d' -e '/-F auid!=\(4294967295\|unset\)/!d'	\
				-e '/-k \|-F key=/!d' "$afile")

		# Increase the count of inspected files for this sbinary
		count_of_inspected_files=$((count_of_inspected_files + 1))

		# Require execute access type to be set for existing audit rule
		exec_access='x'

		# Search current audit rules file's content for presence of rule pattern for this sbinary
		if [[ $base_search ]]
		then

			# Current audit rules file already contains rule for this binary =>
			# Store the exact form of found rule for this binary for further processing
			concrete_rule=$base_search

			# Select all other SUID/SGID binaries possibly also present in the found rule

			readarray -t handled_sbinaries < <(grep -o -e "-F path=[^[:space:]]\+" <<< "$concrete_rule")
			handled_sbinaries=("${handled_sbinaries[@]//-F path=/}")

			# Merge the list of such SUID/SGID binaries found in this iteration with global list ignoring duplicates
			readarray -t sbinaries_to_skip < <(for i in "${sbinaries_to_skip[@]}" "${handled_sbinaries[@]}"; do echo "$i"; done | sort -du)

			# Separate concrete_rule into three sections using hash '#'
			# sign as a delimiter around rule's permission section borders
			concrete_rule="$(echo "$concrete_rule" | sed -n "s/\(.*\)\+\(-F perm=[rwax]\+\)\+/\1#\2#/p")"

			# Split concrete_rule into head, perm, and tail sections using hash '#' delimiter

			rule_head=$(cut -d '#' -f 1 <<< "$concrete_rule")
			rule_perm=$(cut -d '#' -f 2 <<< "$concrete_rule")
			rule_tail=$(cut -d '#' -f 3 <<< "$concrete_rule")

			# Extract already present exact access type [r|w|x|a] from rule's permission section
			access_type=${rule_perm//-F perm=/}

			# Verify current permission access type(s) for rule contain 'x' (execute) permission
			if ! grep -q "$exec_access" <<< "$access_type"
			then

				# If not, append the 'x' (execute) permission to the existing access type bits
				access_type="$access_type$exec_access"
				# Reconstruct the permissions section for the rule
				new_rule_perm="-F perm=$access_type"
				# Update existing rule in current audit rules file with the new permission section
				sed -i "s#${rule_head}\(.*\)${rule_tail}#${rule_head}${new_rule_perm}${rule_tail}#" "$afile"

			fi

		# If the required audit rule for particular sbinary wasn't found yet, insert it under following conditions:
		#
		# * in the "auditctl" mode of operation insert particular rule each time
		#   (because in this mode there's only one file -- /etc/audit/audit.rules to be inspected for presence of this rule),
		#
		# * in the "augenrules" mode of operation insert particular rule only once and only in case we have already
		#   searched all of the files from /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules location (since that audit rule can be defined
		#   in any of those files and if not, we want it to be inserted only once into /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules file)
		#
		elif [ "$tool" == "auditctl" ] || [[ "$tool" == "augenrules" && $count_of_inspected_files -eq "${#files_to_inspect[@]}" ]]
		then

			# Check if this sbinary wasn't already handled in some of the previous afile iterations
			# Return match only if whole sbinary definition matched (not in the case just prefix matched!!!)
			if [[ ! $(sed -ne "\|${sbinary}|p" <<< "${sbinaries_to_skip[*]}") ]]
			then
				# Current audit rules file's content doesn't contain expected rule for this
				# SUID/SGID binary yet => append it
				echo "$expected_rule" >> "$output_audit_file"
			fi

			continue
		fi

	done

done
}
perform_audit_rules_privileged_commands_remediation "auditctl" "1000"
perform_audit_rules_privileged_commands_remediation "augenrules" "1000"


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: Search for privileged commands
  shell: find / -xdev -type f -perm -4000 -o -type f -perm -2000 2>/dev/null
  args:
    warn: false
    executable: /bin/bash
  check_mode: false
  register: find_result
  changed_when: false
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-27437-3
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030360
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AC-2(4)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6(9)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.2
    - audit_rules_privileged_commands
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Search /etc/audit/rules.d for audit rule entries
  find:
    paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
    recurse: false
    contains: ^.*path={{ item }} .*$
    patterns: '*.rules'
  with_items:
    - '{{ find_result.stdout_lines }}'
  register: files_result
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-27437-3
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030360
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AC-2(4)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6(9)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.2
    - audit_rules_privileged_commands
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Overwrites the rule in rules.d
  lineinfile:
    path: '{{ item.1.path }}'
    line: -a always,exit -F path={{ item.0.item }} -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset
      -F key=special-config-changes
    create: false
    regexp: ^.*path={{ item.0.item }} .*$
  with_subelements:
    - '{{ files_result.results }}'
    - files
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-27437-3
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030360
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AC-2(4)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6(9)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.2
    - audit_rules_privileged_commands
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Adds the rule in rules.d
  lineinfile:
    path: /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules
    line: -a always,exit -F path={{ item.item }} -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset
      -F key=special-config-changes
    create: true
  with_items:
    - '{{ files_result.results }}'
  when:
    - files_result.results is defined and item.matched == 0
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-27437-3
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030360
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AC-2(4)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6(9)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.2
    - audit_rules_privileged_commands
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the rule in audit.rules
  lineinfile:
    path: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    line: -a always,exit -F path={{ item.item }} -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset
      -F key=special-config-changes
    create: true
    regexp: ^.*path={{ item.item }} .*$
  with_items:
    - '{{ files_result.results }}'
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-27437-3
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030360
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AC-2(4)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6(9)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.2
    - audit_rules_privileged_commands
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - no_reboot_needed
    - restrict_strategy
Group   Record File Deletion Events by User   Group contains 5 rules

[ref]   At a minimum, the audit system should collect file deletion events for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:

-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S rmdir,unlink,unlinkat,rename,renameat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S rmdir,unlink,unlinkat,rename,renameat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete

Rule   Ensure auditd Collects File Deletion Events by User - unlinkat   [ref]

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file deletion events for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:

-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S unlinkat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S unlinkat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete

Rationale:

Auditing file deletions will create an audit trail for files that are removed from the system. The audit trail could aid in system troubleshooting, as well as, detecting malicious processes that attempt to delete log files to conceal their presence.

Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_file_deletion_events_unlinkat
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80662-0

References:  5.2.14, 3.1.7, CCI-000172, CCI-000366, CCI-002884, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.312(a)(2)(i), 164.312(b), 164.312(d), 164.312(e), AU-2(d), AU-12(c), CM-6(a), DE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.MA-2, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4, FAU_GEN.1.1.c, Req-10.2.7, SRG-OS-000466-GPOS-00210, SRG-OS-000467-GPOS-00210, SRG-OS-000468-GPOS-00212, SRG-OS-000392-GPOS-00172, SRG-OS-000466-VMM-001870, SRG-OS-000468-VMM-001890, SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, 4.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01, A.11.2.4, A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.1.1, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, RHEL-07-030920, SV-86831r5_rule





# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S unlinkat.*"
	GROUP="delete"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S unlinkat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete"
	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect+=('/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
	matches=()
	key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)' '|' "$full_rule" : '.*-F[[:space:]]key=\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
	readarray -t matches < <(sed -s -n -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules)
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		files_to_inspect+=("${match}")
	done
	# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		file_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		files_to_inspect=("$file_to_inspect")
		if [ ! -e "$file_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$file_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$file_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
	# Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
	# * follow the rule pattern, and
	# * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
	# * are current syscall group specific
	readarray -t existing_rules < <(sed -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file")
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi

	# Process rules found case-by-case
	for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
	do
		# Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
		if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
		then
			# If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
			rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
			# Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
			# of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
			if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
			then
				# Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
				# subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
				# Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
			else
				# Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
				# for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
				# group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
				# since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
				# Therefore:
				# * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
				# * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
				# keep those not belonging to this syscall group
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
				# * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
				# if the same rule not already present
				#
				# 1) Delete the original rule
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi

				# 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
				# Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
				IFS_BKP="$IFS"
				IFS=$'-S'
				read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
				# Reset IFS back to default
				IFS="$IFS_BKP"
				# Splitting by "-S" can't be replaced by the readarray functionality easily

				# Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
				new_syscalls_for_rule=''
				# Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
				for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
				do
					# Skip empty $syscall_arg values
					if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
					then
						continue
					fi
					# If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
					# (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
					if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
					then
						new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
					fi
				done
				# Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
				updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
				# Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
				updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
				# 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
				#    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
				if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
				then
					echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
				fi
			fi
		else
			# $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
			# architecture & key => don't insert it second time
			append_expected_rule=1
		fi
	done

	# We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
	# Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
	# Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
	if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
	then
		echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
	fi
done

return $retval

}
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
- name: Set architecture for audit unlinkat tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: b{{ ansible_architecture | regex_replace('.*(\d\d$)','\1') }}
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80662-0
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030920
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
    - audit_rules_file_deletion_events_unlinkat
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Search /etc/audit/rules.d for other DAC audit rules
  find:
    paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
    recurse: false
    contains: -F key=delete$
    patterns: '*.rules'
  register: find_unlinkat
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80662-0
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030920
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
    - audit_rules_file_deletion_events_unlinkat
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: If existing DAC ruleset not found, use /etc/audit/rules.d/delete.rules as
    the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - /etc/audit/rules.d/delete.rules
  when:
    - find_unlinkat.matched is defined and find_unlinkat.matched == 0
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80662-0
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030920
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
    - audit_rules_file_deletion_events_unlinkat
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Use matched file as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - '{{ find_unlinkat.files | map(attribute=''path'') | list | first }}'
  when:
    - find_unlinkat.matched is defined and find_unlinkat.matched > 0
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80662-0
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030920
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
    - audit_rules_file_deletion_events_unlinkat
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the unlinkat rule in rules.d when on x86
  lineinfile:
    path: '{{ all_files[0] }}'
    line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S unlinkat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete
    create: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80662-0
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030920
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
    - audit_rules_file_deletion_events_unlinkat
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the unlinkat rule in rules.d when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    path: '{{ all_files[0] }}'
    line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S unlinkat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete
    create: true
  when:
    - audit_arch is defined and audit_arch == 'b64'
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80662-0
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030920
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
    - audit_rules_file_deletion_events_unlinkat
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the unlinkat rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules when on x86
  lineinfile:
    line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S unlinkat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80662-0
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030920
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
    - audit_rules_file_deletion_events_unlinkat
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the unlinkat rule in audit.rules when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S unlinkat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: true
  when:
    - audit_arch is defined and audit_arch == 'b64'
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80662-0
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030920
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
    - audit_rules_file_deletion_events_unlinkat
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

Rule   Ensure auditd Collects File Deletion Events by User - rmdir   [ref]

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file deletion events for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:

-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S rmdir -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S rmdir -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete

Rationale:

Auditing file deletions will create an audit trail for files that are removed from the system. The audit trail could aid in system troubleshooting, as well as, detecting malicious processes that attempt to delete log files to conceal their presence.

Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_file_deletion_events_rmdir
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80412-0

References:  5.2.14, 3.1.7, CCI-000172, CCI-000366, CCI-002884, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.312(a)(2)(i), 164.312(b), 164.312(d), 164.312(e), AU-2(d), AU-12(c), CM-6(a), DE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.MA-2, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4, FAU_GEN.1.1.c, Req-10.2.7, SRG-OS-000466-GPOS-00210, SRG-OS-000467-GPOS-00210, SRG-OS-000468-GPOS-00212, SRG-OS-000392-GPOS-00172, SRG-OS-000466-VMM-001870, SRG-OS-000468-VMM-001890, SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, 4.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01, A.11.2.4, A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.1.1, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, RHEL-07-030900, SV-86827r5_rule





# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S rmdir.*"
	GROUP="delete"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S rmdir -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete"
	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect+=('/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
	matches=()
	key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)' '|' "$full_rule" : '.*-F[[:space:]]key=\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
	readarray -t matches < <(sed -s -n -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules)
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		files_to_inspect+=("${match}")
	done
	# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		file_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		files_to_inspect=("$file_to_inspect")
		if [ ! -e "$file_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$file_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$file_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
	# Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
	# * follow the rule pattern, and
	# * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
	# * are current syscall group specific
	readarray -t existing_rules < <(sed -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file")
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi

	# Process rules found case-by-case
	for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
	do
		# Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
		if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
		then
			# If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
			rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
			# Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
			# of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
			if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
			then
				# Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
				# subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
				# Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
			else
				# Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
				# for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
				# group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
				# since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
				# Therefore:
				# * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
				# * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
				# keep those not belonging to this syscall group
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
				# * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
				# if the same rule not already present
				#
				# 1) Delete the original rule
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi

				# 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
				# Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
				IFS_BKP="$IFS"
				IFS=$'-S'
				read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
				# Reset IFS back to default
				IFS="$IFS_BKP"
				# Splitting by "-S" can't be replaced by the readarray functionality easily

				# Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
				new_syscalls_for_rule=''
				# Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
				for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
				do
					# Skip empty $syscall_arg values
					if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
					then
						continue
					fi
					# If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
					# (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
					if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
					then
						new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
					fi
				done
				# Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
				updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
				# Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
				updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
				# 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
				#    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
				if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
				then
					echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
				fi
			fi
		else
			# $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
			# architecture & key => don't insert it second time
			append_expected_rule=1
		fi
	done

	# We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
	# Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
	# Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
	if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
	then
		echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
	fi
done

return $retval

}
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
- name: Set architecture for audit rmdir tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: b{{ ansible_architecture | regex_replace('.*(\d\d$)','\1') }}
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80412-0
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030900
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
    - audit_rules_file_deletion_events_rmdir
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Search /etc/audit/rules.d for other DAC audit rules
  find:
    paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
    recurse: false
    contains: -F key=delete$
    patterns: '*.rules'
  register: find_rmdir
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80412-0
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030900
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
    - audit_rules_file_deletion_events_rmdir
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: If existing DAC ruleset not found, use /etc/audit/rules.d/delete.rules as
    the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - /etc/audit/rules.d/delete.rules
  when:
    - find_rmdir.matched is defined and find_rmdir.matched == 0
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80412-0
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030900
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
    - audit_rules_file_deletion_events_rmdir
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Use matched file as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - '{{ find_rmdir.files | map(attribute=''path'') | list | first }}'
  when:
    - find_rmdir.matched is defined and find_rmdir.matched > 0
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80412-0
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030900
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
    - audit_rules_file_deletion_events_rmdir
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the rmdir rule in rules.d when on x86
  lineinfile:
    path: '{{ all_files[0] }}'
    line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S rmdir -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete
    create: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80412-0
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030900
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
    - audit_rules_file_deletion_events_rmdir
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the rmdir rule in rules.d when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    path: '{{ all_files[0] }}'
    line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S rmdir -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete
    create: true
  when:
    - audit_arch is defined and audit_arch == 'b64'
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80412-0
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030900
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
    - audit_rules_file_deletion_events_rmdir
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the rmdir rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules when on x86
  lineinfile:
    line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S rmdir -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80412-0
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030900
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
    - audit_rules_file_deletion_events_rmdir
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the rmdir rule in audit.rules when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S rmdir -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: true
  when:
    - audit_arch is defined and audit_arch == 'b64'
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80412-0
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030900
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
    - audit_rules_file_deletion_events_rmdir
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

Rule   Ensure auditd Collects File Deletion Events by User - rename   [ref]

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file deletion events for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:

-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S rename -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S rename -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete

Rationale:

Auditing file deletions will create an audit trail for files that are removed from the system. The audit trail could aid in system troubleshooting, as well as, detecting malicious processes that attempt to delete log files to conceal their presence.

Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_file_deletion_events_rename
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80995-4

References:  5.2.14, 3.1.7, CCI-000172, CCI-000366, CCI-002884, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.312(a)(2)(i), 164.312(b), 164.312(d), 164.312(e), AU-2(d), AU-12(c), CM-6(a), DE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.MA-2, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4, FAU_GEN.1.1.c, Req-10.2.7, SRG-OS-000466-GPOS-00210, SRG-OS-000467-GPOS-00210, SRG-OS-000468-GPOS-00212, SRG-OS-000392-GPOS-00172, SRG-OS-000466-VMM-001870, SRG-OS-000468-VMM-001890, SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, 4.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01, A.11.2.4, A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.1.1, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, RHEL-07-030880, SV-86823r5_rule





# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S rename.*"
	GROUP="delete"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S rename -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete"
	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect+=('/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
	matches=()
	key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)' '|' "$full_rule" : '.*-F[[:space:]]key=\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
	readarray -t matches < <(sed -s -n -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules)
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		files_to_inspect+=("${match}")
	done
	# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		file_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		files_to_inspect=("$file_to_inspect")
		if [ ! -e "$file_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$file_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$file_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
	# Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
	# * follow the rule pattern, and
	# * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
	# * are current syscall group specific
	readarray -t existing_rules < <(sed -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file")
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi

	# Process rules found case-by-case
	for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
	do
		# Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
		if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
		then
			# If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
			rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
			# Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
			# of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
			if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
			then
				# Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
				# subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
				# Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
			else
				# Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
				# for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
				# group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
				# since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
				# Therefore:
				# * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
				# * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
				# keep those not belonging to this syscall group
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
				# * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
				# if the same rule not already present
				#
				# 1) Delete the original rule
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi

				# 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
				# Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
				IFS_BKP="$IFS"
				IFS=$'-S'
				read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
				# Reset IFS back to default
				IFS="$IFS_BKP"
				# Splitting by "-S" can't be replaced by the readarray functionality easily

				# Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
				new_syscalls_for_rule=''
				# Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
				for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
				do
					# Skip empty $syscall_arg values
					if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
					then
						continue
					fi
					# If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
					# (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
					if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
					then
						new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
					fi
				done
				# Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
				updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
				# Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
				updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
				# 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
				#    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
				if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
				then
					echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
				fi
			fi
		else
			# $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
			# architecture & key => don't insert it second time
			append_expected_rule=1
		fi
	done

	# We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
	# Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
	# Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
	if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
	then
		echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
	fi
done

return $retval

}
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
- name: Set architecture for audit rename tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: b{{ ansible_architecture | regex_replace('.*(\d\d$)','\1') }}
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80995-4
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030880
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
    - audit_rules_file_deletion_events_rename
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Search /etc/audit/rules.d for other DAC audit rules
  find:
    paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
    recurse: false
    contains: -F key=delete$
    patterns: '*.rules'
  register: find_rename
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80995-4
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030880
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
    - audit_rules_file_deletion_events_rename
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: If existing DAC ruleset not found, use /etc/audit/rules.d/delete.rules as
    the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - /etc/audit/rules.d/delete.rules
  when:
    - find_rename.matched is defined and find_rename.matched == 0
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80995-4
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030880
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
    - audit_rules_file_deletion_events_rename
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Use matched file as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - '{{ find_rename.files | map(attribute=''path'') | list | first }}'
  when:
    - find_rename.matched is defined and find_rename.matched > 0
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80995-4
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030880
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
    - audit_rules_file_deletion_events_rename
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the rename rule in rules.d when on x86
  lineinfile:
    path: '{{ all_files[0] }}'
    line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S rename -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete
    create: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80995-4
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030880
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
    - audit_rules_file_deletion_events_rename
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the rename rule in rules.d when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    path: '{{ all_files[0] }}'
    line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S rename -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete
    create: true
  when:
    - audit_arch is defined and audit_arch == 'b64'
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80995-4
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030880
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
    - audit_rules_file_deletion_events_rename
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the rename rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules when on x86
  lineinfile:
    line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S rename -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80995-4
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030880
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
    - audit_rules_file_deletion_events_rename
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the rename rule in audit.rules when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S rename -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: true
  when:
    - audit_arch is defined and audit_arch == 'b64'
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80995-4
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030880
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
    - audit_rules_file_deletion_events_rename
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

Rule   Ensure auditd Collects File Deletion Events by User - renameat   [ref]

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file deletion events for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:

-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S renameat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S renameat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete

Rationale:

Auditing file deletions will create an audit trail for files that are removed from the system. The audit trail could aid in system troubleshooting, as well as, detecting malicious processes that attempt to delete log files to conceal their presence.

Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_file_deletion_events_renameat
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80413-8

References:  5.2.14, 3.1.7, CCI-000172, CCI-000366, CCI-002884, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.312(a)(2)(i), 164.312(b), 164.312(d), 164.312(e), AU-2(d), AU-12(c), CM-6(a), DE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.MA-2, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4, FAU_GEN.1.1.c, Req-10.2.7, SRG-OS-000466-GPOS-00210, SRG-OS-000467-GPOS-00210, SRG-OS-000468-GPOS-00212, SRG-OS-000392-GPOS-00172, SRG-OS-000466-VMM-001870, SRG-OS-000468-VMM-001890, SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, 4.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01, A.11.2.4, A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.1.1, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, RHEL-07-030890, SV-86825r5_rule





# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S renameat.*"
	GROUP="delete"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S renameat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete"
	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect+=('/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
	matches=()
	key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)' '|' "$full_rule" : '.*-F[[:space:]]key=\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
	readarray -t matches < <(sed -s -n -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules)
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		files_to_inspect+=("${match}")
	done
	# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		file_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		files_to_inspect=("$file_to_inspect")
		if [ ! -e "$file_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$file_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$file_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
	# Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
	# * follow the rule pattern, and
	# * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
	# * are current syscall group specific
	readarray -t existing_rules < <(sed -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file")
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi

	# Process rules found case-by-case
	for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
	do
		# Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
		if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
		then
			# If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
			rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
			# Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
			# of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
			if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
			then
				# Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
				# subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
				# Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
			else
				# Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
				# for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
				# group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
				# since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
				# Therefore:
				# * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
				# * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
				# keep those not belonging to this syscall group
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
				# * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
				# if the same rule not already present
				#
				# 1) Delete the original rule
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi

				# 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
				# Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
				IFS_BKP="$IFS"
				IFS=$'-S'
				read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
				# Reset IFS back to default
				IFS="$IFS_BKP"
				# Splitting by "-S" can't be replaced by the readarray functionality easily

				# Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
				new_syscalls_for_rule=''
				# Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
				for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
				do
					# Skip empty $syscall_arg values
					if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
					then
						continue
					fi
					# If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
					# (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
					if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
					then
						new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
					fi
				done
				# Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
				updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
				# Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
				updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
				# 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
				#    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
				if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
				then
					echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
				fi
			fi
		else
			# $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
			# architecture & key => don't insert it second time
			append_expected_rule=1
		fi
	done

	# We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
	# Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
	# Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
	if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
	then
		echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
	fi
done

return $retval

}
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
- name: Set architecture for audit renameat tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: b{{ ansible_architecture | regex_replace('.*(\d\d$)','\1') }}
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80413-8
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030890
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
    - audit_rules_file_deletion_events_renameat
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Search /etc/audit/rules.d for other DAC audit rules
  find:
    paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
    recurse: false
    contains: -F key=delete$
    patterns: '*.rules'
  register: find_renameat
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80413-8
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030890
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
    - audit_rules_file_deletion_events_renameat
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: If existing DAC ruleset not found, use /etc/audit/rules.d/delete.rules as
    the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - /etc/audit/rules.d/delete.rules
  when:
    - find_renameat.matched is defined and find_renameat.matched == 0
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80413-8
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030890
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
    - audit_rules_file_deletion_events_renameat
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Use matched file as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - '{{ find_renameat.files | map(attribute=''path'') | list | first }}'
  when:
    - find_renameat.matched is defined and find_renameat.matched > 0
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80413-8
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030890
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
    - audit_rules_file_deletion_events_renameat
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the renameat rule in rules.d when on x86
  lineinfile:
    path: '{{ all_files[0] }}'
    line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S renameat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete
    create: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80413-8
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030890
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
    - audit_rules_file_deletion_events_renameat
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the renameat rule in rules.d when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    path: '{{ all_files[0] }}'
    line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S renameat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete
    create: true
  when:
    - audit_arch is defined and audit_arch == 'b64'
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80413-8
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030890
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
    - audit_rules_file_deletion_events_renameat
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the renameat rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules when on x86
  lineinfile:
    line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S renameat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80413-8
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030890
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
    - audit_rules_file_deletion_events_renameat
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the renameat rule in audit.rules when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S renameat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: true
  when:
    - audit_arch is defined and audit_arch == 'b64'
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-80413-8
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030890
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
    - audit_rules_file_deletion_events_renameat
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy
Group   Record Attempts to Alter Logon and Logout Events   Group contains 2 rules
Group   Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls   Group contains 13 rules

[ref]   At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. Note that the "-F arch=b32" lines should be present even on a 64 bit system. These commands identify system calls for auditing. Even if the system is 64 bit it can still execute 32 bit system calls. Additionally, these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. An example of this is that the "-S" calls could be split up and placed on separate lines, however, this is less efficient. Add the following to /etc/audit/audit.rules:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chmod,fchmod,fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
    -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chown,fchown,fchownat,lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
    -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S setxattr,lsetxattr,fsetxattr,removexattr,lremovexattr,fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If your system is 64 bit then these lines should be duplicated and the arch=b32 replaced with arch=b64 as follows:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chmod,fchmod,fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
    -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chown,fchown,fchownat,lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
    -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S setxattr,lsetxattr,fsetxattr,removexattr,lremovexattr,fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod

Rule   Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - lsetxattr   [ref]

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S lsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S lsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S lsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S lsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod

Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.

Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_dac_modification_lsetxattr
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-27280-7

References:  5.2.10, 5.4.1.1, 3.1.7, CCI-000126, CCI-000172, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.312(a)(2)(i), 164.312(b), 164.312(d), 164.312(e), AU-2(d), AU-12(c), CM-6(a), DE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4, FAU_GEN.1.1.c, Req-10.5.5, SRG-OS-000064-GPOS-00033, SRG-OS-000392-GPOS-00172, SRG-OS-000458-GPOS-00203, SRG-OS-000474-GPOS-00219, SRG-OS-000458-VMM-001810, SRG-OS-000474-VMM-001940, SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, 4.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01, A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, RHEL-07-030460, SV-86739r5_rule





# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S lsetxattr.*"
	GROUP="perm_mod"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S lsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect+=('/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
	matches=()
	key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)' '|' "$full_rule" : '.*-F[[:space:]]key=\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
	readarray -t matches < <(sed -s -n -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules)
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		files_to_inspect+=("${match}")
	done
	# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		file_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		files_to_inspect=("$file_to_inspect")
		if [ ! -e "$file_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$file_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$file_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
	# Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
	# * follow the rule pattern, and
	# * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
	# * are current syscall group specific
	readarray -t existing_rules < <(sed -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file")
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi

	# Process rules found case-by-case
	for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
	do
		# Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
		if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
		then
			# If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
			rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
			# Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
			# of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
			if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
			then
				# Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
				# subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
				# Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
			else
				# Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
				# for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
				# group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
				# since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
				# Therefore:
				# * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
				# * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
				# keep those not belonging to this syscall group
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
				# * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
				# if the same rule not already present
				#
				# 1) Delete the original rule
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi

				# 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
				# Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
				IFS_BKP="$IFS"
				IFS=$'-S'
				read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
				# Reset IFS back to default
				IFS="$IFS_BKP"
				# Splitting by "-S" can't be replaced by the readarray functionality easily

				# Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
				new_syscalls_for_rule=''
				# Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
				for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
				do
					# Skip empty $syscall_arg values
					if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
					then
						continue
					fi
					# If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
					# (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
					if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
					then
						new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
					fi
				done
				# Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
				updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
				# Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
				updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
				# 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
				#    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
				if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
				then
					echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
				fi
			fi
		else
			# $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
			# architecture & key => don't insert it second time
			append_expected_rule=1
		fi
	done

	# We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
	# Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
	# Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
	if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
	then
		echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
	fi
done

return $retval

}
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
- name: Set architecture for audit lsetxattr tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: b{{ ansible_architecture | regex_replace('.*(\d\d$)','\1') }}
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-27280-7
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030460
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_lsetxattr
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Search /etc/audit/rules.d for other DAC audit rules
  find:
    paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
    recurse: false
    contains: -F key=perm_mod$
    patterns: '*.rules'
  register: find_lsetxattr
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-27280-7
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030460
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_lsetxattr
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: If existing DAC ruleset not found, use /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules
    as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules
  when:
    - find_lsetxattr.matched is defined and find_lsetxattr.matched == 0
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-27280-7
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030460
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_lsetxattr
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Use matched file as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - '{{ find_lsetxattr.files | map(attribute=''path'') | list | first }}'
  when:
    - find_lsetxattr.matched is defined and find_lsetxattr.matched > 0
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-27280-7
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030460
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_lsetxattr
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the lsetxattr rule in rules.d when on x86
  lineinfile:
    path: '{{ all_files[0] }}'
    line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S lsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F
      key=perm_mod
    create: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-27280-7
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030460
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_lsetxattr
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the lsetxattr rule in rules.d when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    path: '{{ all_files[0] }}'
    line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S lsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F
      key=perm_mod
    create: true
  when:
    - audit_arch is defined and audit_arch == 'b64'
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-27280-7
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030460
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_lsetxattr
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the lsetxattr rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules when on x86
  lineinfile:
    line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S lsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F
      key=perm_mod
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-27280-7
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030460
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_lsetxattr
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy

- name: Inserts/replaces the lsetxattr rule in audit.rules when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S lsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F
      key=perm_mod
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: true
  when:
    - audit_arch is defined and audit_arch == 'b64'
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - CCE-27280-7
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-030460
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_lsetxattr
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - medium_severity
    - reboot_required
    - restrict_strategy


Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable

apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
kind: MachineConfig
spec:
  config:
    ignition:
      version: 2.2.0
    storage:
      files:
      - contents:
          source: data:,-a%20always%2Cexit%20-F%20arch%3Db32%20-S%20lsetxattr%20-F%20auid%3E%3D1000%20-F%20auid%21%3Dunset%20-F%20key%3Dperm_mod%0A-a%20always%2Cexit%20-F%20arch%3Db64%20-S%20lsetxattr%20-F%20auid%3E%3D1000%20-F%20auid%21%3Dunset%20-F%20key%3Dperm_mod%0A
        filesystem: root
        mode: 0644
        path: /etc/audit/rules.d/75-lsetxattr_dac_modification.rules