Guide to the Secure Configuration of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7

with profile DRAFT - ANSSI DAT-NT28 (enhanced)
Draft profile for ANSSI compliance at the enhanced level. ANSSI stands for Agence nationale de la sécurité des systèmes d'information. Based on https://www.ssi.gouv.fr/.
This guide presents a catalog of security-relevant configuration settings for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7. It is a rendering of content structured in the eXtensible Configuration Checklist Description Format (XCCDF) in order to support security automation. The SCAP content is is available in the scap-security-guide package which is developed at https://www.open-scap.org/security-policies/scap-security-guide.

Providing system administrators with such guidance informs them how to securely configure systems under their control in a variety of network roles. Policy makers and baseline creators can use this catalog of settings, with its associated references to higher-level security control catalogs, in order to assist them in security baseline creation. This guide is a catalog, not a checklist, and satisfaction of every item is not likely to be possible or sensible in many operational scenarios. However, the XCCDF format enables granular selection and adjustment of settings, and their association with OVAL and OCIL content provides an automated checking capability. Transformations of this document, and its associated automated checking content, are capable of providing baselines that meet a diverse set of policy objectives. Some example XCCDF Profiles, which are selections of items that form checklists and can be used as baselines, are available with this guide. They can be processed, in an automated fashion, with tools that support the Security Content Automation Protocol (SCAP). The DISA STIG, which provides required settings for US Department of Defense systems, is one example of a baseline created from this guidance.
Do not attempt to implement any of the settings in this guide without first testing them in a non-operational environment. The creators of this guidance assume no responsibility whatsoever for its use by other parties, and makes no guarantees, expressed or implied, about its quality, reliability, or any other characteristic.

Profile Information

Profile TitleDRAFT - ANSSI DAT-NT28 (enhanced)
Profile IDxccdf_org.ssgproject.content_profile_anssi_nt28_enhanced

CPE Platforms

  • cpe:/o:redhat:enterprise_linux:7
  • cpe:/o:redhat:enterprise_linux:7::client
  • cpe:/o:redhat:enterprise_linux:7::computenode

Revision History

Current version: 0.1.45

  • draft (as of 2019-07-22)

Table of Contents

  1. Services
    1. Mail Server Software
    2. DHCP
    3. Deprecated services
    4. SSH Server
  2. System Settings
    1. Installing and Maintaining Software
    2. Configure Syslog
    3. Network Configuration and Firewalls
    4. Set Boot Loader Password
    5. Account and Access Control
    6. File Permissions and Masks

Checklist

Group   Guide to the Secure Configuration of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7   Group contains 38 groups and 74 rules
Group   Services   Group contains 6 groups and 5 rules

[ref]   The best protection against vulnerable software is running less software. This section describes how to review the software which Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 installs on a system and disable software which is not needed. It then enumerates the software packages installed on a default Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 system and provides guidance about which ones can be safely disabled.

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 provides a convenient minimal install option that essentially installs the bare necessities for a functional system. When building Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 systems, it is highly recommended to select the minimal packages and then build up the system from there.

Group   Mail Server Software   Group contains 1 rule

[ref]   Mail servers are used to send and receive email over the network. Mail is a very common service, and Mail Transfer Agents (MTAs) are obvious targets of network attack. Ensure that systems are not running MTAs unnecessarily, and configure needed MTAs as defensively as possible.

Very few systems at any site should be configured to directly receive email over the network. Users should instead use mail client programs to retrieve email from a central server that supports protocols such as IMAP or POP3. However, it is normal for most systems to be independently capable of sending email, for instance so that cron jobs can report output to an administrator. Most MTAs, including Postfix, support a submission-only mode in which mail can be sent from the local system to a central site MTA (or directly delivered to a local account), but the system still cannot receive mail directly over a network.

The alternatives program in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 permits selection of other mail server software (such as Sendmail), but Postfix is the default and is preferred. Postfix was coded with security in mind and can also be more effectively contained by SELinux as its modular design has resulted in separate processes performing specific actions. More information is available on its website, http://www.postfix.org.

Rule   Uninstall Sendmail Package   [ref]

Sendmail is not the default mail transfer agent and is not installed by default. The sendmail package can be removed with the following command:

$ sudo yum erase sendmail

Rationale:

The sendmail software was not developed with security in mind and its design prevents it from being effectively contained by SELinux. Postfix should be used instead.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80288-4

References:  NT28(R1), 11, 14, 3, 9, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.05, DSS06.06, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 7.6, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.9.1.2, CM-7, PR.IP-1, PR.PT-3

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
# Function to remove packages on RHEL, Fedora, Debian, and possibly other systems.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     package_remove telnet-server
#
function package_remove {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local package="$1"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "1" ]
then
  echo "Usage: package_remove 'package_name'"
  echo "Aborting."
  exit 1
fi

if which dnf ; then
  if rpm -q --quiet "$package"; then
    dnf remove -y "$package"
  fi
elif which yum ; then
  if rpm -q --quiet "$package"; then
    yum remove -y "$package"
  fi
elif which apt-get ; then
  apt-get remove -y "$package"
else
  echo "Failed to detect available packaging system, tried dnf, yum and apt-get!"
  echo "Aborting."
  exit 1
fi

}

package_remove sendmail
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
- name: Ensure sendmail is removed
  package:
    name: sendmail
    state: absent
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - package_sendmail_removed
    - medium_severity
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-80288-4
    - NIST-800-53-CM-7
Remediation Puppet snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
include remove_sendmail

class remove_sendmail {
  package { 'sendmail':
    ensure => 'purged',
  }
}
Remediation Anaconda snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable

package --remove=sendmail
Group   DHCP   Group contains 1 group and 1 rule

[ref]   The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) allows systems to request and obtain an IP address and other configuration parameters from a server.

This guide recommends configuring networking on clients by manually editing the appropriate files under /etc/sysconfig. Use of DHCP can make client systems vulnerable to compromise by rogue DHCP servers, and should be avoided unless necessary. If using DHCP is necessary, however, there are best practices that should be followed to minimize security risk.

Group   Disable DHCP Server   Group contains 1 rule

[ref]   The DHCP server dhcpd is not installed or activated by default. If the software was installed and activated, but the system does not need to act as a DHCP server, it should be disabled and removed.

Rule   Uninstall DHCP Server Package   [ref]

If the system does not need to act as a DHCP server, the dhcp package can be uninstalled. The dhcp package can be removed with the following command:

$ sudo yum erase dhcp

Rationale:

Removing the DHCP server ensures that it cannot be easily or accidentally reactivated and disrupt network operation.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80331-2

References:  NT28(R1), 11, 14, 3, 9, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.05, DSS06.06, CCI-000366, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 7.6, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.9.1.2, CM-7, PR.IP-1, PR.PT-3

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
# Function to remove packages on RHEL, Fedora, Debian, and possibly other systems.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     package_remove telnet-server
#
function package_remove {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local package="$1"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "1" ]
then
  echo "Usage: package_remove 'package_name'"
  echo "Aborting."
  exit 1
fi

if which dnf ; then
  if rpm -q --quiet "$package"; then
    dnf remove -y "$package"
  fi
elif which yum ; then
  if rpm -q --quiet "$package"; then
    yum remove -y "$package"
  fi
elif which apt-get ; then
  apt-get remove -y "$package"
else
  echo "Failed to detect available packaging system, tried dnf, yum and apt-get!"
  echo "Aborting."
  exit 1
fi

}

package_remove dhcp
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
- name: Ensure dhcp is removed
  package:
    name: dhcp
    state: absent
  tags:
    - package_dhcp_removed
    - medium_severity
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-80331-2
    - NIST-800-53-CM-7
Remediation Puppet snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable
include remove_dhcp

class remove_dhcp {
  package { 'dhcp':
    ensure => 'purged',
  }
}
Remediation Anaconda snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:disable

package --remove=dhcp
Group   Deprecated services   Group contains 1 rule

[ref]   Some deprecated software services impact the overall system security due to their behavior (leak of confidentiality in network exchange, usage as uncontrolled communication channel, risk associated with the service due to its old age, etc.

Rule   Uninstall the telnet server   [ref]

The telnet daemon should be uninstalled.

Rationale:

telnet allows clear text communications, and does not protect any data transmission between client and server. Any confidential data can be listened and no integrity checking is made.

Severity: 
high
Identifiers and References

References:  NT28(R1), 11, 12, 14, 15, 3, 8, 9, APO13.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS01.04, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.05, DSS06.06, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.11.2.6, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, A.9.1.2, AC-17(8), CM-7, PR.AC-3, PR.IP-1, PR.PT-3, PR.PT-4

Group   SSH Server   Group contains 1 group and 2 rules

[ref]   The SSH protocol is recommended for remote login and remote file transfer. SSH provides confidentiality and integrity for data exchanged between two systems, as well as server authentication, through the use of public key cryptography. The implementation included with the system is called OpenSSH, and more detailed documentation is available from its website, http://www.openssh.org. Its server program is called sshd and provided by the RPM package openssh-server.

Group   Configure OpenSSH Server if Necessary   Group contains 2 rules

[ref]   If the system needs to act as an SSH server, then certain changes should be made to the OpenSSH daemon configuration file /etc/ssh/sshd_config. The following recommendations can be applied to this file. See the sshd_config(5) man page for more detailed information.

Rule   Set SSH Idle Timeout Interval   [ref]

SSH allows administrators to set an idle timeout interval. After this interval has passed, the idle user will be automatically logged out.

To set an idle timeout interval, edit the following line in /etc/ssh/sshd_config as follows:

ClientAliveInterval 300
The timeout interval is given in seconds. To have a timeout of 15 minutes, set interval to 900.

If a shorter timeout has already been set for the login shell, that value will preempt any SSH setting made here. Keep in mind that some processes may stop SSH from correctly detecting that the user is idle.

Rationale:

Terminating an idle ssh session within a short time period reduces the window of opportunity for unauthorized personnel to take control of a management session enabled on the console or console port that has been let unattended.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-27433-2

References:  RHEL-07-040320, SV-86861r4_rule, NT28(R29), 5.2.12, 1, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, 7, 8, 5.5.6, APO13.01, BAI03.01, BAI03.02, BAI03.03, DSS01.03, DSS03.05, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, 3.1.11, CCI-001133, CCI-002361, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 6.2, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.3, A.14.1.1, A.14.2.1, A.14.2.5, A.18.1.4, A.6.1.2, A.6.1.5, A.7.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, AC-2(5), SA-8(i), AC-12, AC-17(b), DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, PR.AC-1, PR.AC-4, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, PR.IP-2, Req-8.1.8, SRG-OS-000163-GPOS-00072, SRG-OS-000279-GPOS-00109, SRG-OS-000480-VMM-002000

Remediation Shell script:   (show)


sshd_idle_timeout_value="300"
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append '/etc/ssh/sshd_config' '^ClientAliveInterval' $sshd_idle_timeout_value 'CCE-27433-2' '%s %s'
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value sshd_idle_timeout_value # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    sshd_idle_timeout_value: !!str 300
  tags:
    - always

- name: Set SSH Idle Timeout Interval
  block:

    - name: Deduplicate values from /etc/ssh/sshd_config
      lineinfile:
        path: /etc/ssh/sshd_config
        create: false
        regexp: (?i)^\s*ClientAliveInterval\s+
        state: absent

    - name: Insert correct line to /etc/ssh/sshd_config
      lineinfile:
        path: /etc/ssh/sshd_config
        create: true
        line: ClientAliveInterval {{ sshd_idle_timeout_value }}
        state: present
        insertbefore: ^Match
        validate: /usr/sbin/sshd -t -f %s
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - sshd_set_idle_timeout
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-27433-2
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.8
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-040320
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.11
    - NIST-800-53-AC-2(5)
    - NIST-800-53-SA-8(i)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-12
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(b)
    - CJIS-5.5.6
Group   System Settings   Group contains 30 groups and 69 rules

[ref]   Contains rules that check correct system settings.

Group   Installing and Maintaining Software   Group contains 3 groups and 12 rules

[ref]   The following sections contain information on security-relevant choices during the initial operating system installation process and the setup of software updates.

Group   Disk Partitioning   Group contains 5 rules

[ref]   To ensure separation and protection of data, there are top-level system directories which should be placed on their own physical partition or logical volume. The installer's default partitioning scheme creates separate logical volumes for /, /boot, and swap.

  • If starting with any of the default layouts, check the box to \"Review and modify partitioning.\" This allows for the easy creation of additional logical volumes inside the volume group already created, though it may require making /'s logical volume smaller to create space. In general, using logical volumes is preferable to using partitions because they can be more easily adjusted later.
  • If creating a custom layout, create the partitions mentioned in the previous paragraph (which the installer will require anyway), as well as separate ones described in the following sections.
If a system has already been installed, and the default partitioning scheme was used, it is possible but nontrivial to modify it to create separate logical volumes for the directories listed above. The Logical Volume Manager (LVM) makes this possible. See the LVM HOWTO at http://tldp.org/HOWTO/LVM-HOWTO/ for more detailed information on LVM.

Rule   Ensure /home Located On Separate Partition   [ref]

If user home directories will be stored locally, create a separate partition for /home at installation time (or migrate it later using LVM). If /home will be mounted from another system such as an NFS server, then creating a separate partition is not necessary at installation time, and the mountpoint can instead be configured later.

Rationale:

Ensuring that /home is mounted on its own partition enables the setting of more restrictive mount options, and also helps ensure that users cannot trivially fill partitions used for log or audit data storage.

Severity: 
low
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80144-9

References:  RHEL-07-021310, SV-86683r2_rule, 1.1.13, 12, 15, 8, APO13.01, DSS05.02, CCI-000366, CCI-001208, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, SC-32(1), PR.PT-4, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227

Remediation Anaconda snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Strategy:enable

part /home

Rule   Ensure /var/tmp Located On Separate Partition   [ref]

The /var/tmp directory is a world-writable directory used for temporary file storage. Ensure it has its own partition or logical volume at installation time, or migrate it using LVM.

Rationale:

The /var/tmp partition is used as temporary storage by many programs. Placing /var/tmp in its own partition enables the setting of more restrictive mount options, which can help protect programs which use it.

Severity: 
low
Identifiers and References

References:  NT28(R12), 1.1.7

Remediation Anaconda snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Strategy:enable

part /var/tmp

Rule   Ensure /var Located On Separate Partition   [ref]

The /var directory is used by daemons and other system services to store frequently-changing data. Ensure that /var has its own partition or logical volume at installation time, or migrate it using LVM.

Rationale:

Ensuring that /var is mounted on its own partition enables the setting of more restrictive mount options. This helps protect system services such as daemons or other programs which use it. It is not uncommon for the /var directory to contain world-writable directories installed by other software packages.

Severity: 
low
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-82014-2

References:  RHEL-07-021320, SV-86685r2_rule, 1.1.6, 12, 15, 8, APO13.01, DSS05.02, CCI-000366, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, SC-32(1), PR.PT-4, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, SRG-OS-000341-VMM-001220

Remediation Anaconda snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Strategy:enable

part /var

Rule   Ensure /tmp Located On Separate Partition   [ref]

The /tmp directory is a world-writable directory used for temporary file storage. Ensure it has its own partition or logical volume at installation time, or migrate it using LVM.

Rationale:

The /tmp partition is used as temporary storage by many programs. Placing /tmp in its own partition enables the setting of more restrictive mount options, which can help protect programs which use it.

Severity: 
low
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-82053-0

References:  RHEL-07-021340, SV-86689r3_rule, NT28(R12), 1.1.2, 12, 15, 8, APO13.01, DSS05.02, CCI-000366, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, SC-32(1), PR.PT-4, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227

Remediation Anaconda snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Strategy:enable

part /tmp

Rule   Ensure /var/log Located On Separate Partition   [ref]

System logs are stored in the /var/log directory. Ensure that it has its own partition or logical volume at installation time, or migrate it using LVM.

Rationale:

Placing /var/log in its own partition enables better separation between log files and other files in /var/.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-82034-0

References:  NT28(R12), NT28(R47), 1.1.11, 1, 12, 14, 15, 16, 3, 5, 6, 8, APO11.04, APO13.01, BAI03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, MEA02.01, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, AU-9, SC-32, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4

Remediation Anaconda snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Strategy:enable

part /var/log
Group   Sudo   Group contains 2 rules

[ref]   Sudo, which stands for \"su 'do'\", provides the ability to delegate authority to certain users, groups of users, or system administrators. When configured for system users and/or groups, Sudo can allow a user or group to execute privileged commands that normally only root is allowed to execute.

For more information on Sudo and addition Sudo configuration options, see https://www.sudo.ws.

Rule   Ensure Users Re-Authenticate for Privilege Escalation - sudo !authenticate   [ref]

The sudo !authenticate option, when specified, allows a user to execute commands using sudo without having to authenticate. This should be disabled by making sure that the !authenticate option does not exist in /etc/sudoers configuration file or any sudo configuration snippets in /etc/sudoers.d/.

Rationale:

Without re-authentication, users may access resources or perform tasks for which they do not have authorization.

When operating systems provide the capability to escalate a functional capability, it is critical that the user re-authenticate.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80350-2

References:  RHEL-07-010350, SV-86573r3_rule, NT28(R5), NT28(R59), 1, 12, 15, 16, 5, DSS05.04, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, CCI-002038, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, A.18.1.4, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, IA-11, PR.AC-1, PR.AC-7, SRG-OS-000373-GPOS-00156, SRG-OS-000373-GPOS-00157, SRG-OS-000373-GPOS-00158, SRG-OS-000373-VMM-001470, SRG-OS-000373-VMM-001480, SRG-OS-000373-VMM-001490

Rule   Ensure Users Re-Authenticate for Privilege Escalation - sudo NOPASSWD   [ref]

The sudo NOPASSWD tag, when specified, allows a user to execute commands using sudo without having to authenticate. This should be disabled by making sure that the NOPASSWD tag does not exist in /etc/sudoers configuration file or any sudo configuration snippets in /etc/sudoers.d/.

Rationale:

Without re-authentication, users may access resources or perform tasks for which they do not have authorization.

When operating systems provide the capability to escalate a functional capability, it is critical that the user re-authenticate.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80351-0

References:  RHEL-07-010340, SV-86571r3_rule, NT28(R5), NT28(R59), 1, 12, 15, 16, 5, DSS05.04, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, CCI-002038, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, A.18.1.4, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, IA-11, PR.AC-1, PR.AC-7, SRG-OS-000373-GPOS-00156, SRG-OS-000373-GPOS-00157, SRG-OS-000373-GPOS-00158, SRG-OS-000373-VMM-001470, SRG-OS-000373-VMM-001480, SRG-OS-000373-VMM-001490

Group   Updating Software   Group contains 5 rules

[ref]   The yum command line tool is used to install and update software packages. The system also provides a graphical software update tool in the System menu, in the Administration submenu, called Software Update.

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 systems contain an installed software catalog called the RPM database, which records metadata of installed packages. Consistently using yum or the graphical Software Update for all software installation allows for insight into the current inventory of installed software on the system.

Rule   Ensure gpgcheck Enabled for All yum Package Repositories   [ref]

To ensure signature checking is not disabled for any repos, remove any lines from files in /etc/yum.repos.d of the form:

gpgcheck=0

Rationale:

Verifying the authenticity of the software prior to installation validates the integrity of the patch or upgrade received from a vendor. This ensures the software has not been tampered with and that it has been provided by a trusted vendor. Self-signed certificates are disallowed by this requirement. Certificates used to verify the software must be from an approved Certificate Authority (CA)."

Severity: 
high
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-26876-3

References:  NT28(R15), 11, 2, 3, 9, 5.10.4.1, APO01.06, BAI03.05, BAI06.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS06.02, 3.4.8, CCI-001749, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.312(b), 164.312(c)(1), 164.312(c)(2), 164.312(e)(2)(i), 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.3.4.4.4, SR 3.1, SR 3.3, SR 3.4, SR 3.8, SR 7.6, A.11.2.4, A.12.1.2, A.12.2.1, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, CM-5(3), CM-11(a), SI-7, MA-1(b), PR.DS-6, PR.DS-8, PR.IP-1, FAU_GEN.1.1.c, Req-6.2, SRG-OS-000366-GPOS-00153, SRG-OS-000366-VMM-001430, SRG-OS-000370-VMM-001460, SRG-OS-000404-VMM-001650

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

sed -i 's/gpgcheck\s*=.*/gpgcheck=1/g' /etc/yum.repos.d/*
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
- name: Find All yum Repositories
  find:
    paths: /etc/yum.repos.d/
    patterns: '*.repo'
    contains: ^\[.+]$
  register: yum_find
  tags:
    - ensure_gpgcheck_never_disabled
    - high_severity
    - unknown_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-26876-3
    - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
    - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-11(a)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - NIST-800-53-MA-1(b)
    - CJIS-5.10.4.1

- name: Ensure gpgcheck Enabled For All yum Package Repositories
  with_items: '{{ yum_find.files }}'
  lineinfile:
    create: true
    dest: '{{ item.path }}'
    regexp: ^gpgcheck
    line: gpgcheck=1
  tags:
    - ensure_gpgcheck_never_disabled
    - high_severity
    - unknown_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-26876-3
    - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
    - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-11(a)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - NIST-800-53-MA-1(b)
    - CJIS-5.10.4.1

Rule   Ensure Software Patches Installed   [ref]

If the system is joined to the Red Hat Network, a Red Hat Satellite Server, or a yum server, run the following command to install updates:

$ sudo yum update
If the system is not configured to use one of these sources, updates (in the form of RPM packages) can be manually downloaded from the Red Hat Network and installed using rpm.

NOTE: U.S. Defense systems are required to be patched within 30 days or sooner as local policy dictates.

Rationale:

Installing software updates is a fundamental mitigation against the exploitation of publicly-known vulnerabilities. If the most recent security patches and updates are not installed, unauthorized users may take advantage of weaknesses in the unpatched software. The lack of prompt attention to patching could result in a system compromise.

Severity: 
high
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-26895-3

References:  RHEL-07-020260, SV-86623r4_rule, NT28(R08), 1.8, 18, 20, 4, 5.10.4.1, APO12.01, APO12.02, APO12.03, APO12.04, BAI03.10, DSS05.01, DSS05.02, CCI-000366, 4.2.3, 4.2.3.12, 4.2.3.7, 4.2.3.9, A.12.6.1, A.14.2.3, A.16.1.3, A.18.2.2, A.18.2.3, SI-2, SI-2(c), MA-1(b), ID.RA-1, PR.IP-12, FMT_MOF_EXT.1, Req-6.2, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, SRG-OS-000480-VMM-002000

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Reboot:true
Strategy:patch
yum -y update
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Reboot:true
Strategy:patch
- name: Security patches are up to date
  package:
    name: '*'
    state: latest
  tags:
    - security_patches_up_to_date
    - high_severity
    - skip_ansible_lint
    - patch_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - high_disruption
    - reboot_required
    - CCE-26895-3
    - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-020260
    - NIST-800-53-SI-2
    - NIST-800-53-SI-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-MA-1(b)
    - CJIS-5.10.4.1

Rule   Ensure Red Hat GPG Key Installed   [ref]

To ensure the system can cryptographically verify base software packages come from Red Hat (and to connect to the Red Hat Network to receive them), the Red Hat GPG key must properly be installed. To install the Red Hat GPG key, run:

$ sudo subscription-manager register
If the system is not connected to the Internet or an RHN Satellite, then install the Red Hat GPG key from trusted media such as the Red Hat installation CD-ROM or DVD. Assuming the disc is mounted in /media/cdrom, use the following command as the root user to import it into the keyring:
$ sudo rpm --import /media/cdrom/RPM-GPG-KEY
Alternatively, the key may be pre-loaded during the RHEL installation. In such cases, the key can be installed by running the following command:
sudo rpm --import /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-key-redhat-release

Rationale:

Changes to software components can have significant effects on the overall security of the operating system. This requirement ensures the software has not been tampered with and that it has been provided by a trusted vendor. The Red Hat GPG key is necessary to cryptographically verify packages are from Red Hat.

Severity: 
high
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-26957-1

References:  NT28(R15), 1.2.3, 11, 2, 3, 9, 5.10.4.1, APO01.06, BAI03.05, BAI06.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS06.02, 3.4.8, CCI-001749, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.312(b), 164.312(c)(1), 164.312(c)(2), 164.312(e)(2)(i), 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.3.4.4.4, SR 3.1, SR 3.3, SR 3.4, SR 3.8, SR 7.6, A.11.2.4, A.12.1.2, A.12.2.1, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, CM-5(3), CM-11(a), SI-7, MA-1(b), PR.DS-6, PR.DS-8, PR.IP-1, FAU_GEN.1.1.c, Req-6.2, SRG-OS-000366-GPOS-00153, SRG-OS-000366-VMM-001430, SRG-OS-000370-VMM-001460, SRG-OS-000404-VMM-001650

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

# The two fingerprints below are retrieved from https://access.redhat.com/security/team/key
readonly REDHAT_RELEASE_2_FINGERPRINT="567E347AD0044ADE55BA8A5F199E2F91FD431D51"
readonly REDHAT_AUXILIARY_FINGERPRINT="43A6E49C4A38F4BE9ABF2A5345689C882FA658E0"
# Location of the key we would like to import (once it's integrity verified)
readonly REDHAT_RELEASE_KEY="/etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-redhat-release"

RPM_GPG_DIR_PERMS=$(stat -c %a "$(dirname "$REDHAT_RELEASE_KEY")")

# Verify /etc/pki/rpm-gpg directory permissions are safe
if [ "${RPM_GPG_DIR_PERMS}" -le "755" ]
then
  # If they are safe, try to obtain fingerprints from the key file
  # (to ensure there won't be e.g. CRC error).

  readarray -t GPG_OUT < <(gpg --with-fingerprint --with-colons "$REDHAT_RELEASE_KEY" | grep "^fpr" | cut -d ":" -f 10)

  GPG_RESULT=$?
  # No CRC error, safe to proceed
  if [ "${GPG_RESULT}" -eq "0" ]
  then
    echo "${GPG_OUT[*]}" | grep -vE "${REDHAT_RELEASE_2_FINGERPRINT}|${REDHAT_AUXILIARY_FINGERPRINT}" || {
      # If $REDHAT_RELEASE_KEY file doesn't contain any keys with unknown fingerprint, import it
      rpm --import "${REDHAT_RELEASE_KEY}"
    }
  fi
fi
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:medium
Disruption:medium
Strategy:restrict
- name: Read permission of GPG key directory
  stat:
    path: /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/
  register: gpg_key_directory_permission
  check_mode: false
  tags:
    - ensure_redhat_gpgkey_installed
    - high_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - medium_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-26957-1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
    - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-11(a)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - NIST-800-53-MA-1(b)
    - CJIS-5.10.4.1

- name: Read signatures in GPG key
  shell: |
    set -o pipefail
    gpg --with-fingerprint --with-colons "/etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-redhat-release" | grep "^fpr" | cut -d ":" -f 10
  args:
    warn: false
    executable: /bin/bash
  changed_when: false
  register: gpg_fingerprints
  check_mode: false
  tags:
    - ensure_redhat_gpgkey_installed
    - high_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - medium_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-26957-1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
    - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-11(a)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - NIST-800-53-MA-1(b)
    - CJIS-5.10.4.1

- name: Set Fact - Valid fingerprints
  set_fact:
    gpg_valid_fingerprints: ("567E347AD0044ADE55BA8A5F199E2F91FD431D51" "43A6E49C4A38F4BE9ABF2A5345689C882FA658E0")
  tags:
    - ensure_redhat_gpgkey_installed
    - high_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - medium_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-26957-1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
    - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-11(a)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - NIST-800-53-MA-1(b)
    - CJIS-5.10.4.1

- name: Import RedHat GPG key
  rpm_key:
    state: present
    key: /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-redhat-release
  when:
    - gpg_key_directory_permission.stat.mode <= '0755'
    - ( gpg_fingerprints.stdout_lines | difference(gpg_valid_fingerprints)) | length
      == 0
    - gpg_fingerprints.stdout_lines | length > 0
    - ansible_distribution == "RedHat"
  tags:
    - ensure_redhat_gpgkey_installed
    - high_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - medium_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-26957-1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
    - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-11(a)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - NIST-800-53-MA-1(b)
    - CJIS-5.10.4.1

Rule   Ensure gpgcheck Enabled In Main yum Configuration   [ref]

The gpgcheck option controls whether RPM packages' signatures are always checked prior to installation. To configure yum to check package signatures before installing them, ensure the following line appears in /etc/yum.conf in the [main] section:

gpgcheck=1

Rationale:

Changes to any software components can have significant effects on the overall security of the operating system. This requirement ensures the software has not been tampered with and that it has been provided by a trusted vendor.
Accordingly, patches, service packs, device drivers, or operating system components must be signed with a certificate recognized and approved by the organization.
Verifying the authenticity of the software prior to installation validates the integrity of the patch or upgrade received from a vendor. This ensures the software has not been tampered with and that it has been provided by a trusted vendor. Self-signed certificates are disallowed by this requirement. Certificates used to verify the software must be from an approved Certificate Authority (CA).

Severity: 
high
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-26989-4

References:  RHEL-07-020050, SV-86601r2_rule, NT28(R15), 1.2.2, 11, 2, 3, 9, 5.10.4.1, APO01.06, BAI03.05, BAI06.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS06.02, 3.4.8, CCI-001749, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.312(b), 164.312(c)(1), 164.312(c)(2), 164.312(e)(2)(i), 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.3.4.4.4, SR 3.1, SR 3.3, SR 3.4, SR 3.8, SR 7.6, A.11.2.4, A.12.1.2, A.12.2.1, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, CM-5(3), CM-11, SI-7, MA-1(b), PR.DS-6, PR.DS-8, PR.IP-1, FAU_GEN.1.1.c, Req-6.2, SRG-OS-000366-GPOS-00153, SRG-OS-000366-VMM-001430, SRG-OS-000370-VMM-001460, SRG-OS-000404-VMM-001650

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append "/etc/yum.conf" '^gpgcheck' '1' 'CCE-26989-4'
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
- name: Check existence of yum on Fedora
  stat:
    path: /etc/yum.conf
  register: yum_config_file
  check_mode: false
  when: ansible_distribution == "Fedora"
  tags:
    - ensure_gpgcheck_globally_activated
    - high_severity
    - unknown_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-26989-4
    - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-020050
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
    - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-11
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - NIST-800-53-MA-1(b)
    - CJIS-5.10.4.1

- name: Ensure GPG check is globally activated (yum)
  ini_file:
    dest: /etc/yum.conf
    section: main
    option: gpgcheck
    value: 1
    create: false
  when: (ansible_distribution == "RedHat" or ansible_distribution == "CentOS" or yum_config_file.stat.exists)
  tags:
    - ensure_gpgcheck_globally_activated
    - high_severity
    - unknown_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-26989-4
    - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-020050
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
    - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-11
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - NIST-800-53-MA-1(b)
    - CJIS-5.10.4.1

- name: Ensure GPG check is globally activated (dnf)
  ini_file:
    dest: /etc/dnf/dnf.conf
    section: main
    option: gpgcheck
    value: 1
    create: false
  when: ansible_distribution == "Fedora"
  tags:
    - ensure_gpgcheck_globally_activated
    - high_severity
    - unknown_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-26989-4
    - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-020050
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
    - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-11
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - NIST-800-53-MA-1(b)
    - CJIS-5.10.4.1

Rule   Ensure gpgcheck Enabled for Local Packages   [ref]

yum should be configured to verify the signature(s) of local packages prior to installation. To configure yum to verify signatures of local packages, set the localpkg_gpgcheck to 1 in /etc/yum.conf.

Rationale:

Changes to any software components can have significant effects to the overall security of the operating system. This requirement ensures the software has not been tampered and has been provided by a trusted vendor.

Accordingly, patches, service packs, device drivers, or operating system components must be signed with a certificate recognized and approved by the organization.

Severity: 
high
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80347-8

References:  RHEL-07-020060, SV-86603r2_rule, NT28(R15), 11, 3, 9, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, 3.4.8, CCI-001749, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.312(b), 164.312(c)(1), 164.312(c)(2), 164.312(e)(2)(i), 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 7.6, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, CM-5(3), CM-11, PR.IP-1, FAU_GEN.1.1.c, SRG-OS-000366-GPOS-00153, SRG-OS-000366-VMM-001430, SRG-OS-000370-VMM-001460, SRG-OS-000404-VMM-001650

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append '/etc/yum.conf' '^localpkg_gpgcheck' '1' 'CCE-80347-8'
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
- name: Check existence of yum on Fedora
  stat:
    path: /etc/yum.conf
  register: yum_config_file
  check_mode: false
  when: ansible_distribution == "Fedora"
  tags:
    - ensure_gpgcheck_local_packages
    - high_severity
    - unknown_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-80347-8
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-020060
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
    - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-11

- name: Ensure GPG check Enabled for Local Packages (Yum)
  ini_file:
    dest: /etc/yum.conf
    section: main
    option: localpkg_gpgcheck
    value: 1
    create: true
  when: (ansible_distribution == "RedHat" or ansible_distribution == "CentOS" or yum_config_file.stat.exists)
  tags:
    - ensure_gpgcheck_local_packages
    - high_severity
    - unknown_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-80347-8
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-020060
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
    - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-11

- name: Ensure GPG check Enabled for Local Packages (DNF)
  ini_file:
    dest: /etc/dnf/dnf.conf
    section: main
    option: localpkg_gpgcheck
    value: 1
    create: true
  when: ansible_distribution == "Fedora"
  tags:
    - ensure_gpgcheck_local_packages
    - high_severity
    - unknown_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-80347-8
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-020060
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
    - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-11
Group   Configure Syslog   Group contains 3 groups and 7 rules

[ref]   The syslog service has been the default Unix logging mechanism for many years. It has a number of downsides, including inconsistent log format, lack of authentication for received messages, and lack of authentication, encryption, or reliable transport for messages sent over a network. However, due to its long history, syslog is a de facto standard which is supported by almost all Unix applications.

In Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, rsyslog has replaced ksyslogd as the syslog daemon of choice, and it includes some additional security features such as reliable, connection-oriented (i.e. TCP) transmission of logs, the option to log to database formats, and the encryption of log data en route to a central logging server. This section discusses how to configure rsyslog for best effect, and how to use tools provided with the system to maintain and monitor logs.

Group   Rsyslog Logs Sent To Remote Host   Group contains 1 rule

[ref]   If system logs are to be useful in detecting malicious activities, it is necessary to send logs to a remote server. An intruder who has compromised the root account on a system may delete the log entries which indicate that the system was attacked before they are seen by an administrator.

However, it is recommended that logs be stored on the local host in addition to being sent to the loghost, especially if rsyslog has been configured to use the UDP protocol to send messages over a network. UDP does not guarantee reliable delivery, and moderately busy sites will lose log messages occasionally, especially in periods of high traffic which may be the result of an attack. In addition, remote rsyslog messages are not authenticated in any way by default, so it is easy for an attacker to introduce spurious messages to the central log server. Also, some problems cause loss of network connectivity, which will prevent the sending of messages to the central server. For all of these reasons, it is better to store log messages both centrally and on each host, so that they can be correlated if necessary.

Rule   Ensure Logs Sent To Remote Host   [ref]

To configure rsyslog to send logs to a remote log server, open /etc/rsyslog.conf and read and understand the last section of the file, which describes the multiple directives necessary to activate remote logging. Along with these other directives, the system can be configured to forward its logs to a particular log server by adding or correcting one of the following lines, substituting loghost.example.com appropriately. The choice of protocol depends on the environment of the system; although TCP and RELP provide more reliable message delivery, they may not be supported in all environments.
To use UDP for log message delivery:

*.* @loghost.example.com

To use TCP for log message delivery:
*.* @@loghost.example.com

To use RELP for log message delivery:
*.* :omrelp:loghost.example.com

There must be a resolvable DNS CNAME or Alias record set to "logcollector" for logs to be sent correctly to the centralized logging utility.

Rationale:

A log server (loghost) receives syslog messages from one or more systems. This data can be used as an additional log source in the event a system is compromised and its local logs are suspect. Forwarding log messages to a remote loghost also provides system administrators with a centralized place to view the status of multiple hosts within the enterprise.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-27343-3

References:  RHEL-07-031000, SV-86833r2_rule, NT28(R7), NT28(R43), NT12(R5), 4.2.1.4, 1, 13, 14, 15, 16, 2, 3, 5, 6, APO11.04, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI04.04, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, MEA02.01, CCI-000366, CCI-001348, CCI-000136, CCI-001851, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(B), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.308(a)(6)(ii), 164.308(a)(8), 164.310(d)(2)(iii), 164.312(b), 164.314(a)(2)(i)(C), 164.314(a)(2)(iii), 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 7.1, SR 7.2, A.12.1.3, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.17.2.1, AU-3(2), AU-4(1), AU-9, PR.DS-4, PR.PT-1, FAU_GEN.1.1.c, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, SRG-OS-000032-VMM-000130

Remediation Shell script:   (show)


rsyslog_remote_loghost_address="logcollector"
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append '/etc/rsyslog.conf' '^\*\.\*' "@@$rsyslog_remote_loghost_address" 'CCE-27343-3' '%s %s'
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value rsyslog_remote_loghost_address # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    rsyslog_remote_loghost_address: !!str logcollector
  tags:
    - always

- name: Set rsyslog remote loghost
  lineinfile:
    dest: /etc/rsyslog.conf
    regexp: ^\*\.\*
    line: '*.* @@{{ rsyslog_remote_loghost_address }}'
    create: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - rsyslog_remote_loghost
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-27343-3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-031000
    - NIST-800-53-AU-3(2)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-4(1)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-9
Group   Ensure Proper Configuration of Log Files   Group contains 3 rules

[ref]   The file /etc/rsyslog.conf controls where log message are written. These are controlled by lines called rules, which consist of a selector and an action. These rules are often customized depending on the role of the system, the requirements of the environment, and whatever may enable the administrator to most effectively make use of log data. The default rules in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 are:

*.info;mail.none;authpriv.none;cron.none                /var/log/messages
authpriv.*                                              /var/log/secure
mail.*                                                  -/var/log/maillog
cron.*                                                  /var/log/cron
*.emerg                                                 *
uucp,news.crit                                          /var/log/spooler
local7.*                                                /var/log/boot.log
See the man page rsyslog.conf(5) for more information. Note that the rsyslog daemon can be configured to use a timestamp format that some log processing programs may not understand. If this occurs, edit the file /etc/rsyslog.conf and add or edit the following line:
$ ActionFileDefaultTemplate RSYSLOG_TraditionalFileFormat

Rule   Ensure Log Files Are Owned By Appropriate User   [ref]

The owner of all log files written by rsyslog should be root. These log files are determined by the second part of each Rule line in /etc/rsyslog.conf and typically all appear in /var/log. For each log file LOGFILE referenced in /etc/rsyslog.conf, run the following command to inspect the file's owner:

$ ls -l LOGFILE
If the owner is not root, run the following command to correct this:
$ sudo chown root LOGFILE

Rationale:

The log files generated by rsyslog contain valuable information regarding system configuration, user authentication, and other such information. Log files should be protected from unauthorized access.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80189-4

References:  12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, APO01.06, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, CCI-001314, 4.3.3.7.3, SR 2.1, SR 5.2, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, AC-6, SI-11, PR.AC-4, PR.DS-5, Req-10.5.1, Req-10.5.2

Rule   Ensure Log Files Are Owned By Appropriate Group   [ref]

The group-owner of all log files written by rsyslog should be root. These log files are determined by the second part of each Rule line in /etc/rsyslog.conf and typically all appear in /var/log. For each log file LOGFILE referenced in /etc/rsyslog.conf, run the following command to inspect the file's group owner:

$ ls -l LOGFILE
If the owner is not root, run the following command to correct this:
$ sudo chgrp root LOGFILE

Rationale:

The log files generated by rsyslog contain valuable information regarding system configuration, user authentication, and other such information. Log files should be protected from unauthorized access.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80190-2

References:  12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, APO01.06, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, CCI-001314, 4.3.3.7.3, SR 2.1, SR 5.2, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, AC-6, SI-11, PR.AC-4, PR.DS-5, Req-10.5.1, Req-10.5.2

Rule   Ensure System Log Files Have Correct Permissions   [ref]

The file permissions for all log files written by rsyslog should be set to 600, or more restrictive. These log files are determined by the second part of each Rule line in /etc/rsyslog.conf and typically all appear in /var/log. For each log file LOGFILE referenced in /etc/rsyslog.conf, run the following command to inspect the file's permissions:

$ ls -l LOGFILE
If the permissions are not 600 or more restrictive, run the following command to correct this:
$ sudo chmod 0600 LOGFILE
"

Rationale:

Log files can contain valuable information regarding system configuration. If the system log files are not protected unauthorized users could change the logged data, eliminating their forensic value.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80191-0

References:  4.2.1.3, CCI-001314, SI-11, Req-10.5.1, Req-10.5.2

Remediation Shell script:   (show)


# List of log file paths to be inspected for correct permissions
# * Primarily inspect log file paths listed in /etc/rsyslog.conf
RSYSLOG_ETC_CONFIG="/etc/rsyslog.conf"
# * And also the log file paths listed after rsyslog's $IncludeConfig directive
#   (store the result into array for the case there's shell glob used as value of IncludeConfig)
readarray -t RSYSLOG_INCLUDE_CONFIG < <(grep -e "\$IncludeConfig[[:space:]]\+[^[:space:];]\+" /etc/rsyslog.conf | cut -d ' ' -f 2)
# Declare an array to hold the final list of different log file paths
declare -a LOG_FILE_PATHS

# Browse each file selected above as containing paths of log files
# ('/etc/rsyslog.conf' and '/etc/rsyslog.d/*.conf' in the default configuration)
for LOG_FILE in "${RSYSLOG_ETC_CONFIG}" "${RSYSLOG_INCLUDE_CONFIG[@]}"
do
	# From each of these files extract just particular log file path(s), thus:
	# * Ignore lines starting with space (' '), comment ('#"), or variable syntax ('$') characters,
	# * Ignore empty lines,
	# * From the remaining valid rows select only fields constituting a log file path
	# Text file column is understood to represent a log file path if and only if all of the following are met:
	# * it contains at least one slash '/' character,
	# * it doesn't contain space (' '), colon (':'), and semicolon (';') characters
	# Search log file for path(s) only in case it exists!
	if [[ -f "${LOG_FILE}" ]]
	then
		MATCHED_ITEMS=$(sed -e "/^[[:space:]|#|$]/d ; s/[^\/]*[[:space:]]*\([^:;[:space:]]*\)/\1/g ; /^$/d" "${LOG_FILE}")
		# Since above sed command might return more than one item (delimited by newline), split the particular
		# matches entries into new array specific for this log file
		readarray -t ARRAY_FOR_LOG_FILE <<< "$MATCHED_ITEMS"
		# Concatenate the two arrays - previous content of $LOG_FILE_PATHS array with
		# items from newly created array for this log file
		LOG_FILE_PATHS+=("${ARRAY_FOR_LOG_FILE[@]}")
		# Delete the temporary array
		unset ARRAY_FOR_LOG_FILE
	fi
done

for LOG_FILE_PATH in "${LOG_FILE_PATHS[@]}"
do
	# Sanity check - if particular $LOG_FILE_PATH is empty string, skip it from further processing
	if [ -z "$LOG_FILE_PATH" ]
	then
		continue
	fi

	

	# Also for each log file check if its permissions differ from 600. If so, correct them
	if [ "$(/usr/bin/stat -c %a "$LOG_FILE_PATH")" -ne 600 ]
	then
		/bin/chmod 600 "$LOG_FILE_PATH"
	fi
done
Group   Ensure All Logs are Rotated by logrotate   Group contains 1 rule

[ref]   Edit the file /etc/logrotate.d/syslog. Find the first line, which should look like this (wrapped for clarity):

/var/log/messages /var/log/secure /var/log/maillog /var/log/spooler \
  /var/log/boot.log /var/log/cron {
Edit this line so that it contains a one-space-separated listing of each log file referenced in /etc/rsyslog.conf.

All logs in use on a system must be rotated regularly, or the log files will consume disk space over time, eventually interfering with system operation. The file /etc/logrotate.d/syslog is the configuration file used by the logrotate program to maintain all log files written by syslog. By default, it rotates logs weekly and stores four archival copies of each log. These settings can be modified by editing /etc/logrotate.conf, but the defaults are sufficient for purposes of this guide.

Note that logrotate is run nightly by the cron job /etc/cron.daily/logrotate. If particularly active logs need to be rotated more often than once a day, some other mechanism must be used.

Rule   Ensure Logrotate Runs Periodically   [ref]

The logrotate utility allows for the automatic rotation of log files. The frequency of rotation is specified in /etc/logrotate.conf, which triggers a cron task. To configure logrotate to run daily, add or correct the following line in /etc/logrotate.conf:

# rotate log files frequency
daily

Rationale:

Log files that are not properly rotated run the risk of growing so large that they fill up the /var/log partition. Valuable logging information could be lost if the /var/log partition becomes full.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80195-1

References:  NT28(R43), NT12(R18), 1, 14, 15, 16, 3, 5, 6, APO11.04, BAI03.05, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, MEA02.01, CCI-000366, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, AU-9, PR.PT-1, Req-10.7

Remediation Shell script:   (show)


LOGROTATE_CONF_FILE="/etc/logrotate.conf"
CRON_DAILY_LOGROTATE_FILE="/etc/cron.daily/logrotate"

# daily rotation is configured
grep -q "^daily$" $LOGROTATE_CONF_FILE|| echo "daily" >> $LOGROTATE_CONF_FILE

# remove any line configuring weekly, monthly or yearly rotation
sed -i -r "/^(weekly|monthly|yearly)$/d" $LOGROTATE_CONF_FILE

# configure cron.daily if not already
if ! grep -q "^[[:space:]]*/usr/sbin/logrotate[[:alnum:][:blank:][:punct:]]*$LOGROTATE_CONF_FILE$" $CRON_DAILY_LOGROTATE_FILE; then
	echo "#!/bin/sh" > $CRON_DAILY_LOGROTATE_FILE
	echo "/usr/sbin/logrotate $LOGROTATE_CONF_FILE" >> $CRON_DAILY_LOGROTATE_FILE
fi

Rule   Enable rsyslog Service   [ref]

The rsyslog service provides syslog-style logging by default on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7. The rsyslog service can be enabled with the following command:

$ sudo systemctl enable rsyslog.service

Rationale:

The rsyslog service must be running in order to provide logging services, which are essential to system administration.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80188-6

References:  NT28(R5), NT28(R46), 4.2.1.1, 1, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI04.04, DSS01.03, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01, CCI-001311, CCI-001312, CCI-001557, CCI-001851, 164.312(a)(2)(ii), 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.2, A.12.1.3, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.17.2.1, AU-4(1), AU-12, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.DS-4, PR.PT-1

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable

SYSTEMCTL_EXEC='/usr/bin/systemctl'
"$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" start 'rsyslog.service'
"$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" enable 'rsyslog.service'
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
- name: Enable service rsyslog
  service:
    name: rsyslog
    enabled: 'yes'
    state: started
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - service_rsyslog_enabled
    - medium_severity
    - enable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-80188-6
    - NIST-800-53-AU-4(1)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12

Rule   Ensure rsyslog is Installed   [ref]

Rsyslog is installed by default. The rsyslog package can be installed with the following command:

 $ sudo yum install rsyslog

Rationale:

The rsyslog package provides the rsyslog daemon, which provides system logging services.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80187-8

References:  NT28(R5), NT28(R46), 4.2.3, 1, 14, 15, 16, 3, 5, 6, APO11.04, BAI03.05, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, MEA02.01, CCI-001311, CCI-001312, 164.312(a)(2)(ii), 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, AU-9(2), PR.PT-1

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
# Function to install packages on RHEL, Fedora, Debian, and possibly other systems.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     package_install aide
#
function package_install {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local package="$1"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "1" ]
then
  echo "Usage: package_install 'package_name'"
  echo "Aborting."
  exit 1
fi

if which dnf ; then
  if ! rpm -q --quiet "$package"; then
    dnf install -y "$package"
  fi
elif which yum ; then
  if ! rpm -q --quiet "$package"; then
    yum install -y "$package"
  fi
elif which apt-get ; then
  apt-get install -y "$package"
else
  echo "Failed to detect available packaging system, tried dnf, yum and apt-get!"
  echo "Aborting."
  exit 1
fi

}

package_install rsyslog
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
- name: Ensure rsyslog is installed
  package:
    name: rsyslog
    state: present
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - package_rsyslog_installed
    - medium_severity
    - enable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-80187-8
    - NIST-800-53-AU-9(2)
Remediation Puppet snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
include install_rsyslog

class install_rsyslog {
  package { 'rsyslog':
    ensure => 'installed',
  }
}
Remediation Anaconda snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable

package --add=rsyslog
Group   Network Configuration and Firewalls   Group contains 6 groups and 18 rules

[ref]   Most systems must be connected to a network of some sort, and this brings with it the substantial risk of network attack. This section discusses the security impact of decisions about networking which must be made when configuring a system.

This section also discusses firewalls, network access controls, and other network security frameworks, which allow system-level rules to be written that can limit an attackers' ability to connect to your system. These rules can specify that network traffic should be allowed or denied from certain IP addresses, hosts, and networks. The rules can also specify which of the system's network services are available to particular hosts or networks.

Group   IPv6   Group contains 2 groups and 4 rules

[ref]   The system includes support for Internet Protocol version 6. A major and often-mentioned improvement over IPv4 is its enormous increase in the number of available addresses. Another important feature is its support for automatic configuration of many network settings.

Group   Configure IPv6 Settings if Necessary   Group contains 1 group and 4 rules

[ref]   A major feature of IPv6 is the extent to which systems implementing it can automatically configure their networking devices using information from the network. From a security perspective, manually configuring important configuration information is preferable to accepting it from the network in an unauthenticated fashion.

Group   Disable Automatic Configuration   Group contains 4 rules

[ref]   Disable the system's acceptance of router advertisements and redirects by adding or correcting the following line in /etc/sysconfig/network (note that this does not disable sending router solicitations):

IPV6_AUTOCONF=no

Rule   Disable Kernel Parameter for Accepting Source-Routed Packets on IPv6 Interfaces by Default   [ref]

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_source_route kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_source_route=0
If this is not the system default value, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d:
net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_source_route = 0

Rationale:

Source-routed packets allow the source of the packet to suggest routers forward the packet along a different path than configured on the router, which can be used to bypass network security measures. This requirement applies only to the forwarding of source-routerd traffic, such as when IPv6 forwarding is enabled and the system is functioning as a router. Accepting source-routed packets in the IPv6 protocol has few legitimate uses. It should be disabled unless it is absolutely required.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80355-1

References:  NT28(R22), 1, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 4, 6, 8, 9, APO01.06, APO13.01, DSS01.05, DSS03.01, DSS05.02, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, 3.1.20, CCI-000366, 4.2.3.4, 4.3.3.4, 4.4.3.3, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.12.1.1, A.12.1.2, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.2, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.2, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, AC-4, DE.AE-1, ID.AM-3, PR.AC-5, PR.DS-5, PR.PT-4

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable

sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_default_accept_source_route_value="0"

#
# Set runtime for net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_source_route
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_source_route=$sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_default_accept_source_route_value

#
# If net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_source_route present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to appropriate value
#	else, add "net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_source_route = value" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_source_route' "$sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_default_accept_source_route_value" 'CCE-80355-1'
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: XCCDF Value sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_default_accept_source_route_value # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_default_accept_source_route_value: !!str 0
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure sysctl net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_source_route is set
  sysctl:
    name: net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_source_route
    value: '{{ sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_default_accept_source_route_value }}'
    state: present
    reload: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_default_accept_source_route
    - medium_severity
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - reboot_required
    - CCE-80355-1
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.20
    - NIST-800-53-AC-4

Rule   Disable Kernel Parameter for Accepting Source-Routed Packets on all IPv6 Interfaces   [ref]

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_source_route kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_source_route=0
If this is not the system default value, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d:
net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_source_route = 0

Rationale:

Source-routed packets allow the source of the packet to suggest routers forward the packet along a different path than configured on the router, which can be used to bypass network security measures. This requirement applies only to the forwarding of source-routerd traffic, such as when IPv6 forwarding is enabled and the system is functioning as a router.

Accepting source-routed packets in the IPv6 protocol has few legitimate uses. It should be disabled unless it is absolutely required.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80179-5

References:  RHEL-07-040830, SV-86943r2_rule, NT28(R22), 1, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 4, 6, 8, 9, APO01.06, APO13.01, DSS01.05, DSS03.01, DSS05.02, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, 3.1.20, CCI-000366, 4.2.3.4, 4.3.3.4, 4.4.3.3, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.12.1.1, A.12.1.2, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.2, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.2, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, AC-4, DE.AE-1, ID.AM-3, PR.AC-5, PR.DS-5, PR.PT-4, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable

sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_source_route_value="0"

#
# Set runtime for net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_source_route
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_source_route=$sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_source_route_value

#
# If net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_source_route present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to appropriate value
#	else, add "net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_source_route = value" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_source_route' "$sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_source_route_value" 'CCE-80179-5'
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: XCCDF Value sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_source_route_value # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_source_route_value: !!str 0
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure sysctl net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_source_route is set
  sysctl:
    name: net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_source_route
    value: '{{ sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_source_route_value }}'
    state: present
    reload: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_source_route
    - medium_severity
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - reboot_required
    - CCE-80179-5
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-040830
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.20
    - NIST-800-53-AC-4

Rule   Disable Accepting ICMP Redirects for All IPv6 Interfaces   [ref]

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_redirects kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_redirects=0
If this is not the system default value, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d:
net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_redirects = 0

Rationale:

An illicit ICMP redirect message could result in a man-in-the-middle attack.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80182-9

References:  NT28(R22), 3.3.2, 11, 14, 3, 9, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.05, DSS06.06, 3.1.20, CCI-001551, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 7.6, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.9.1.2, CM-7, PR.IP-1, PR.PT-3

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable

sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_redirects_value="0"

#
# Set runtime for net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_redirects
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_redirects=$sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_redirects_value

#
# If net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_redirects present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to appropriate value
#	else, add "net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_redirects = value" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_redirects' "$sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_redirects_value" 'CCE-80182-9'
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: XCCDF Value sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_redirects_value # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_redirects_value: !!str 0
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure sysctl net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_redirects is set
  sysctl:
    name: net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_redirects
    value: '{{ sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_redirects_value }}'
    state: present
    reload: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_all_accept_redirects
    - medium_severity
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - reboot_required
    - CCE-80182-9
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.20
    - NIST-800-53-CM-7

Rule   Disable Kernel Parameter for Accepting ICMP Redirects by Default on IPv6 Interfaces   [ref]

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_redirects kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_redirects=0
If this is not the system default value, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d:
net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_redirects = 0

Rationale:

An illicit ICMP redirect message could result in a man-in-the-middle attack.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80183-7

References:  NT28(R22), 3.3.2, 11, 14, 3, 9, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.05, DSS06.06, 3.1.20, CCI-001551, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 7.6, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.9.1.2, CM-7, PR.IP-1, PR.PT-3

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable

sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_default_accept_redirects_value="0"

#
# Set runtime for net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_redirects
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_redirects=$sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_default_accept_redirects_value

#
# If net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_redirects present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to appropriate value
#	else, add "net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_redirects = value" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_redirects' "$sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_default_accept_redirects_value" 'CCE-80183-7'
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: XCCDF Value sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_default_accept_redirects_value # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_default_accept_redirects_value: !!str 0
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure sysctl net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_redirects is set
  sysctl:
    name: net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_redirects
    value: '{{ sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_default_accept_redirects_value }}'
    state: present
    reload: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - sysctl_net_ipv6_conf_default_accept_redirects
    - medium_severity
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - reboot_required
    - CCE-80183-7
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.20
    - NIST-800-53-CM-7
Group   Kernel Parameters Which Affect Networking   Group contains 2 groups and 14 rules

[ref]   The sysctl utility is used to set parameters which affect the operation of the Linux kernel. Kernel parameters which affect networking and have security implications are described here.

Group   Network Related Kernel Runtime Parameters for Hosts and Routers   Group contains 11 rules

[ref]   Certain kernel parameters should be set for systems which are acting as either hosts or routers to improve the system's ability defend against certain types of IPv4 protocol attacks.

Rule   Disable Kernel Parameter for Accepting Source-Routed Packets on IPv4 Interfaces by Default   [ref]

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route=0
If this is not the system default value, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d:
net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route = 0

Rationale:

Source-routed packets allow the source of the packet to suggest routers forward the packet along a different path than configured on the router, which can be used to bypass network security measures.
Accepting source-routed packets in the IPv4 protocol has few legitimate uses. It should be disabled unless it is absolutely required, such as when IPv4 forwarding is enabled and the system is legitimately functioning as a router.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80162-1

References:  RHEL-07-040620, SV-86909r2_rule, NT28(R22), 3.2.1, 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 5.10.1.1, APO01.06, APO13.01, BAI04.04, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS01.03, DSS01.05, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, DSS06.06, 3.1.20, CCI-000366, CCI-001551, 4.2.3.4, 4.3.3.4, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.2, SR 7.6, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.12.1.1, A.12.1.2, A.12.1.3, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.2, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.2, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.17.2.1, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, AC-4, CM-7, SC-5, SC-7, DE.AE-1, DE.CM-1, ID.AM-3, PR.AC-5, PR.DS-4, PR.DS-5, PR.IP-1, PR.PT-3, PR.PT-4, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable

sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_accept_source_route_value="0"

#
# Set runtime for net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route=$sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_accept_source_route_value

#
# If net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to appropriate value
#	else, add "net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route = value" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route' "$sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_accept_source_route_value" 'CCE-80162-1'
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: XCCDF Value sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_accept_source_route_value # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_accept_source_route_value: !!str 0
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure sysctl net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route is set
  sysctl:
    name: net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route
    value: '{{ sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_accept_source_route_value }}'
    state: present
    reload: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_accept_source_route
    - medium_severity
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - reboot_required
    - CCE-80162-1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-040620
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.20
    - NIST-800-53-AC-4
    - NIST-800-53-CM-7
    - NIST-800-53-SC-5
    - NIST-800-53-SC-7
    - CJIS-5.10.1.1

Rule   Enable Kernel Parameter to Ignore Bogus ICMP Error Responses on IPv4 Interfaces   [ref]

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses=1
If this is not the system default value, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d:
net.ipv4.icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses = 1

Rationale:

Ignoring bogus ICMP error responses reduces log size, although some activity would not be logged.

Severity: 
unknown
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80166-2

References:  NT28(R22), 3.2.6, 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, APO13.01, BAI04.04, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS01.03, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS06.06, 3.1.20, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.2, SR 7.6, A.12.1.2, A.12.1.3, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.17.2.1, A.9.1.2, CM-7, SC-5, DE.CM-1, PR.DS-4, PR.IP-1, PR.PT-3

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable

sysctl_net_ipv4_icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses_value="1"

#
# Set runtime for net.ipv4.icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv4.icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses=$sysctl_net_ipv4_icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses_value

#
# If net.ipv4.icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to appropriate value
#	else, add "net.ipv4.icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses = value" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^net.ipv4.icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses' "$sysctl_net_ipv4_icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses_value" 'CCE-80166-2'
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: XCCDF Value sysctl_net_ipv4_icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses_value # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    sysctl_net_ipv4_icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses_value: !!str 1
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure sysctl net.ipv4.icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses is set
  sysctl:
    name: net.ipv4.icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses
    value: '{{ sysctl_net_ipv4_icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses_value }}'
    state: present
    reload: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - sysctl_net_ipv4_icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses
    - unknown_severity
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - reboot_required
    - CCE-80166-2
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.20
    - NIST-800-53-CM-7
    - NIST-800-53-SC-5

Rule   Disable Kernel Parameter for Accepting ICMP Redirects by Default on IPv4 Interfaces   [ref]

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_redirects kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_redirects=0
If this is not the system default value, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d:
net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_redirects = 0

Rationale:

ICMP redirect messages are used by routers to inform hosts that a more direct route exists for a particular destination. These messages modify the host's route table and are unauthenticated. An illicit ICMP redirect message could result in a man-in-the-middle attack.
This feature of the IPv4 protocol has few legitimate uses. It should be disabled unless absolutely required.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80163-9

References:  RHEL-07-040640, SV-86913r3_rule, NT28(R22), 3.2.2, 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 5.10.1.1, APO01.06, APO13.01, BAI04.04, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS01.03, DSS01.05, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, DSS06.06, 3.1.20, CCI-001551, 4.2.3.4, 4.3.3.4, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.2, SR 7.6, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.12.1.1, A.12.1.2, A.12.1.3, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.2, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.2, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.17.2.1, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, AC-4, CM-7, SC-5, SC-7, DE.AE-1, DE.CM-1, ID.AM-3, PR.AC-5, PR.DS-4, PR.DS-5, PR.IP-1, PR.PT-3, PR.PT-4, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable

sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_accept_redirects_value="0"

#
# Set runtime for net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_redirects
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_redirects=$sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_accept_redirects_value

#
# If net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_redirects present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to appropriate value
#	else, add "net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_redirects = value" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_redirects' "$sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_accept_redirects_value" 'CCE-80163-9'
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: XCCDF Value sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_accept_redirects_value # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_accept_redirects_value: !!str 0
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure sysctl net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_redirects is set
  sysctl:
    name: net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_redirects
    value: '{{ sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_accept_redirects_value }}'
    state: present
    reload: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_accept_redirects
    - medium_severity
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - reboot_required
    - CCE-80163-9
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-040640
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.20
    - NIST-800-53-AC-4
    - NIST-800-53-CM-7
    - NIST-800-53-SC-5
    - NIST-800-53-SC-7
    - CJIS-5.10.1.1

Rule   Enable Kernel Parameter to Use Reverse Path Filtering on all IPv4 Interfaces by Default   [ref]

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter=1
If this is not the system default value, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d:
net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter = 1

Rationale:

Enabling reverse path filtering drops packets with source addresses that should not have been able to be received on the interface they were received on. It should not be used on systems which are routers for complicated networks, but is helpful for end hosts and routers serving small networks.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80168-8

References:  NT28(R22), 3.2.7, 1, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, APO01.06, APO13.01, BAI04.04, DSS01.03, DSS01.05, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, 3.1.20, 4.2.3.4, 4.3.3.4, 4.4.3.3, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.2, SR 7.6, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.12.1.1, A.12.1.2, A.12.1.3, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.2, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.2, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.17.2.1, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, AC-4, SC-5, SC-7, DE.AE-1, DE.CM-1, ID.AM-3, PR.AC-5, PR.DS-4, PR.DS-5, PR.PT-4

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable

sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_rp_filter_value="1"

#
# Set runtime for net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter=$sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_rp_filter_value

#
# If net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to appropriate value
#	else, add "net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter = value" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter' "$sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_rp_filter_value" 'CCE-80168-8'
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: XCCDF Value sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_rp_filter_value # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_rp_filter_value: !!str 1
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure sysctl net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter is set
  sysctl:
    name: net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter
    value: '{{ sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_rp_filter_value }}'
    state: present
    reload: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_rp_filter
    - medium_severity
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - reboot_required
    - CCE-80168-8
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.20
    - NIST-800-53-AC-4
    - NIST-800-53-SC-5
    - NIST-800-53-SC-7

Rule   Disable Kernel Parameter for Accepting Secure ICMP Redirects on all IPv4 Interfaces   [ref]

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.conf.all.secure_redirects kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.all.secure_redirects=0
If this is not the system default value, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d:
net.ipv4.conf.all.secure_redirects = 0

Rationale:

Accepting "secure" ICMP redirects (from those gateways listed as default gateways) has few legitimate uses. It should be disabled unless it is absolutely required.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80159-7

References:  NT28(R22), 3.2.3, 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, APO01.06, APO13.01, BAI04.04, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS01.03, DSS01.05, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, DSS06.06, 3.1.20, CCI-001503, CCI-001551, 4.2.3.4, 4.3.3.4, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.2, SR 7.6, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.12.1.1, A.12.1.2, A.12.1.3, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.2, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.2, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.17.2.1, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, AC-4, CM-7, SC-5, DE.AE-1, DE.CM-1, ID.AM-3, PR.AC-5, PR.DS-4, PR.DS-5, PR.IP-1, PR.PT-3, PR.PT-4

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable

sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_secure_redirects_value="0"

#
# Set runtime for net.ipv4.conf.all.secure_redirects
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv4.conf.all.secure_redirects=$sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_secure_redirects_value

#
# If net.ipv4.conf.all.secure_redirects present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to appropriate value
#	else, add "net.ipv4.conf.all.secure_redirects = value" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^net.ipv4.conf.all.secure_redirects' "$sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_secure_redirects_value" 'CCE-80159-7'
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: XCCDF Value sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_secure_redirects_value # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_secure_redirects_value: !!str 0
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure sysctl net.ipv4.conf.all.secure_redirects is set
  sysctl:
    name: net.ipv4.conf.all.secure_redirects
    value: '{{ sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_secure_redirects_value }}'
    state: present
    reload: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_secure_redirects
    - medium_severity
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - reboot_required
    - CCE-80159-7
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.20
    - NIST-800-53-AC-4
    - NIST-800-53-CM-7
    - NIST-800-53-SC-5

Rule   Disable Kernel Parameter for Accepting Source-Routed Packets on all IPv4 Interfaces   [ref]

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_source_route kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_source_route=0
If this is not the system default value, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d:
net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_source_route = 0

Rationale:

Source-routed packets allow the source of the packet to suggest routers forward the packet along a different path than configured on the router, which can be used to bypass network security measures. This requirement applies only to the forwarding of source-routerd traffic, such as when IPv4 forwarding is enabled and the system is functioning as a router.

Accepting source-routed packets in the IPv4 protocol has few legitimate uses. It should be disabled unless it is absolutely required.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-27434-0

References:  RHEL-07-040610, SV-86907r2_rule, NT28(R22), 3.2.1, 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, APO01.06, APO13.01, BAI04.04, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS01.03, DSS01.05, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, DSS06.06, 3.1.20, CCI-000366, 4.2.3.4, 4.3.3.4, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.2, SR 7.6, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.12.1.1, A.12.1.2, A.12.1.3, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.2, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.2, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.17.2.1, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, AC-4, CM-7, SC-5, DE.AE-1, DE.CM-1, ID.AM-3, PR.AC-5, PR.DS-4, PR.DS-5, PR.IP-1, PR.PT-3, PR.PT-4, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable

sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_accept_source_route_value="0"

#
# Set runtime for net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_source_route
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_source_route=$sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_accept_source_route_value

#
# If net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_source_route present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to appropriate value
#	else, add "net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_source_route = value" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_source_route' "$sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_accept_source_route_value" 'CCE-27434-0'
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: XCCDF Value sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_accept_source_route_value # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_accept_source_route_value: !!str 0
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure sysctl net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_source_route is set
  sysctl:
    name: net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_source_route
    value: '{{ sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_accept_source_route_value }}'
    state: present
    reload: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_accept_source_route
    - medium_severity
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - reboot_required
    - CCE-27434-0
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-040610
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.20
    - NIST-800-53-AC-4
    - NIST-800-53-CM-7
    - NIST-800-53-SC-5

Rule   Enable Kernel Parameter to Use TCP Syncookies on IPv4 Interfaces   [ref]

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies=1
If this is not the system default value, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d:
net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1

Rationale:

A TCP SYN flood attack can cause a denial of service by filling a system's TCP connection table with connections in the SYN_RCVD state. Syncookies can be used to track a connection when a subsequent ACK is received, verifying the initiator is attempting a valid connection and is not a flood source. This feature is activated when a flood condition is detected, and enables the system to continue servicing valid connection requests.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-27495-1

References:  NT28(R22), 3.2.8, 1, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 5.10.1.1, APO01.06, APO13.01, BAI04.04, DSS01.03, DSS01.05, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, 3.1.20, CCI-000366, 4.2.3.4, 4.3.3.4, 4.4.3.3, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.2, SR 7.6, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.12.1.1, A.12.1.2, A.12.1.3, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.2, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.2, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.17.2.1, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, AC-4, SC-5(1)(2), SC-5(2), SC-5(3), DE.AE-1, DE.CM-1, ID.AM-3, PR.AC-5, PR.DS-4, PR.DS-5, PR.PT-4, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable

sysctl_net_ipv4_tcp_syncookies_value="1"

#
# Set runtime for net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies=$sysctl_net_ipv4_tcp_syncookies_value

#
# If net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to appropriate value
#	else, add "net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = value" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies' "$sysctl_net_ipv4_tcp_syncookies_value" 'CCE-27495-1'
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: XCCDF Value sysctl_net_ipv4_tcp_syncookies_value # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    sysctl_net_ipv4_tcp_syncookies_value: !!str 1
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure sysctl net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies is set
  sysctl:
    name: net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies
    value: '{{ sysctl_net_ipv4_tcp_syncookies_value }}'
    state: present
    reload: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - sysctl_net_ipv4_tcp_syncookies
    - medium_severity
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - reboot_required
    - CCE-27495-1
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.20
    - NIST-800-53-AC-4
    - NIST-800-53-SC-5(1)(2)
    - NIST-800-53-SC-5(2)
    - NIST-800-53-SC-5(3)
    - CJIS-5.10.1.1

Rule   Disable Accepting ICMP Redirects for All IPv4 Interfaces   [ref]

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_redirects kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_redirects=0
If this is not the system default value, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d:
net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_redirects = 0

Rationale:

ICMP redirect messages are used by routers to inform hosts that a more direct route exists for a particular destination. These messages modify the host's route table and are unauthenticated. An illicit ICMP redirect message could result in a man-in-the-middle attack.
This feature of the IPv4 protocol has few legitimate uses. It should be disabled unless absolutely required."

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80158-9

References:  RHEL-07-040641, SV-87827r4_rule, NT28(R22), 3.2.2, 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 5.10.1.1, APO13.01, BAI04.04, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS01.03, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS06.06, 3.1.20, CCI-000366, CCI-001503, CCI-001551, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.2, SR 7.6, A.12.1.2, A.12.1.3, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.17.2.1, A.9.1.2, CM-6(d), CM-7, SC-5, DE.CM-1, PR.DS-4, PR.IP-1, PR.PT-3, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable

sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_accept_redirects_value="0"

#
# Set runtime for net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_redirects
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_redirects=$sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_accept_redirects_value

#
# If net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_redirects present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to appropriate value
#	else, add "net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_redirects = value" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_redirects' "$sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_accept_redirects_value" 'CCE-80158-9'
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: XCCDF Value sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_accept_redirects_value # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_accept_redirects_value: !!str 0
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure sysctl net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_redirects is set
  sysctl:
    name: net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_redirects
    value: '{{ sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_accept_redirects_value }}'
    state: present
    reload: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_accept_redirects
    - medium_severity
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - reboot_required
    - CCE-80158-9
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-040641
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.20
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-7
    - NIST-800-53-SC-5
    - CJIS-5.10.1.1

Rule   Enable Kernel Parameter to Log Martian Packets on all IPv4 Interfaces   [ref]

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.conf.all.log_martians kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.all.log_martians=1
If this is not the system default value, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d:
net.ipv4.conf.all.log_martians = 1

Rationale:

The presence of "martian" packets (which have impossible addresses) as well as spoofed packets, source-routed packets, and redirects could be a sign of nefarious network activity. Logging these packets enables this activity to be detected.

Severity: 
unknown
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80160-5

References:  NT28(R22), 3.2.4, 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, APO13.01, BAI04.04, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS06.06, 3.1.20, CCI-000126, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.2, SR 7.6, A.11.2.6, A.12.1.2, A.12.1.3, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.17.2.1, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, A.9.1.2, AC-17(7), CM-7, SC-5(3), DE.CM-1, PR.AC-3, PR.DS-4, PR.IP-1, PR.PT-3, PR.PT-4

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable

sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_log_martians_value="1"

#
# Set runtime for net.ipv4.conf.all.log_martians
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv4.conf.all.log_martians=$sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_log_martians_value

#
# If net.ipv4.conf.all.log_martians present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to appropriate value
#	else, add "net.ipv4.conf.all.log_martians = value" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^net.ipv4.conf.all.log_martians' "$sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_log_martians_value" 'CCE-80160-5'
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: XCCDF Value sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_log_martians_value # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_log_martians_value: !!str 1
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure sysctl net.ipv4.conf.all.log_martians is set
  sysctl:
    name: net.ipv4.conf.all.log_martians
    value: '{{ sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_log_martians_value }}'
    state: present
    reload: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_log_martians
    - unknown_severity
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - reboot_required
    - CCE-80160-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.20
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-7
    - NIST-800-53-SC-5(3)

Rule   Enable Kernel Parameter to Use Reverse Path Filtering on all IPv4 Interfaces   [ref]

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter=1
If this is not the system default value, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d:
net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter = 1

Rationale:

Enabling reverse path filtering drops packets with source addresses that should not have been able to be received on the interface they were received on. It should not be used on systems which are routers for complicated networks, but is helpful for end hosts and routers serving small networks.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80167-0

References:  NT28(R22), 3.2.7, 1, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, APO01.06, APO13.01, BAI04.04, DSS01.03, DSS01.05, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, 3.1.20, CCI-001551, 4.2.3.4, 4.3.3.4, 4.4.3.3, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.2, SR 7.6, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.12.1.1, A.12.1.2, A.12.1.3, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.2, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.2, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.17.2.1, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, AC-4, SC-5, SC-7, DE.AE-1, DE.CM-1, ID.AM-3, PR.AC-5, PR.DS-4, PR.DS-5, PR.PT-4

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable

sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_rp_filter_value="1"

#
# Set runtime for net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter=$sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_rp_filter_value

#
# If net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to appropriate value
#	else, add "net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter = value" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter' "$sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_rp_filter_value" 'CCE-80167-0'
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: XCCDF Value sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_rp_filter_value # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_rp_filter_value: !!str 1
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure sysctl net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter is set
  sysctl:
    name: net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter
    value: '{{ sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_rp_filter_value }}'
    state: present
    reload: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_rp_filter
    - medium_severity
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - reboot_required
    - CCE-80167-0
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.20
    - NIST-800-53-AC-4
    - NIST-800-53-SC-5
    - NIST-800-53-SC-7

Rule   Configure Kernel Parameter for Accepting Secure Redirects By Default   [ref]

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.conf.default.secure_redirects kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.default.secure_redirects=0
If this is not the system default value, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d:
net.ipv4.conf.default.secure_redirects = 0

Rationale:

Accepting "secure" ICMP redirects (from those gateways listed as default gateways) has few legitimate uses. It should be disabled unless it is absolutely required.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80164-7

References:  NT28(R22), 3.2.3, 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, APO01.06, APO13.01, BAI04.04, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS01.03, DSS01.05, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, DSS06.06, 3.1.20, CCI-001551, 4.2.3.4, 4.3.3.4, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.2, SR 7.6, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.12.1.1, A.12.1.2, A.12.1.3, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.2, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.2, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.17.2.1, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, AC-4, CM-7, SC-5, SC-7, DE.AE-1, DE.CM-1, ID.AM-3, PR.AC-5, PR.DS-4, PR.DS-5, PR.IP-1, PR.PT-3, PR.PT-4

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable

sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_secure_redirects_value="0"

#
# Set runtime for net.ipv4.conf.default.secure_redirects
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv4.conf.default.secure_redirects=$sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_secure_redirects_value

#
# If net.ipv4.conf.default.secure_redirects present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to appropriate value
#	else, add "net.ipv4.conf.default.secure_redirects = value" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^net.ipv4.conf.default.secure_redirects' "$sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_secure_redirects_value" 'CCE-80164-7'
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: XCCDF Value sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_secure_redirects_value # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_secure_redirects_value: !!str 0
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure sysctl net.ipv4.conf.default.secure_redirects is set
  sysctl:
    name: net.ipv4.conf.default.secure_redirects
    value: '{{ sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_secure_redirects_value }}'
    state: present
    reload: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_secure_redirects
    - medium_severity
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - reboot_required
    - CCE-80164-7
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.20
    - NIST-800-53-AC-4
    - NIST-800-53-CM-7
    - NIST-800-53-SC-5
    - NIST-800-53-SC-7
Group   Network Parameters for Hosts Only   Group contains 3 rules

[ref]   If the system is not going to be used as a router, then setting certain kernel parameters ensure that the host will not perform routing of network traffic.

Rule   Disable Kernel Parameter for IP Forwarding on IPv4 Interfaces   [ref]

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.ip_forward kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.ip_forward=0
If this is not the system default value, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d:
net.ipv4.ip_forward = 0

Rationale:

Routing protocol daemons are typically used on routers to exchange network topology information with other routers. If this capability is used when not required, system network information may be unnecessarily transmitted across the network.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80157-1

References:  RHEL-07-040740, SV-86933r2_rule, NT28(R22), 3.1.1, 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, APO13.01, BAI04.04, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS01.03, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS06.06, 3.1.20, CCI-000366, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.2, SR 7.6, A.12.1.2, A.12.1.3, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.17.2.1, A.9.1.2, CM-7, SC-5, SC-32, DE.CM-1, PR.DS-4, PR.IP-1, PR.PT-3, PR.PT-4, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable


#
# Set runtime for net.ipv4.ip_forward
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv4.ip_forward=0

#
# If net.ipv4.ip_forward present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to "0"
#	else, add "net.ipv4.ip_forward = 0" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^net.ipv4.ip_forward' "0" 'CCE-80157-1'
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: Ensure sysctl net.ipv4.ip_forward is set to 0
  sysctl:
    name: net.ipv4.ip_forward
    value: '0'
    state: present
    reload: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - sysctl_net_ipv4_ip_forward
    - medium_severity
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - reboot_required
    - CCE-80157-1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-040740
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.20
    - NIST-800-53-CM-7
    - NIST-800-53-SC-5
    - NIST-800-53-SC-32

Rule   Disable Kernel Parameter for Sending ICMP Redirects on all IPv4 Interfaces   [ref]

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.conf.all.send_redirects kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.all.send_redirects=0
If this is not the system default value, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d:
net.ipv4.conf.all.send_redirects = 0

Rationale:

ICMP redirect messages are used by routers to inform hosts that a more direct route exists for a particular destination. These messages contain information from the system's route table possibly revealing portions of the network topology.
The ability to send ICMP redirects is only appropriate for systems acting as routers.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80156-3

References:  RHEL-07-040660, SV-86917r3_rule, NT28(R22), 3.1.2, 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 5.10.1.1, APO01.06, APO13.01, BAI04.04, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS01.03, DSS01.05, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, DSS06.06, 3.1.20, CCI-000366, 4.2.3.4, 4.3.3.4, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.2, SR 7.6, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.12.1.1, A.12.1.2, A.12.1.3, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.2, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.2, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.17.2.1, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, AC-4, CM-7, SC-5(1), DE.AE-1, DE.CM-1, ID.AM-3, PR.AC-5, PR.DS-4, PR.DS-5, PR.IP-1, PR.PT-3, PR.PT-4, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable


#
# Set runtime for net.ipv4.conf.all.send_redirects
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv4.conf.all.send_redirects=0

#
# If net.ipv4.conf.all.send_redirects present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to "0"
#	else, add "net.ipv4.conf.all.send_redirects = 0" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^net.ipv4.conf.all.send_redirects' "0" 'CCE-80156-3'
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: Ensure sysctl net.ipv4.conf.all.send_redirects is set to 0
  sysctl:
    name: net.ipv4.conf.all.send_redirects
    value: '0'
    state: present
    reload: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_all_send_redirects
    - medium_severity
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - reboot_required
    - CCE-80156-3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-040660
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.20
    - NIST-800-53-AC-4
    - NIST-800-53-CM-7
    - NIST-800-53-SC-5(1)
    - CJIS-5.10.1.1

Rule   Disable Kernel Parameter for Sending ICMP Redirects on all IPv4 Interfaces by Default   [ref]

To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.conf.default.send_redirects kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.default.send_redirects=0
If this is not the system default value, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d:
net.ipv4.conf.default.send_redirects = 0

Rationale:

ICMP redirect messages are used by routers to inform hosts that a more direct route exists for a particular destination. These messages contain information from the system's route table possibly revealing portions of the network topology.
The ability to send ICMP redirects is only appropriate for systems acting as routers.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80999-6

References:  RHEL-07-040650, SV-86915r4_rule, NT28(R22), 3.1.2, 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 5.10.1.1, APO01.06, APO13.01, BAI04.04, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS01.03, DSS01.05, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, DSS06.06, 3.1.20, CCI-000366, 4.2.3.4, 4.3.3.4, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.2, SR 7.6, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.12.1.1, A.12.1.2, A.12.1.3, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.2, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.2, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.17.2.1, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, AC-4, CM-7, SC-5, SC-7, DE.AE-1, DE.CM-1, ID.AM-3, PR.AC-5, PR.DS-4, PR.DS-5, PR.IP-1, PR.PT-3, PR.PT-4, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable


#
# Set runtime for net.ipv4.conf.default.send_redirects
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.ipv4.conf.default.send_redirects=0

#
# If net.ipv4.conf.default.send_redirects present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to "0"
#	else, add "net.ipv4.conf.default.send_redirects = 0" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^net.ipv4.conf.default.send_redirects' "0" 'CCE-80999-6'
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: Ensure sysctl net.ipv4.conf.default.send_redirects is set to 0
  sysctl:
    name: net.ipv4.conf.default.send_redirects
    value: '0'
    state: present
    reload: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - sysctl_net_ipv4_conf_default_send_redirects
    - medium_severity
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - reboot_required
    - CCE-80999-6
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-040650
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.20
    - NIST-800-53-AC-4
    - NIST-800-53-CM-7
    - NIST-800-53-SC-5
    - NIST-800-53-SC-7
    - CJIS-5.10.1.1
Group   Set Boot Loader Password   Group contains 2 rules

[ref]   During the boot process, the boot loader is responsible for starting the execution of the kernel and passing options to it. The boot loader allows for the selection of different kernels - possibly on different partitions or media. The default Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 boot loader for x86 systems is called GRUB2. Options it can pass to the kernel include single-user mode, which provides root access without any authentication, and the ability to disable SELinux. To prevent local users from modifying the boot parameters and endangering security, protect the boot loader configuration with a password and ensure its configuration file's permissions are set properly.

Rule   Set Boot Loader Password in grub2   [ref]

The grub2 boot loader should have a superuser account and password protection enabled to protect boot-time settings.

To do so, select a superuser account name and password and and modify the /etc/grub.d/01_users configuration file with the new account name.

Since plaintext passwords are a security risk, generate a hash for the pasword by running the following command:

$ grub2-setpassword
When prompted, enter the password that was selected.

NOTE: It is recommended not to use common administrator account names like root, admin, or administrator for the grub2 superuser account.

Change the superuser to a different username (The default is 'root').
$ sed -i s/root/bootuser/g /etc/grub.d/01_users


To meet FISMA Moderate, the bootloader superuser account and password MUST differ from the root account and password. Once the superuser account and password have been added, update the grub.cfg file by running:
grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/grub2/grub.cfg
NOTE: Do NOT manually add the superuser account and password to the grub.cfg file as the grub2-mkconfig command overwrites this file.

Warning:  To prevent hard-coded passwords, automatic remediation of this control is not available. Remediation must be automated as a component of machine provisioning, or followed manually as outlined above.
Rationale:

Password protection on the boot loader configuration ensures users with physical access cannot trivially alter important bootloader settings. These include which kernel to use, and whether to enter single-user mode. For more information on how to configure the grub2 superuser account and password, please refer to

Severity: 
high
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-27309-4

References:  RHEL-07-010480, SV-86585r6_rule, NT28(R17), 1.4.2, 1, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, DSS05.02, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.06, DSS06.10, 3.4.5, CCI-000213, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B), 164.308(a)(7)(i), 164.308(a)(7)(ii)(A), 164.310(a)(1), 164.310(a)(2)(i), 164.310(a)(2)(ii), 164.310(a)(2)(iii), 164.310(b), 164.310(c), 164.310(d)(1), 164.310(d)(2)(iii), 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, A.18.1.4, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, IA-2, IA-2(1), IA-5(e), AC-3, PR.AC-1, PR.AC-4, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, PR.PT-3, FIA_AFL.1, SRG-OS-000080-GPOS-00048

Rule   Set the UEFI Boot Loader Password   [ref]

The grub2 boot loader should have a superuser account and password protection enabled to protect boot-time settings.

To do so, select a superuser account name and password and and modify the /etc/grub.d/01_users configuration file with the new account name.

Since plaintext passwords are a security risk, generate a hash for the pasword by running the following command:

$ grub2-setpassword
When prompted, enter the password that was selected.

NOTE: It is recommended not to use common administrator account names like root, admin, or administrator for the grub2 superuser account.

Change the superuser to a different username (The default is 'root').
$ sed -i s/root/bootuser/g /etc/grub.d/01_users


To meet FISMA Moderate, the bootloader superuser account and password MUST differ from the root account and password. Once the superuser account and password have been added, update the grub.cfg file by running:
grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/efi/EFI/redhat/grub.cfg
NOTE: Do NOT manually add the superuser account and password to the grub.cfg file as the grub2-mkconfig command overwrites this file.

Warning:  To prevent hard-coded passwords, automatic remediation of this control is not available. Remediation must be automated as a component of machine provisioning, or followed manually as outlined above.
Rationale:

Password protection on the boot loader configuration ensures users with physical access cannot trivially alter important bootloader settings. These include which kernel to use, and whether to enter single-user mode. For more information on how to configure the grub2 superuser account and password, please refer to

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80354-4

References:  RHEL-07-010490, SV-86587r4_rule, NT28(R17), 1.4.2, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, DSS05.02, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS06.03, DSS06.06, 3.4.5, CCI-000213, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B), 164.308(a)(7)(i), 164.308(a)(7)(ii)(A), 164.310(a)(1), 164.310(a)(2)(i), 164.310(a)(2)(ii), 164.310(a)(2)(iii), 164.310(b), 164.310(c), 164.310(d)(1), 164.310(d)(2)(iii), 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, AC-3, PR.AC-4, PR.AC-6, PR.PT-3, FIA_AFL.1, SRG-OS-000080-GPOS-00048

Group   Account and Access Control   Group contains 6 groups and 5 rules

[ref]   In traditional Unix security, if an attacker gains shell access to a certain login account, they can perform any action or access any file to which that account has access. Therefore, making it more difficult for unauthorized people to gain shell access to accounts, particularly to privileged accounts, is a necessary part of securing a system. This section introduces mechanisms for restricting access to accounts under Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.

Group   Protect Accounts by Configuring PAM   Group contains 1 group and 1 rule

[ref]   PAM, or Pluggable Authentication Modules, is a system which implements modular authentication for Linux programs. PAM provides a flexible and configurable architecture for authentication, and it should be configured to minimize exposure to unnecessary risk. This section contains guidance on how to accomplish that.

PAM is implemented as a set of shared objects which are loaded and invoked whenever an application wishes to authenticate a user. Typically, the application must be running as root in order to take advantage of PAM, because PAM's modules often need to be able to access sensitive stores of account information, such as /etc/shadow. Traditional privileged network listeners (e.g. sshd) or SUID programs (e.g. sudo) already meet this requirement. An SUID root application, userhelper, is provided so that programs which are not SUID or privileged themselves can still take advantage of PAM.

PAM looks in the directory /etc/pam.d for application-specific configuration information. For instance, if the program login attempts to authenticate a user, then PAM's libraries follow the instructions in the file /etc/pam.d/login to determine what actions should be taken.

One very important file in /etc/pam.d is /etc/pam.d/system-auth. This file, which is included by many other PAM configuration files, defines 'default' system authentication measures. Modifying this file is a good way to make far-reaching authentication changes, for instance when implementing a centralized authentication service.

Warning:  Be careful when making changes to PAM's configuration files. The syntax for these files is complex, and modifications can have unexpected consequences. The default configurations shipped with applications should be sufficient for most users.
Warning:  Running authconfig or system-config-authentication will re-write the PAM configuration files, destroying any manually made changes and replacing them with a series of system defaults. One reference to the configuration file syntax can be found at http://www.linux-pam.org/Linux-PAM-html/sag-configuration-file.html.
Group   Set Password Hashing Algorithm   Group contains 1 rule

[ref]   The system's default algorithm for storing password hashes in /etc/shadow is SHA-512. This can be configured in several locations.

Rule   Set Password Hashing Algorithm in /etc/login.defs   [ref]

In /etc/login.defs, add or correct the following line to ensure the system will use SHA-512 as the hashing algorithm:

ENCRYPT_METHOD SHA512

Rationale:

Passwords need to be protected at all times, and encryption is the standard method for protecting passwords. If passwords are not encrypted, they can be plainly read (i.e., clear text) and easily compromised. Passwords that are encrypted with a weak algorithm are no more protected than if they are kept in plain text.

Using a stronger hashing algorithm makes password cracking attacks more difficult.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-82050-6

References:  RHEL-07-010210, SV-86545r2_rule, NT28(R32), 6.3.1, 1, 12, 15, 16, 5, 5.6.2.2, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, 3.13.11, CCI-000196, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, IA-5(b), IA-5(c), IA-5(1)(c), IA-7, PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, Req-8.2.1, SRG-OS-000073-GPOS-00041

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

if grep --silent ^ENCRYPT_METHOD /etc/login.defs ; then
	sed -i 's/^ENCRYPT_METHOD.*/ENCRYPT_METHOD SHA512/g' /etc/login.defs
else
	echo "" >> /etc/login.defs
	echo "ENCRYPT_METHOD SHA512" >> /etc/login.defs
fi
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: Set Password Hashing Algorithm in /etc/login.defs
  lineinfile:
    dest: /etc/login.defs
    regexp: ^#?ENCRYPT_METHOD
    line: ENCRYPT_METHOD SHA512
    state: present
  tags:
    - set_password_hashing_algorithm_logindefs
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-82050-6
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-010210
    - NIST-800-171-3.13.11
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(b)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-7
    - CJIS-5.6.2.2
Group   Secure Session Configuration Files for Login Accounts   Group contains 1 group and 3 rules

[ref]   When a user logs into a Unix account, the system configures the user's session by reading a number of files. Many of these files are located in the user's home directory, and may have weak permissions as a result of user error or misconfiguration. If an attacker can modify or even read certain types of account configuration information, they can often gain full access to the affected user's account. Therefore, it is important to test and correct configuration file permissions for interactive accounts, particularly those of privileged users such as root or system administrators.

Group   Ensure that Users Have Sensible Umask Values   Group contains 2 rules

[ref]   The umask setting controls the default permissions for the creation of new files. With a default umask setting of 077, files and directories created by users will not be readable by any other user on the system. Users who wish to make specific files group- or world-readable can accomplish this by using the chmod command. Additionally, users can make all their files readable to their group by default by setting a umask of 027 in their shell configuration files. If default per-user groups exist (that is, if every user has a default group whose name is the same as that user's username and whose only member is the user), then it may even be safe for users to select a umask of 007, making it very easy to intentionally share files with groups of which the user is a member.

Rule   Ensure the Default Umask is Set Correctly in /etc/profile   [ref]

To ensure the default umask controlled by /etc/profile is set properly, add or correct the umask setting in /etc/profile to read as follows:

umask 077

Rationale:

The umask value influences the permissions assigned to files when they are created. A misconfigured umask value could result in files with excessive permissions that can be read or written to by unauthorized users.

Severity: 
unknown
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80204-1

References:  NT28(R35), 5.4.4, 18, APO13.01, BAI03.01, BAI03.02, BAI03.03, CCI-000366, 4.3.4.3.3, A.14.1.1, A.14.2.1, A.14.2.5, A.6.1.5, SA-8, PR.IP-2

Remediation Shell script:   (show)


var_accounts_user_umask="077"

grep -q umask /etc/profile && \
  sed -i "s/umask.*/umask $var_accounts_user_umask/g" /etc/profile
if ! [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
    echo "umask $var_accounts_user_umask" >> /etc/profile
fi
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value var_accounts_user_umask # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_accounts_user_umask: !!str 077
  tags:
    - always

- name: Set user umask in /etc/profile
  replace:
    path: /etc/profile
    regexp: umask.*
    replace: umask {{ var_accounts_user_umask }}
  tags:
    - accounts_umask_etc_profile
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-80204-1
    - NIST-800-53-SA-8

Rule   Set Interactive Session Timeout   [ref]

Setting the TMOUT option in /etc/profile ensures that all user sessions will terminate based on inactivity. The TMOUT setting in /etc/profile should read as follows:

TMOUT=600

Rationale:

Terminating an idle session within a short time period reduces the window of opportunity for unauthorized personnel to take control of a management session enabled on the console or console port that has been left unattended.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-27557-8

References:  RHEL-07-040160, SV-86847r4_rule, NT28(R29), 1, 12, 15, 16, DSS05.04, DSS05.10, DSS06.10, 3.1.11, CCI-001133, CCI-000361, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, A.18.1.4, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.4, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, AC-12, SC-10, PR.AC-7, FMT_MOF_EXT.1, SRG-OS-000163-GPOS-00072, SRG-OS-000163-VMM-000700, SRG-OS-000279-VMM-001010

Remediation Shell script:   (show)


var_accounts_tmout="600"

if grep --silent ^TMOUT /etc/profile ; then
        sed -i "s/^TMOUT.*/TMOUT=$var_accounts_tmout/g" /etc/profile
else
        echo -e "\n# Set TMOUT to $var_accounts_tmout per security requirements" >> /etc/profile
        echo "TMOUT=$var_accounts_tmout" >> /etc/profile
fi
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value var_accounts_tmout # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_accounts_tmout: !!str 600
  tags:
    - always

- name: Set Interactive Session Timeout
  block:

    - name: Deduplicate values from /etc/profile
      lineinfile:
        path: /etc/profile
        create: false
        regexp: ^\s*TMOUT=
        state: absent

    - name: Check if /etc/profile.d exists
      stat:
        path: /etc/profile.d
      register: _etc_profile_d_exists

    - name: Check if the parameter TMOUT is present in /etc/profile.d
      find:
        paths: /etc/profile.d
        recurse: 'yes'
        follow: 'no'
        contains: ^\s*TMOUT=
      register: _etc_profile_d_has_parameter
      when: _etc_profile_d_exists.stat.isdir is defined and _etc_profile_d_exists.stat.isdir

    - name: Remove parameter from files in /etc/profile.d
      lineinfile:
        path: '{{ item.path }}'
        create: false
        regexp: ^\s*TMOUT=
        state: absent
      with_items: '{{ _etc_profile_d_has_parameter.files }}'
      when: _etc_profile_d_has_parameter.matched

    - name: Insert correct line to /etc/profile
      lineinfile:
        path: /etc/profile
        create: true
        line: TMOUT={{ var_accounts_tmout }}
        state: present
        validate: bash -n %s
  tags:
    - accounts_tmout
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-27557-8
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-07-040160
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.11
    - NIST-800-53-AC-12
    - NIST-800-53-SC-10
Group   Protect Accounts by Restricting Password-Based Login   Group contains 1 group and 1 rule

[ref]   Conventionally, Unix shell accounts are accessed by providing a username and password to a login program, which tests these values for correctness using the /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow files. Password-based login is vulnerable to guessing of weak passwords, and to sniffing and man-in-the-middle attacks against passwords entered over a network or at an insecure console. Therefore, mechanisms for accessing accounts by entering usernames and passwords should be restricted to those which are operationally necessary.

Group   Restrict Root Logins   Group contains 1 rule

[ref]   Direct root logins should be allowed only for emergency use. In normal situations, the administrator should access the system via a unique unprivileged account, and then use su or sudo to execute privileged commands. Discouraging administrators from accessing the root account directly ensures an audit trail in organizations with multiple administrators. Locking down the channels through which root can connect directly also reduces opportunities for password-guessing against the root account. The login program uses the file /etc/securetty to determine which interfaces should allow root logins. The virtual devices /dev/console and /dev/tty* represent the system consoles (accessible via the Ctrl-Alt-F1 through Ctrl-Alt-F6 keyboard sequences on a default installation). The default securetty file also contains /dev/vc/*. These are likely to be deprecated in most environments, but may be retained for compatibility. Root should also be prohibited from connecting via network protocols. Other sections of this document include guidance describing how to prevent root from logging in via SSH.

Rule   Direct root Logins Not Allowed   [ref]

To further limit access to the root account, administrators can disable root logins at the console by editing the /etc/securetty file. This file lists all devices the root user is allowed to login to. If the file does not exist at all, the root user can login through any communication device on the system, whether via the console or via a raw network interface. This is dangerous as user can login to the system as root via Telnet, which sends the password in plain text over the network. By default, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7's /etc/securetty file only allows the root user to login at the console physically attached to the system. To prevent root from logging in, remove the contents of this file. To prevent direct root logins, remove the contents of this file by typing the following command:

$ sudo echo > /etc/securetty

Rationale:

Disabling direct root logins ensures proper accountability and multifactor authentication to privileged accounts. Users will first login, then escalate to privileged (root) access via su / sudo. This is required for FISMA Low and FISMA Moderate systems.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-27294-8

References:  NT28(R19), 5.5, 1, 12, 15, 16, 5, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, 3.1.1, 3.1.6, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B), 164.308(a)(7)(i), 164.308(a)(7)(ii)(A), 164.310(a)(1), 164.310(a)(2)(i), 164.310(a)(2)(ii), 164.310(a)(2)(iii), 164.310(b), 164.310(c), 164.310(d)(1), 164.310(d)(2)(iii), 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, IA-2, IA-2(1), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

echo > /etc/securetty
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: Test for existence /etc/cron.allow
  stat:
    path: /etc/securetty
  register: securetty_empty
  tags:
    - no_direct_root_logins
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-27294-8
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.6
    - NIST-800-53-IA-2
    - NIST-800-53-IA-2(1)

- name: Direct root Logins Not Allowed
  shell: echo > /etc/securetty
  args:
    warn: false
  changed_when: securetty_empty.stat.size > 1
  tags:
    - no_direct_root_logins
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-27294-8
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.6
    - NIST-800-53-IA-2
    - NIST-800-53-IA-2(1)
Group   File Permissions and Masks   Group contains 6 groups and 25 rules

[ref]   Traditional Unix security relies heavily on file and directory permissions to prevent unauthorized users from reading or modifying files to which they should not have access.

Several of the commands in this section search filesystems for files or directories with certain characteristics, and are intended to be run on every local partition on a given system. When the variable PART appears in one of the commands below, it means that the command is intended to be run repeatedly, with the name of each local partition substituted for PART in turn.

The following command prints a list of all xfs partitions on the local system, which is the default filesystem for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 installations:

$ mount -t xfs | awk '{print $3}'
For any systems that use a different local filesystem type, modify this command as appropriate.

Group   Verify Permissions on Important Files and Directories   Group contains 1 group and 11 rules

[ref]   Permissions for many files on a system must be set restrictively to ensure sensitive information is properly protected. This section discusses important permission restrictions which can be verified to ensure that no harmful discrepancies have arisen.

Group   Verify Permissions on Files with Local Account Information and Credentials   Group contains 6 rules

Rule   Verify Permissions on shadow File   [ref]

To properly set the permissions of /etc/shadow, run the command:

$ sudo chmod 0640 /etc/shadow

Rationale:

The /etc/shadow file contains the list of local system accounts and stores password hashes. Protection of this file is critical for system security. Failure to give ownership of this file to root provides the designated owner with access to sensitive information which could weaken the system security posture.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-82042-3

References:  NT28(R36), 6.1.3, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, 5.5.2.2, APO01.06, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, 4.3.3.7.3, SR 2.1, SR 5.2, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, AC-6, PR.AC-4, PR.DS-5, Req-8.7.c

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure

chmod 0000 /etc/shadow
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure
- name: Test for existence /etc/shadow
  stat:
    path: /etc/shadow
  register: file_exists
  tags:
    - file_permissions_etc_shadow
    - medium_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-82042-3
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.7.c
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6
    - CJIS-5.5.2.2

- name: Ensure permission 0000 on /etc/shadow
  file:
    path: /etc/shadow
    mode: '0000'
  when: file_exists.stat is defined and file_exists.stat.exists
  tags:
    - file_permissions_etc_shadow
    - medium_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-82042-3
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.7.c
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6
    - CJIS-5.5.2.2

Rule   Verify User Who Owns shadow File   [ref]

To properly set the owner of /etc/shadow, run the command:

$ sudo chown root /etc/shadow 

Rationale:

The /etc/shadow file contains the list of local system accounts and stores password hashes. Protection of this file is critical for system security. Failure to give ownership of this file to root provides the designated owner with access to sensitive information which could weaken the system security posture.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-82022-5

References:  NT28(R36), 6.1.3, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, 5.5.2.2, APO01.06, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, 4.3.3.7.3, SR 2.1, SR 5.2, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, AC-6, PR.AC-4, PR.DS-5, Req-8.7.c

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure

chown 0 /etc/shadow
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure
- name: Test for existence /etc/shadow
  stat:
    path: /etc/shadow
  register: file_exists
  tags:
    - file_owner_etc_shadow
    - medium_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-82022-5
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.7.c
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6
    - CJIS-5.5.2.2

- name: Ensure owner 0 on /etc/shadow
  file:
    path: /etc/shadow
    owner: '0'
  when: file_exists.stat is defined and file_exists.stat.exists
  tags:
    - file_owner_etc_shadow
    - medium_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-82022-5
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.7.c
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6
    - CJIS-5.5.2.2

Rule   Verify Permissions on group File   [ref]

To properly set the permissions of /etc/passwd, run the command:

$ sudo chmod 0644 /etc/passwd

Rationale:

The /etc/group file contains information regarding groups that are configured on the system. Protection of this file is important for system security.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-82032-4

References:  6.1.4, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, 5.5.2.2, APO01.06, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, 4.3.3.7.3, SR 2.1, SR 5.2, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, AC-6, PR.AC-4, PR.DS-5, Req-8.7.c

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure

chmod 0644 /etc/group
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure
- name: Test for existence /etc/group
  stat:
    path: /etc/group
  register: file_exists
  tags:
    - file_permissions_etc_group
    - medium_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-82032-4
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.7.c
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6
    - CJIS-5.5.2.2

- name: Ensure permission 0644 on /etc/group
  file:
    path: /etc/group
    mode: '0644'
  when: file_exists.stat is defined and file_exists.stat.exists
  tags:
    - file_permissions_etc_group
    - medium_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-82032-4
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.7.c
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6
    - CJIS-5.5.2.2

Rule   Verify User Who Owns gshadow File   [ref]

To properly set the owner of /etc/gshadow, run the command:

$ sudo chown root /etc/gshadow 

Rationale:

The /etc/gshadow file contains group password hashes. Protection of this file is critical for system security.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-82195-9

References:  NT28(R36), 6.1.5, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, APO01.06, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, 4.3.3.7.3, SR 2.1, SR 5.2, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, AC-6, PR.AC-4, PR.DS-5

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure

chown 0 /etc/gshadow
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure
- name: Test for existence /etc/gshadow
  stat:
    path: /etc/gshadow
  register: file_exists
  tags:
    - file_owner_etc_gshadow
    - medium_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-82195-9
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6

- name: Ensure owner 0 on /etc/gshadow
  file:
    path: /etc/gshadow
    owner: '0'
  when: file_exists.stat is defined and file_exists.stat.exists
  tags:
    - file_owner_etc_gshadow
    - medium_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-82195-9
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6

Rule   Verify Permissions on gshadow File   [ref]

To properly set the permissions of /etc/gshadow, run the command:

$ sudo chmod 0000 /etc/gshadow

Rationale:

The /etc/gshadow file contains group password hashes. Protection of this file is critical for system security.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-82192-6

References:  NT28(R36), 6.1.5, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, APO01.06, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, 4.3.3.7.3, SR 2.1, SR 5.2, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, AC-6, PR.AC-4, PR.DS-5

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure

chmod 0000 /etc/gshadow
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure
- name: Test for existence /etc/gshadow
  stat:
    path: /etc/gshadow
  register: file_exists
  tags:
    - file_permissions_etc_gshadow
    - medium_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-82192-6
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6

- name: Ensure permission 0000 on /etc/gshadow
  file:
    path: /etc/gshadow
    mode: '0000'
  when: file_exists.stat is defined and file_exists.stat.exists
  tags:
    - file_permissions_etc_gshadow
    - medium_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-82192-6
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6

Rule   Verify Permissions on passwd File   [ref]

To properly set the permissions of /etc/passwd, run the command:

$ sudo chmod 0644 /etc/passwd

Rationale:

If the /etc/passwd file is writable by a group-owner or the world the risk of its compromise is increased. The file contains the list of accounts on the system and associated information, and protection of this file is critical for system security.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-82029-0

References:  6.1.2, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, 5.5.2.2, APO01.06, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, 4.3.3.7.3, SR 2.1, SR 5.2, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, AC-6, PR.AC-4, PR.DS-5, Req-8.7.c

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure

chmod 0644 /etc/passwd
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure
- name: Test for existence /etc/passwd
  stat:
    path: /etc/passwd
  register: file_exists
  tags:
    - file_permissions_etc_passwd
    - medium_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-82029-0
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.7.c
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6
    - CJIS-5.5.2.2

- name: Ensure permission 0644 on /etc/passwd
  file:
    path: /etc/passwd
    mode: '0644'
  when: file_exists.stat is defined and file_exists.stat.exists
  tags:
    - file_permissions_etc_passwd
    - medium_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-82029-0
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.7.c
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6
    - CJIS-5.5.2.2

Rule   Ensure All SGID Executables Are Authorized   [ref]

The SGID (set group id) bit should be set only on files that were installed via authorized means. A straightforward means of identifying unauthorized SGID files is determine if any were not installed as part of an RPM package, which is cryptographically verified. Investigate the origin of any unpackaged SGID files.

Rationale:

Executable files with the SGID permission run with the privileges of the owner of the file. SGID files of uncertain provenance could allow for unprivileged users to elevate privileges. The presence of these files should be strictly controlled on the system.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80132-4

References:  NT28(R37), NT28(R38), 6.1.14, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, APO01.06, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, 4.3.3.7.3, SR 2.1, SR 5.2, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, AC-6(1), PR.AC-4, PR.DS-5

Rule   Verify that local System.map file (if exists) is readable only by root   [ref]

Files containing sensitive informations should be protected by restrictive permissions. Most of the time, there is no need that these files need to be read by any non-root user To properly set the permissions of /boot/System.map-*, run the command:

$ sudo chmod 0600 /boot/System.map-*

Rationale:

The System.map file contains information about kernel symbols and can give some hints to generate local exploitation.

Severity: 
unknown
Identifiers and References

References:  NT28(R13)

Rule   Ensure All SUID Executables Are Authorized   [ref]

The SUID (set user id) bit should be set only on files that were installed via authorized means. A straightforward means of identifying unauthorized SGID files is determine if any were not installed as part of an RPM package, which is cryptographically verified. Investigate the origin of any unpackaged SUID files.

Rationale:

Executable files with the SUID permission run with the privileges of the owner of the file. SUID files of uncertain provenance could allow for unprivileged users to elevate privileges. The presence of these files should be strictly controlled on the system.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80133-2

References:  NT28(R37), NT28(R38), 6.1.13, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, APO01.06, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, 4.3.3.7.3, SR 2.1, SR 5.2, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, AC-6(1), PR.AC-4, PR.DS-5

Group   Restrict Programs from Dangerous Execution Patterns   Group contains 2 groups and 6 rules

[ref]   The recommendations in this section are designed to ensure that the system's features to protect against potentially dangerous program execution are activated. These protections are applied at the system initialization or kernel level, and defend against certain types of badly-configured or compromised programs.

Group   Disable Core Dumps   Group contains 1 rule

[ref]   A core dump file is the memory image of an executable program when it was terminated by the operating system due to errant behavior. In most cases, only software developers legitimately need to access these files. The core dump files may also contain sensitive information, or unnecessarily occupy large amounts of disk space.

Once a hard limit is set in /etc/security/limits.conf, a user cannot increase that limit within his or her own session. If access to core dumps is required, consider restricting them to only certain users or groups. See the limits.conf man page for more information.

The core dumps of setuid programs are further protected. The sysctl variable fs.suid_dumpable controls whether the kernel allows core dumps from these programs at all. The default value of 0 is recommended.

Rule   Disable Core Dumps for SUID programs   [ref]

To set the runtime status of the fs.suid_dumpable kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w fs.suid_dumpable=0
If this is not the system default value, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d:
fs.suid_dumpable = 0

Rationale:

The core dump of a setuid program is more likely to contain sensitive data, as the program itself runs with greater privileges than the user who initiated execution of the program. Disabling the ability for any setuid program to write a core file decreases the risk of unauthorized access of such data.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-26900-1

References:  NT28(R23), 1.5.1, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3), 164.308(a)(4), 164.310(b), 164.310(c), 164.312(a), 164.312(e), SI-11

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable


#
# Set runtime for fs.suid_dumpable
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w fs.suid_dumpable=0

#
# If fs.suid_dumpable present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to "0"
#	else, add "fs.suid_dumpable = 0" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^fs.suid_dumpable' "0" 'CCE-26900-1'
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: Ensure sysctl fs.suid_dumpable is set to 0
  sysctl:
    name: fs.suid_dumpable
    value: '0'
    state: present
    reload: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - sysctl_fs_suid_dumpable
    - medium_severity
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - reboot_required
    - CCE-26900-1
    - NIST-800-53-SI-11
Group   Enable ExecShield   Group contains 2 rules

[ref]   ExecShield describes kernel features that provide protection against exploitation of memory corruption errors such as buffer overflows. These features include random placement of the stack and other memory regions, prevention of execution in memory that should only hold data, and special handling of text buffers. These protections are enabled by default on 32-bit systems and controlled through sysctl variables kernel.exec-shield and kernel.randomize_va_space. On the latest 64-bit systems, kernel.exec-shield cannot be enabled or disabled with sysctl.

Rule   Restrict Exposed Kernel Pointer Addresses Access   [ref]

To set the runtime status of the kernel.kptr_restrict kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w kernel.kptr_restrict=1
If this is not the system default value, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d:
kernel.kptr_restrict = 1

Rationale:

Exposing kernel pointers (through procfs or seq_printf()) exposes kernel writeable structures that can contain functions pointers. If a write vulnereability occurs in the kernel allowing a write access to any of this structure, the kernel can be compromise. This option disallow any program withtout the CAP_SYSLOG capability from getting the kernel pointers addresses, replacing them with 0.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80659-6

References:  NT28(R23), SC-39

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable


#
# Set runtime for kernel.kptr_restrict
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w kernel.kptr_restrict=1

#
# If kernel.kptr_restrict present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to "1"
#	else, add "kernel.kptr_restrict = 1" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.kptr_restrict' "1" 'CCE-80659-6'
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: Ensure sysctl kernel.kptr_restrict is set to 1
  sysctl:
    name: kernel.kptr_restrict
    value: '1'
    state: present
    reload: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - sysctl_kernel_kptr_restrict
    - medium_severity
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - reboot_required
    - CCE-80659-6
    - NIST-800-53-SC-39

Rule   Enable Randomized Layout of Virtual Address Space   [ref]

To set the runtime status of the kernel.randomize_va_space kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w kernel.randomize_va_space=2
If this is not the system default value, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d:
kernel.randomize_va_space = 2

Rationale:

Address space layout randomization (ASLR) makes it more difficult for an attacker to predict the location of attack code they have introduced into a process's address space during an attempt at exploitation. Additionally, ASLR makes it more difficult for an attacker to know the location of existing code in order to re-purpose it using return oriented programming (ROP) techniques.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-27127-0

References:  NT28(R23), 1.5.1, 3.1.7, CCI-000366, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3), 164.308(a)(4), 164.310(b), 164.310(c), 164.312(a), 164.312(e), SC-30(2), SC-39, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, RHEL-07-040201, SV-92521r2_rule

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable


#
# Set runtime for kernel.randomize_va_space
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w kernel.randomize_va_space=2

#
# If kernel.randomize_va_space present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to "2"
#	else, add "kernel.randomize_va_space = 2" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' "2" 'CCE-27127-0'
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: Ensure sysctl kernel.randomize_va_space is set to 2
  sysctl:
    name: kernel.randomize_va_space
    value: '2'
    state: present
    reload: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - sysctl_kernel_randomize_va_space
    - medium_severity
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - reboot_required
    - CCE-27127-0
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - NIST-800-53-SC-30(2)
    - NIST-800-53-SC-39

Rule   Restrict usage of ptrace to descendant processes   [ref]

To set the runtime status of the kernel.yama.ptrace_scope kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w kernel.yama.ptrace_scope=1
If this is not the system default value, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d:
kernel.yama.ptrace_scope = 1

Rationale:

Unrestricted usage of ptrace allows compromised binaries to run ptrace on another processes of the user. Like this, the attacker can steal sensitive information from the target processes (e.g. SSH sessions, web browser, ...) without any additional assistance from the user (i.e. without resorting to phishing).

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-81058-0

References:  NT28(R25)

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable


#
# Set runtime for kernel.yama.ptrace_scope
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w kernel.yama.ptrace_scope=1

#
# If kernel.yama.ptrace_scope present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to "1"
#	else, add "kernel.yama.ptrace_scope = 1" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.yama.ptrace_scope' "1" 'CCE-81058-0'
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: Ensure sysctl kernel.yama.ptrace_scope is set to 1
  sysctl:
    name: kernel.yama.ptrace_scope
    value: '1'
    state: present
    reload: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - sysctl_kernel_yama_ptrace_scope
    - medium_severity
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - reboot_required
    - CCE-81058-0

Rule   Restrict Access to Kernel Message Buffer   [ref]

To set the runtime status of the kernel.dmesg_restrict kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w kernel.dmesg_restrict=1
If this is not the system default value, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d:
kernel.dmesg_restrict = 1

Rationale:

Unprivileged access to the kernel syslog can expose sensitive kernel address information.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-27050-4

References:  NT28(R23), 3.1.5, CCI-001314, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3), 164.308(a)(4), 164.310(b), 164.310(c), 164.312(a), 164.312(e), SI-11

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable


#
# Set runtime for kernel.dmesg_restrict
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w kernel.dmesg_restrict=1

#
# If kernel.dmesg_restrict present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to "1"
#	else, add "kernel.dmesg_restrict = 1" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.dmesg_restrict' "1" 'CCE-27050-4'
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: Ensure sysctl kernel.dmesg_restrict is set to 1
  sysctl:
    name: kernel.dmesg_restrict
    value: '1'
    state: present
    reload: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - sysctl_kernel_dmesg_restrict
    - medium_severity
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - reboot_required
    - CCE-27050-4
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.5
    - NIST-800-53-SI-11

Rule   Disallow kernel profiling by unprivileged users   [ref]

To set the runtime status of the kernel.perf_event_paranoid kernel parameter, run the following command:

$ sudo sysctl -w kernel.perf_event_paranoid=2
If this is not the system default value, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d:
kernel.perf_event_paranoid = 2

Rationale:

Kernel profiling can reveal sensitive information about kernel behaviour.

Severity: 
medium
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-81053-1

References:  NT28(R23), FMT_SMF_EXT.1

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable


#
# Set runtime for kernel.perf_event_paranoid
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w kernel.perf_event_paranoid=2

#
# If kernel.perf_event_paranoid present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to "2"
#	else, add "kernel.perf_event_paranoid = 2" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.perf_event_paranoid' "2" 'CCE-81053-1'
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: Ensure sysctl kernel.perf_event_paranoid is set to 2
  sysctl:
    name: kernel.perf_event_paranoid
    value: '2'
    state: present
    reload: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - sysctl_kernel_perf_event_paranoid
    - medium_severity
    - disable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - reboot_required
    - CCE-81053-1
Group   Restrict Partition Mount Options   Group contains 8 rules

[ref]   System partitions can be mounted with certain options that limit what files on those partitions can do. These options are set in the /etc/fstab configuration file, and can be used to make certain types of malicious behavior more difficult.

Rule   Add nodev Option to /tmp   [ref]

The nodev mount option can be used to prevent device files from being created in /tmp. Legitimate character and block devices should not exist within temporary directories like /tmp. Add the nodev option to the fourth column of /etc/fstab for the line which controls mounting of /tmp.

Rationale:

The only legitimate location for device files is the /dev directory located on the root partition. The only exception to this is chroot jails.

Severity: 
unknown
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80149-8

References:  NT28(R12), 1.1.3, 11, 13, 14, 3, 8, 9, APO13.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.05, DSS05.06, DSS06.06, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 7.6, A.11.2.9, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.8.2.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.8.3.1, A.8.3.3, A.9.1.2, CM-7, MP-2, PR.IP-1, PR.PT-2, PR.PT-3

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

function include_mount_options_functions {
	:
}

# $1: type of filesystem
# $2: new mount point option
# $3: filesystem of new mount point (used when adding new entry in fstab)
# $4: mount type of new mount point (used when adding new entry in fstab)
function ensure_mount_option_for_vfstype {
        local _vfstype="$1" _new_opt="$2" _filesystem=$3 _type=$4 _vfstype_points=()
        _vfstype_points=($(grep -E "[[:space:]]$_vfstype[[:space:]]" /etc/fstab | awk '{print $2}'))

        for _vfstype_point in "${_vfstype_points[@]}"
        do
                ensure_mount_option_in_fstab "$_vfstype_point" "$_new_opt" "$_filesystem" "$_type"
        done
}

# $1: mount point
# $2: new mount point option
# $3: device or virtual string (used when adding new entry in fstab)
# $4: mount type of mount point (used when adding new entry in fstab)
function ensure_mount_option_in_fstab {
	local _mount_point="$1" _new_opt="$2" _device=$3 _type=$4
	local _mount_point_match_regexp="" _previous_mount_opts=""
	_mount_point_match_regexp="$(get_mount_point_regexp "$_mount_point")"

	if [ $(grep -c "$_mount_point_match_regexp" /etc/fstab ) -eq 0 ]; then
		# runtime opts without some automatic kernel/userspace-added defaults
		_previous_mount_opts=$(grep "$_mount_point_match_regexp" /etc/mtab | awk '{print $4}' \
					| sed -E "s/(rw|defaults|seclabel|${_new_opt})(,|$)//g;s/,$//")
		[ "$_previous_mount_opts" ] && _previous_mount_opts+=","
		echo "${_device} ${_mount_point} ${_type} defaults,${_previous_mount_opts}${_new_opt} 0 0" >> /etc/fstab
	elif [ $(grep "$_mount_point_match_regexp" /etc/fstab | grep -c "$_new_opt" ) -eq 0 ]; then
		_previous_mount_opts=$(grep "$_mount_point_match_regexp" /etc/fstab | awk '{print $4}')
		sed -i "s|\(${_mount_point_match_regexp}.*${_previous_mount_opts}\)|\1,${_new_opt}|" /etc/fstab
	fi
}

# $1: mount point
function get_mount_point_regexp {
		printf "[[:space:]]%s[[:space:]]" "$1"
}

# $1: mount point
function assert_mount_point_in_fstab {
	local _mount_point_match_regexp
	_mount_point_match_regexp="$(get_mount_point_regexp "$1")"
	grep "$_mount_point_match_regexp" -q /etc/fstab \
		|| { echo "The mount point '$1' is not even in /etc/fstab, so we can't set up mount options" >&2; return 1; }
}

# $1: mount point
function remove_defaults_from_fstab_if_overriden {
	local _mount_point_match_regexp
	_mount_point_match_regexp="$(get_mount_point_regexp "$1")"
	if $(grep "$_mount_point_match_regexp" /etc/fstab | grep -q "defaults,")
	then
		sed -i "s|\(${_mount_point_match_regexp}.*\)defaults,|\1|" /etc/fstab
	fi
}

# $1: mount point
function ensure_partition_is_mounted {
	local _mount_point="$1"
	mkdir -p "$_mount_point" || return 1
	if mountpoint -q "$_mount_point"; then
		mount -o remount --target "$_mount_point"
	else
		mount --target "$_mount_point"
	fi
}

include_mount_options_functions

function perform_remediation {
	# test "$mount_has_to_exist" = 'yes'
	if test "no" = 'yes'; then
		assert_mount_point_in_fstab /tmp || { echo "Not remediating, because there is no record of /tmp in /etc/fstab" >&2; return 1; }
	fi

	ensure_mount_option_in_fstab "/tmp" "nodev" "tmpfs" "tmpfs"

	ensure_partition_is_mounted "/tmp"
}

perform_remediation
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Strategy:configure
- name: get back mount information associated to mountpoint
  command: findmnt --fstab '/tmp'
  register: device_name
  failed_when: device_name.rc > 1
  changed_when: false
  when: ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - mount_option_tmp_nodev
    - unknown_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - high_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-80149-8
    - NIST-800-53-CM-7
    - NIST-800-53-MP-2

- name: create mount_info dictionary variable
  set_fact:
    mount_info: '{{ mount_info|default({})|combine({item.0: item.1}) }}'
  with_together:
    - '{{ device_name.stdout_lines[0].split() | list | lower }}'
    - '{{ device_name.stdout_lines[1].split() | list }}'
  when:
    - device_name.stdout is defined and device_name.stdout_lines is defined
    - (device_name.stdout | length > 0)
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - mount_option_tmp_nodev
    - unknown_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - high_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-80149-8
    - NIST-800-53-CM-7
    - NIST-800-53-MP-2

- name: Ensure permission nodev are set on /tmp
  mount:
    path: /tmp
    src: '{{ mount_info.source }}'
    opts: '{{ mount_info.options }},nodev'
    state: mounted
    fstype: '{{ mount_info.fstype }}'
  when:
    - device_name.stdout is defined
    - (device_name.stdout | length > 0)
    - ansible_virtualization_role != "guest" or ansible_virtualization_type != "docker"
  tags:
    - mount_option_tmp_nodev
    - unknown_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - high_disruption
    - no_reboot_needed
    - CCE-80149-8
    - NIST-800-53-CM-7
    - NIST-800-53-MP-2

Rule   Add nosuid Option to /tmp   [ref]

The nosuid mount option can be used to prevent execution of setuid programs in /tmp. The SUID and SGID permissions should not be required in these world-writable directories. Add the nosuid option to the fourth column of /etc/fstab for the line which controls mounting of /tmp.

Rationale:

The presence of SUID and SGID executables should be tightly controlled. Users should not be able to execute SUID or SGID binaries from temporary storage partitions.

Severity: 
unknown
Identifiers and References

Identifiers:  CCE-80151-4

References:  NT28(R12), 1.1.4, 11, 13, 14, 3, 8, 9, APO13.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.05, DSS05.06, DSS06.06, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 7.6, A.11.2.9, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.8.2.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.8.3.1, A.8.3.3, A.9.1.2, CM-7, MP-2, PR.IP-1, PR.PT-2, PR.PT-3

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

function include_mount_options_functions {
	:
}

# $1: type of filesystem
# $2: new mount point option
# $3: filesystem of new mount point (used when adding new entry in fstab)
# $4: mount type of new mount point (used when adding new entry in fstab)
function ensure_mount_option_for_vfstype {
        local _vfstype="$1" _new_opt="$2" _filesystem=$3 _type=$4 _vfstype_points=()
        _vfstype_points=($(grep -E "[[:space:]]$_vfstype[[:space:]]" /etc/fstab | awk '{print $2}'))

        for _vfstype_point in "${_vfstype_points[@]}"
        do
                ensure_mount_option_in_fstab "$_vfstype_point" "$_new_opt" "$_filesystem" "$_type"
        done
}

# $1: mount point
# $2: new mount point option
# $3: device or virtual string (used when adding new entry in fstab)
# $4: mount type of mount point (used when adding new entry in fstab)
function ensure_mount_option_in_fstab {
	local _mount_point="$1" _new_opt="$2" _device=$3 _type=$4
	local _mount_point_match_regexp="" _previous_mount_opts=""
	_mount_point_match_regexp="$(get_mount_point_regexp "$_mount_point")"

	if [ $(grep -c "$_mount_point_match_regexp" /etc/fstab ) -eq 0 ]; then
		# runtime opts without some automatic kernel/userspace-added defaults
		_previous_mount_opts=$(grep "$_mount_point_match_regexp" /etc/mtab | awk '{print $4}' \
					| sed -E "s/(rw|defaults|seclabel|${_new_opt})(,|$)//g;s/,$//")
		[ "$_previous_mount_opts" ] && _previous_mount_opts+=","
		echo "${_device} ${_mount_point} ${_type} defaults,${_previous_mount_opts}${_new_opt} 0 0" >> /etc/fstab
	elif [ $(grep "$_mount_point_match_regexp" /etc/fstab | grep -c "$_new_opt" ) -eq 0 ]; then
		_previous_mount_opts=$(grep "$_mount_point_match_regexp" /etc/fstab | awk '{print $4}')
		sed -i "s|\(${_mount_point_match_regexp}.*${_previous_mount_opts}\)|\1,${_new_opt}|" /etc/fstab
	fi
}

# $1: mount point
function get_mount_point_regexp {
		printf "[[:space:]]%s[[:space:]]" "$1"
}

# $1: mount point
function assert_mount_point_in_fstab {
	local _mount_point_match_regexp
	_mount_point_match_regexp="$(get_mount_point_regexp "$1")"
	grep "$_mount_point_match_regexp" -q /etc/fstab \
		|| { echo "The mount point '$1' is not even in /etc/fstab, so we can't set up mount options" >&2; return 1; }
}

# $1: mount point
function remove_defaults_from_fstab_if_overriden {
	local _mount_point_match_regexp
	_mount_point_match_regexp="$(get_mount_point_regexp "$1")"
	if $(grep "$_mount_point_match_regexp" /etc/fstab | grep -q "defaults,")
	then
		sed -i "s|\(${_mount_point_match_regexp}.*\)defaults,|\1|" /etc/fstab
	fi
}

# $1: mount point
function ensure_partition_is_mounted {
	local _mount_point="$1"
	mkdir -p "$_mount_point" || return 1
	if mountpoint -q "$_mount_point"; then
		mount -o remount --target "$_mount_point"
	else
		mount --target "$_mount_point"
	fi
}

include_mount_options_functions

function perform_remediation {
	# test "$mount_has_to_exist" = 'yes'
	if test "no" = 'yes'; then
		assert_mount_point_in_fstab /tmp || { echo "Not remediating, because there is no record of /tmp in /etc/fstab" >&2; return 1; }
	fi

	ensure_mount_option_in_fstab "/tmp" "nosuid" "tmpfs" "tmpfs"

	ensure_partition_is_mounted "/tmp"
}

perform_remediation
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)