Guide to the Secure Configuration of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 (PCI-DSS centric)

with profile PCI-DSS v3 Control Baseline for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6
This is a *draft* profile for PCI-DSS v3.
This guide presents a catalog of security-relevant configuration settings for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6. It is a rendering of content structured in the eXtensible Configuration Checklist Description Format (XCCDF) in order to support security automation. The SCAP content is is available in the scap-security-guide package which is developed at https://www.open-scap.org/security-policies/scap-security-guide.

Providing system administrators with such guidance informs them how to securely configure systems under their control in a variety of network roles. Policy makers and baseline creators can use this catalog of settings, with its associated references to higher-level security control catalogs, in order to assist them in security baseline creation. This guide is a catalog, not a checklist, and satisfaction of every item is not likely to be possible or sensible in many operational scenarios. However, the XCCDF format enables granular selection and adjustment of settings, and their association with OVAL and OCIL content provides an automated checking capability. Transformations of this document, and its associated automated checking content, are capable of providing baselines that meet a diverse set of policy objectives. Some example XCCDF Profiles, which are selections of items that form checklists and can be used as baselines, are available with this guide. They can be processed, in an automated fashion, with tools that support the Security Content Automation Protocol (SCAP). The DISA STIG, which provides required settings for US Department of Defense systems, is one example of a baseline created from this guidance.
Do not attempt to implement any of the settings in this guide without first testing them in a non-operational environment. The creators of this guidance assume no responsibility whatsoever for its use by other parties, and makes no guarantees, expressed or implied, about its quality, reliability, or any other characteristic.
Profile TitlePCI-DSS v3 Control Baseline for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6
Profile IDxccdf_org.ssgproject.content_profile_pci-dss_centric

Revision History

Current version: 0.1.41

  • draft (as of 2018-10-09)

Platforms

  • cpe:/o:redhat:enterprise_linux:6
  • cpe:/o:redhat:enterprise_linux:6::client
  • cpe:/o:redhat:enterprise_linux:6::computenode

Table of Contents

  1. 2.
    1. 2.1
    2. 2.2
    3. 2.3
    4. 2.4
    5. 2.5
    6. 2.6
  2. 3.
    1. 3.1
    2. 3.2
    3. 3.3
    4. 3.4
    5. 3.5
    6. 3.6
    7. 3.7
  3. 4.
    1. 4.1
    2. 4.2
    3. 4.3
  4. 5.
    1. 5.1
    2. 5.2
    3. 5.3
    4. 5.4
  5. 6.
    1. 6.1
    2. 6.2
    3. 6.3
    4. 6.4
    5. 6.5
    6. 6.6
    7. 6.7
  6. 7.
    1. 7.1
    2. 7.2
    3. 7.3
  7. 8.
    1. 8.1
    2. 8.2
    3. 8.3
    4. 8.4
    5. 8.5
    6. 8.6
    7. 8.7
    8. 8.8
  8. 10.
    1. 10.1
    2. 10.2
    3. 10.3
    4. 10.4
    5. 10.5
    6. 10.6
    7. 10.7
    8. 10.8
  9. 11.
    1. 11.1
    2. 11.2
    3. 11.3
    4. 11.4
    5. 11.5
    6. 11.6
  10. Values
  11. Non PCI-DSS

Checklist

contains 94 rules

2.   [ref]group

Do not use vendor-supplied defaults for system passwords and other

2.1   [ref]group

Always change vendor-supplied

2.1.1   [ref]group

For wireless environments

2.1.1.a   [ref]group

Interview responsible personnel and examine

2.1.1.b   [ref]group

Interview personnel and examine policies and

2.1.1.c   [ref]group

Examine vendor documentation and login to

2.1.1.d   [ref]group

Examine vendor documentation and observe

2.1.1.e   [ref]group

Examine vendor documentation and observe

2.1.a   [ref]group

Choose a sample of system components, and attempt

2.1.b   [ref]group

For the sample of system components, verify that all

2.1.c   [ref]group

Interview personnel and examine supporting

2.2   [ref]group

Develop configuration standards for

2.2.1   [ref]group

Implement only one primary

2.2.1.a   [ref]group

Select a sample of system components and

2.2.1.b   [ref]group

If virtualization technologies are used, inspect the

2.2.2   [ref]group

Enable only necessary services,

2.2.2.a   [ref]group

Select a sample of system components and

2.2.2.b   [ref]group

Identify any enabled insecure services, daemons,

2.2.3   [ref]group

Implement additional security

2.2.3.a   [ref]group

Inspect configuration settings to verify that security

2.2.4   [ref]group

Configure system security

2.2.4.a   [ref]group

Interview system administrators and/or security

2.2.4.b   [ref]group

Examine the system configuration standards to

2.2.4.c   [ref]group

Select a sample of system components and

2.2.5   [ref]group

Remove all unnecessary

2.2.5.a   [ref]group

Select a sample of system components and

2.2.5.b   [ref]group

. Examine the documentation and security

2.2.5.c   [ref]group

. Examine the documentation and security

2.2.a   [ref]group

2.2.b   [ref]group

Examine policies and interview personnel to

2.2.c   [ref]group

Examine policies and interview personnel to

2.2.d   [ref]group

Verify that system configuration standards include the

2.3   [ref]group

Encrypt all non-console

2.3.a   [ref]group

Observe an administrator log on to each system and

2.3.b   [ref]group

Review services and parameter files on systems to

2.3.c   [ref]group

Observe an administrator log on to each system to

2.3.d   [ref]group

Examine vendor documentation and interview

2.4   [ref]group

Maintain an inventory of system

2.4.a   [ref]group

Examine system inventory to verify that a list of

2.4.b   [ref]group

Interview personnel to verify the documented inventory

2.5   [ref]group

Ensure that security policies and

2.6   [ref]group

Shared hosting providers must

3.   [ref]group

Protect stored cardholder data

3.1   [ref]group

Keep cardholder data storage to a

3.1.a   [ref]group

Examine the data retention and disposal policies,

3.1.b   [ref]group

Interview personnel to verify that:

3.1.c   [ref]group

For a sample of system components that store cardholder

3.2   [ref]group

Do not store sensitive authentication

3.2.1   [ref]group

Do not store the full contents of

3.2.2   [ref]group

Do not store the card verification

3.2.3   [ref]group

Do not store the personal

3.2.a   [ref]group

For issuers and/or companies that support issuing

3.2.b   [ref]group

For issuers and/or companies that support issuing

3.2.c   [ref]group

For all other entities, if sensitive authentication data is

3.2.d   [ref]group

For all other entities, if sensitive authentication data is

3.3   [ref]group

Mask PAN when displayed (the first

3.3.a   [ref]group

Examine written policies and procedures for masking the

3.3.b   [ref]group

Examine system configurations to verify that full PAN is

3.3.c   [ref]group

Examine displays of PAN (for example, on screen, on

3.4   [ref]group

Render PAN unreadable anywhere it

3.4.1   [ref]group

If disk encryption is used (rather

3.4.1.a   [ref]group

If disk encryption is used, inspect the configuration

3.4.1.b   [ref]group

Observe processes and interview personnel to verify

3.4.1.c   [ref]group

Examine the configurations and observe the

3.4.a   [ref]group

Examine documentation about the system used to protect

3.4.b   [ref]group

Examine several tables or files from a sample of data

3.4.c   [ref]group

Examine a sample of removable media (for example,

3.4.d   [ref]group

Examine a sample of audit logs to confirm that the PAN is

3.4.e   [ref]group

If

3.5   [ref]group

Document and implement

3.5.1   [ref]group

Restrict access to cryptographic

3.5.2   [ref]group

Store secret and private keys

3.5.2.a   [ref]group

Examine documented procedures to verify that

3.5.2.b   [ref]group

Examine system configurations and key storage

3.5.2.c   [ref]group

Wherever key-encrypting keys are used, examine

3.5.3   [ref]group

Store cryptographic keys in the

3.6   [ref]group

Fully document and implement all

3.6.1   [ref]group

Generation of strong

3.6.1.a   [ref]group

Verify that key-management procedures specify how

3.6.1.b   [ref]group

Observe the method for generating keys to verify that

3.6.2   [ref]group

Secure cryptographic key

3.6.2.a   [ref]group

Verify that key-management procedures specify how

3.6.2.b   [ref]group

Observe the method for distributing keys to verify that

3.6.3   [ref]group

Secure cryptographic key storage

3.6.3.a   [ref]group

Verify that key-management procedures specify how

3.6.3.b   [ref]group

Observe the method for storing keys to verify that

3.6.4   [ref]group

Cryptographic key changes for

3.6.4.a   [ref]group

Verify that key-management procedures include a

3.6.4.b   [ref]group

Interview personnel to verify that keys are changed at

3.6.5   [ref]group

Retirement or replacement (for

3.6.5.a   [ref]group

Verify that key-management procedures specify

3.6.5.b   [ref]group

Interview personnel to verify the following processes

3.6.6   [ref]group

If manual clear-text cryptographic

3.6.6.a   [ref]group

Verify that manual clear-text key-management

3.6.7   [ref]group

Prevention of unauthorized

3.6.7.a   [ref]group

Verify that key-management procedures specify

3.6.7.b   [ref]group

Interview personnel and/or observe processes to

3.6.8   [ref]group

Requirement for cryptographic

3.6.8.a   [ref]group

Verify that key-management procedures specify

3.6.8.b   [ref]group

Observe documentation or other evidence showing

3.6.b   [ref]group

Examine the key-management procedures and processes

3.7   [ref]group

Ensure that security policies and

4.   [ref]group

Encrypt transmission of cardholder data across open, public networks

contains 1 rule

4.1   [ref]group

Use strong cryptography and security

contains 1 rule

4.1.1   [ref]group

Ensure wireless networks transmitting

4.1.a   [ref]group

Identify all locations where cardholder data is

4.1.b   [ref]group

Review documented policies and procedures to verify

4.1.c   [ref]group

Select and observe a sample of inbound and outbound

4.1.d   [ref]group

Examine keys and certificates to verify that only

4.1.e   [ref]group

Examine system configurations to verify that the

4.1.f   [ref]group

Examine system configurations to verify that the proper

4.1.g   [ref]group

For TLS implementations, examine system

Install libreswan Package   [ref]rule

The Libreswan package provides an implementation of IPsec and IKE, which permits the creation of secure tunnels over untrusted networks. The libreswan package can be installed with the following command:

$ sudo yum install libreswan

Rationale:

Providing the ability for remote users or systems to initiate a secure VPN connection protects information when it is transmitted over a wide area network.

Severity:  medium

Identifiers:  CCE-27626-1

References:  SRG-OS-000160, RHEL-06-000321, SV-50488r3_rule, CCI-001130, CCI-001131, AC-17, MA-4, SC-9, Req-4.1

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
# Function to install packages on RHEL, Fedora, Debian, and possibly other systems.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     package_install aide
#
function package_install {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local package="$1"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "1" ]
then
  echo "Usage: package_install 'package_name'"
  echo "Aborting."
  exit 1
fi

if which dnf ; then
  if ! rpm -q --quiet "$package"; then
    dnf install -y "$package"
  fi
elif which yum ; then
  if ! rpm -q --quiet "$package"; then
    yum install -y "$package"
  fi
elif which apt-get ; then
  apt-get install -y "$package"
else
  echo "Failed to detect available packaging system, tried dnf, yum and apt-get!"
  echo "Aborting."
  exit 1
fi

}

package_install libreswan
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
- name: Ensure libreswan is installed
  package:
    name: libreswan
    state: present
  tags:
    - package_libreswan_installed
    - medium_severity
    - enable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-27626-1
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17
    - NIST-800-53-MA-4
    - NIST-800-53-SC-9
    - PCI-DSS-Req-4.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000321
Remediation Puppet snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
include install_libreswan

class install_libreswan {
  package { 'libreswan':
    ensure => 'installed',
  }
}
Remediation Anaconda snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable

package --add=libreswan

4.2   [ref]group

Never send unprotected PANs by end-

4.2.a   [ref]group

If end-user messaging technologies are used to send

4.2.b   [ref]group

Review written policies to verify the existence of a

4.3   [ref]group

Ensure that security policies and

5.   [ref]group

Protect all systems against malware and regularly update anti-virus

5.1   [ref]group

Deploy anti-virus software on all

5.1.1   [ref]group

Ensure that anti-virus programs

5.1.2   [ref]group

For systems considered to be not

5.2   [ref]group

Ensure that all anti-virus mechanisms

5.2.a   [ref]group

Examine policies and procedures to verify that anti-virus

5.2.b   [ref]group

Examine anti-virus configurations, including the master

5.2.c   [ref]group

Examine a sample of system components, including all

5.2.d   [ref]group

Examine anti-virus configurations, including the master

5.3   [ref]group

Ensure that anti-virus mechanisms

5.3.a   [ref]group

Examine anti-virus configurations, including the master

5.3.b   [ref]group

Examine anti-virus configurations, including the master

5.3.c   [ref]group

Interview responsible personnel and observe processes to

5.4   [ref]group

Ensure that security policies and

6.   [ref]group

Develop and maintain secure systems and applications

contains 4 rules

6.1   [ref]group

Establish a process to identify security

6.1.a   [ref]group

Examine policies and procedures to verify that

6.1.b   [ref]group

Interview responsible personnel and observe

6.2   [ref]group

Ensure that all system components and

contains 4 rules

6.2.a   [ref]group

Examine policies and procedures related to security-

6.2.b   [ref]group

For a sample of system components and related

Ensure gpgcheck Enabled For All yum Package Repositories   [ref]rule

To ensure signature checking is not disabled for any repos, remove any lines from files in /etc/yum.repos.d of the form:

gpgcheck=0

Rationale:

Verifying the authenticity of the software prior to installation validates the integrity of the patch or upgrade received from a vendor. This ensures the software has not been tampered with and that it has been provided by a trusted vendor. Self-signed certificates are disallowed by this requirement. Certificates used to verify the software must be from an approved Certificate Authority (CA).

Severity:  high

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

sed -i 's/gpgcheck=.*/gpgcheck=1/g' /etc/yum.repos.d/*
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
#
- name: Find All yum Repositories
  find:
    paths: "/etc/yum.repos.d/"
    patterns: "*.repo"
  register: yum_find

- name: Ensure gpgcheck Enabled For All yum Package Repositories
  with_items: "{{ yum_find.files }}"
  lineinfile:
    create: yes
    dest: "{{ item.path }}"
    regexp: '^gpgcheck'
    line: 'gpgcheck=1'
  tags:
    - ensure_gpgcheck_never_disabled
    - high_severity
    - unknown_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - CCE-26647-8
    - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - NIST-800-53-MA-1(b)
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
    - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
    - CJIS-5.10.4.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000015

Ensure Software Patches Installed   [ref]rule

If the system is joined to the Red Hat Network, a Red Hat Satellite Server, or a yum server, run the following command to install updates:

$ sudo yum update
If the system is not configured to use one of these sources, updates (in the form of RPM packages) can be manually downloaded from the Red Hat Network and installed using rpm.

NOTE: U.S. Defense systems are required to be patched within 30 days or sooner as local policy dictates.

Rationale:

Installing software updates is a fundamental mitigation against the exploitation of publicly-known vulnerabilities. If the most recent security patches and updates are not installed, unauthorized users may take advantage of weaknesses in the unpatched software. The lack of prompt attention to patching could result in a system compromise.

Severity:  high

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Reboot:true
Strategy:patch
yum -y update
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Reboot:true
Strategy:patch
- name: "Security patches are up to date"
  package:
    name: "*"
    state: "latest"
  tags:
    - security_patches_up_to_date
    - high_severity
    - patch_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - high_disruption
    - CCE-27635-2
    - NIST-800-53-SI-2
    - NIST-800-53-SI-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-MA-1(b)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
    - CJIS-5.10.4.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000011

Ensure Red Hat GPG Key Installed   [ref]rule

To ensure the system can cryptographically verify base software packages come from Red Hat (and to connect to the Red Hat Network to receive them), the Red Hat GPG key must properly be installed. To install the Red Hat GPG key, run:

$ sudo subscription-manager register
If the system is not connected to the Internet or an RHN Satellite, then install the Red Hat GPG key from trusted media such as the Red Hat installation CD-ROM or DVD. Assuming the disc is mounted in /media/cdrom, use the following command as the root user to import it into the keyring:
$ sudo rpm --import /media/cdrom/RPM-GPG-KEY

Rationale:

Changes to software components can have significant effects on the overall security of the operating system. This requirement ensures the software has not been tampered with and that it has been provided by a trusted vendor. The Red Hat GPG key is necessary to cryptographically verify packages are from Red Hat.

Severity:  high

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

# The two fingerprints below are retrieved from https://access.redhat.com/security/team/key
readonly REDHAT_RELEASE_2_FINGERPRINT="567E 347A D004 4ADE 55BA 8A5F 199E 2F91 FD43 1D51"
readonly REDHAT_AUXILIARY_FINGERPRINT="43A6 E49C 4A38 F4BE 9ABF 2A53 4568 9C88 2FA6 58E0"
# Location of the key we would like to import (once it's integrity verified)
readonly REDHAT_RELEASE_KEY="/etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-redhat-release"

RPM_GPG_DIR_PERMS=$(stat -c %a "$(dirname "$REDHAT_RELEASE_KEY")")

# Verify /etc/pki/rpm-gpg directory permissions are safe
if [ "${RPM_GPG_DIR_PERMS}" -le "755" ]
then
  # If they are safe, try to obtain fingerprints from the key file
  # (to ensure there won't be e.g. CRC error).
  IFS=$'\n' GPG_OUT=($(gpg --with-fingerprint "${REDHAT_RELEASE_KEY}" | grep 'Key fingerprint ='))
  GPG_RESULT=$?
  # Reset IFS back to default
  unset IFS
  # No CRC error, safe to proceed
  if [ "${GPG_RESULT}" -eq "0" ]
  then
    tr -s ' ' <<< "${GPG_OUT}" | grep -vE "${REDHAT_RELEASE_2_FINGERPRINT}|${REDHAT_AUXILIARY_FINGERPRINT}" || {
      # If file doesn't contains any keys with unknown fingerprint, import it
      rpm --import "${REDHAT_RELEASE_KEY}"
    }
  fi
fi
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:medium
Disruption:medium
Strategy:restrict
- name: "Read permission of GPG key directory"
  stat:
    path: /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/
  register: gpg_key_directory_permission
  check_mode: no
  tags:
    - ensure_redhat_gpgkey_installed
    - high_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - medium_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - CCE-26506-6
    - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - NIST-800-53-MA-1(b)
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
    - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
    - CJIS-5.10.4.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000008

# It should fail if it doesn't find any fingerprints in file - maybe file was not parsed well.

- name: Read signatures in GPG key
  shell: gpg --with-fingerprint '/etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-redhat-release' | grep 'Key fingerprint =' | tr -s ' ' | sed 's;.*= ;;g'
  changed_when: False
  register: gpg_fingerprints
  check_mode: no
  tags:
    - ensure_redhat_gpgkey_installed
    - high_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - medium_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - CCE-26506-6
    - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - NIST-800-53-MA-1(b)
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
    - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
    - CJIS-5.10.4.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000008

- name: Set Fact - Valid fingerprints
  set_fact:
     gpg_valid_fingerprints: ("567E 347A D004 4ADE 55BA 8A5F 199E 2F91 FD43 1D51" "43A6 E49C 4A38 F4BE 9ABF 2A53 4568 9C88 2FA6 58E0")
  tags:
    - ensure_redhat_gpgkey_installed
    - high_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - medium_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - CCE-26506-6
    - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - NIST-800-53-MA-1(b)
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
    - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
    - CJIS-5.10.4.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000008

- name: Import RedHat GPG key
  rpm_key:
    state: present
    key: /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-redhat-release
  when:
    (gpg_key_directory_permission.stat.mode <= '0755')
    and (( gpg_fingerprints.stdout_lines | difference(gpg_valid_fingerprints)) | length == 0)
    and (gpg_fingerprints.stdout_lines | length > 0)
    and (ansible_distribution == "RedHat")
  tags:
    - ensure_redhat_gpgkey_installed
    - high_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - medium_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - CCE-26506-6
    - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - NIST-800-53-MA-1(b)
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
    - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
    - CJIS-5.10.4.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000008

Ensure gpgcheck Enabled In Main yum Configuration   [ref]rule

The gpgcheck option controls whether RPM packages' signatures are always checked prior to installation. To configure yum to check package signatures before installing them, ensure the following line appears in /etc/yum.conf in the [main] section:

gpgcheck=1

Rationale:

Changes to any software components can have significant effects on the overall security of the operating system. This requirement ensures the software has not been tampered with and that it has been provided by a trusted vendor.
Accordingly, patches, service packs, device drivers, or operating system components must be signed with a certificate recognized and approved by the organization.
Verifying the authenticity of the software prior to installation validates the integrity of the patch or upgrade received from a vendor. This ensures the software has not been tampered with and that it has been provided by a trusted vendor. Self-signed certificates are disallowed by this requirement. Certificates used to verify the software must be from an approved Certificate Authority (CA).

Severity:  high

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="CCE-${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append "/etc/yum.conf" '^gpgcheck' '1' 'CCE-26709-6'
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
- name: Check existence of yum on Fedora
  stat:
    path: /etc/yum.conf
  register: yum_config_file
  check_mode: no
  when: ansible_distribution == "Fedora"

# Old versions of Fedora use yum

- name: Ensure GPG check is globally activated (yum)
  ini_file:
    dest: "{{item}}"
    section: main
    option: gpgcheck
    value: 1
    create: False
  with_items: "/etc/yum.conf"
  when: ansible_distribution == "RedHat" or ansible_distribution == "CentOS" or yum_config_file.stat.exists
  tags:
    - ensure_gpgcheck_globally_activated
    - high_severity
    - unknown_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - CCE-26709-6
    - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - NIST-800-53-MA-1(b)
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
    - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
    - CJIS-5.10.4.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000013

- name: Ensure GPG check is globally activated (dnf)
  ini_file:
    dest: "{{item}}"
    section: main
    option: gpgcheck
    value: 1
    create: False
  with_items: "/etc/dnf/dnf.conf"
  when: ansible_distribution == "Fedora"
  tags:
    - ensure_gpgcheck_globally_activated
    - high_severity
    - unknown_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - CCE-26709-6
    - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - NIST-800-53-MA-1(b)
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
    - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
    - CJIS-5.10.4.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000013

6.3   [ref]group

Develop internal and external software

6.3.1   [ref]group

Remove development, test and/or

6.3.2   [ref]group

Review custom code prior to release

6.3.2.a   [ref]group

Examine written software-development procedures

6.3.2.b   [ref]group

Select a sample of recent custom application

6.3.a   [ref]group

Examine written software-development processes to

6.3.b   [ref]group

Examine written software-development processes to

6.3.c   [ref]group

Examine written software-development processes to

6.3.d   [ref]group

Interview software developers to verify that written

6.4   [ref]group

Follow change control processes and

6.4.1   [ref]group

Separate development/test

6.4.1.a   [ref]group

Examine network documentation and network

6.4.1.b   [ref]group

Examine access controls settings to verify that

6.4.2   [ref]group

Separation of duties between

6.4.3   [ref]group

Production data (live PANs) are not

6.4.3.a   [ref]group

Observe testing processes and interview

6.4.3.b   [ref]group

Examine a sample of test data to verify production

6.4.4   [ref]group

Removal of test data and accounts

6.4.4.a   [ref]group

Observe testing processes and interview

6.4.4.b   [ref]group

Examine a sample of data and accounts from

6.4.5   [ref]group

Change control procedures for the

6.4.5.a   [ref]group

Examine documented change control procedures

6.4.5.b   [ref]group

For a sample of system components, interview

6.5   [ref]group

Address common coding vulnerabilities in

6.5.1   [ref]group

Injection flaws, particularly SQL

6.5.10   [ref]group

Broken authentication and session

6.5.2   [ref]group

Buffer overflows

6.5.3   [ref]group

Insecure cryptographic storage

6.5.4   [ref]group

Insecure communications

6.5.5   [ref]group

Improper error handling

6.5.6   [ref]group

Examine software-development policies and

6.5.7   [ref]group

Cross-site scripting (XSS)

6.5.8   [ref]group

Improper access control (such as

6.5.9   [ref]group

Cross-site request forgery (CSRF)

6.5.a   [ref]group

Examine software-development policies and

6.5.b   [ref]group

Interview a sample of developers to verify that they are

6.5.c   [ref]group

Examine records of training to verify that software

6.6   [ref]group

For public-facing web applications,

6.7   [ref]group

Ensure that security policies and

7.   [ref]group

Restrict access to cardholder data by business need to know

contains 2 rules

7.1   [ref]group

Limit access to system

contains 2 rules

7.1.1   [ref]group

Define access needs for

7.1.2   [ref]group

Restrict access to privileged

7.1.2.a   [ref]group

Interview personnel responsible for assigning access to

7.1.2.b   [ref]group

Select a sample of user IDs with privileged access and

7.1.3   [ref]group

Assign access based on

7.1.4   [ref]group

Require documented

Verify /etc/grub.conf User Ownership   [ref]rule

The file /etc/grub.conf should be owned by the root user to prevent destruction or modification of the file. To properly set the owner of /etc/grub.conf, run the command:

$ sudo chown root /etc/grub.conf 

Rationale:

Only root should be able to modify important boot parameters.

Severity:  medium

Identifiers:  CCE-26995-1

References:  CCI-000225, SRG-OS-999999, RHEL-06-000065, SV-50380r2_rule, AC-6(7), Req-7.1

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure

chown 0 /boot/grub/grub.conf
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure
- name: Test for existence /boot/grub/grub.conf
  stat:
    path: /boot/grub/grub.conf
  register: file_exists

- name: Ensure owner 0 on /boot/grub/grub.conf
  file:
    path: /boot/grub/grub.conf
    owner: 0
  when: file_exists.stat.exists
  tags:
    - file_owner_grub_conf
    - medium_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-26995-1
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6(7)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-7.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000065

Verify /etc/grub.conf Group Ownership   [ref]rule

The file /etc/grub.conf should be group-owned by the root group to prevent destruction or modification of the file. To properly set the group owner of /etc/grub.conf, run the command:

$ sudo chgrp root /etc/grub.conf

Rationale:

The root group is a highly-privileged group. Furthermore, the group-owner of this file should not have any access privileges anyway.

Severity:  medium

Identifiers:  CCE-27022-3

References:  CCI-000225, SRG-OS-999999, RHEL-06-000066, SV-50382r2_rule, AC-6(7), Req-7.1

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure

chgrp 0 /boot/grub/grub.conf
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure
- name: Test for existence /boot/grub/grub.conf
  stat:
    path: /boot/grub/grub.conf
  register: file_exists

- name: Ensure group owner 0 on /boot/grub/grub.conf
  file:
    path: /boot/grub/grub.conf
    group: 0
  when: file_exists.stat.exists
  tags:
    - file_groupowner_grub_conf
    - medium_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-27022-3
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6(7)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-7.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000066

7.2   [ref]group

Establish an access control

7.2.1   [ref]group

Coverage of all system

7.2.2   [ref]group

Assignment of privileges to

7.2.3   [ref]group

7.3   [ref]group

Ensure that security policies and

8.   [ref]group

Identify and authenticate access to system components

contains 31 rules

8.1   [ref]group

Define and implement policies and

contains 9 rules

8.1.1   [ref]group

Assign all users a unique ID

contains 1 rule

8.1.2   [ref]group

Control addition, deletion, and

8.1.3   [ref]group

Immediately revoke access for

8.1.3.a   [ref]group

Select a sample of users terminated in the past six

8.1.3.b   [ref]group

Verify all physical authentication methods

8.1.4   [ref]group

Remove/disable inactive user

contains 1 rule

8.1.5   [ref]group

Manage IDs used by vendors to

8.1.5.a   [ref]group

Interview personnel and observe processes for

8.1.5.b   [ref]group

Interview personnel and observe processes to verify

8.1.6   [ref]group

Limit repeated access attempts

contains 1 rule

8.1.6.a   [ref]group

For a sample of system components, inspect system

8.1.6.b   [ref]group

Set Deny For Failed Password Attempts   [ref]rule

To configure the system to lock out accounts after a number of incorrect login attempts using pam_faillock.so, modify the content of both /etc/pam.d/system-auth and /etc/pam.d/password-auth as follows:

  • add the following line immediately before the pam_unix.so statement in the AUTH section:
    auth required pam_faillock.so preauth silent deny=6 unlock_time=1800 fail_interval=900
  • add the following line immediately after the pam_unix.so statement in the AUTH section:
    auth [default=die] pam_faillock.so authfail deny=6 unlock_time=1800 fail_interval=900
  • add the following line immediately before the pam_unix.so statement in the ACCOUNT section:
    account required pam_faillock.so

Rationale:

Locking out user accounts after a number of incorrect attempts prevents direct password guessing attacks.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)


var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny="6"
function include_set_faillock_option {
	:
}

function insert_preauth {
	local pam_file="$1"
	local option="$2"
	local value="$3"
	# is auth required pam_faillock.so preauth present?
	if grep -qE "^\s*auth\s+required\s+pam_faillock\.so\s+preauth.*$" "$pam_file" ; then
		# is the option set?
		if grep -qE "^\s*auth\s+required\s+pam_faillock\.so\s+preauth.*$option=([0-9]*).*$" "$pam_file" ; then
			# just change the value of option to a correct value
			sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/\(^auth.*required.*pam_faillock.so.*preauth.*silent.*\)\($option *= *\).*/\1\2$value/" "$pam_file"
		# the option is not set.
		else
			# append the option
			sed -i --follow-symlinks "/^auth.*required.*pam_faillock.so.*preauth.*silent.*/ s/$/ $option=$value/" "$pam_file"
		fi
	# auth required pam_faillock.so preauth is not present, insert the whole line
	else
		sed -i --follow-symlinks "/^auth.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so.*/i auth        required      pam_faillock.so preauth silent $option=$value" "$pam_file"
	fi
}

function insert_authfail {
	local pam_file="$1"
	local option="$2"
	local value="$3"
	# is auth default pam_faillock.so authfail present?
	if grep -qE "^\s*auth\s+(\[default=die\])\s+pam_faillock\.so\s+authfail.*$" "$pam_file" ; then
		# is the option set?
		if grep -qE "^\s*auth\s+(\[default=die\])\s+pam_faillock\.so\s+authfail.*$option=([0-9]*).*$" "$pam_file" ; then
			# just change the value of option to a correct value
			sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/\(^auth.*[default=die].*pam_faillock.so.*authfail.*\)\($option *= *\).*/\1\2$value/" "$pam_file"
		# the option is not set.
		else
			# append the option
			sed -i --follow-symlinks "/^auth.*[default=die].*pam_faillock.so.*authfail.*/ s/$/ $option=$value/" "$pam_file"
		fi
	# auth default pam_faillock.so authfail is not present, insert the whole line
	else
		sed -i --follow-symlinks "/^auth.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so.*/a auth        [default=die] pam_faillock.so authfail $option=$value" "$pam_file"
	fi
}

function insert_account {
	local pam_file="$1"
	if ! grep -qE "^\s*account\s+required\s+pam_faillock\.so.*$" "$pam_file" ; then
		sed -E -i --follow-symlinks "/^\s*account\s*required\s*pam_unix.so/i account     required      pam_faillock.so" "$pam_file"
	fi
}

function set_faillock_option {
	local pam_file="$1"
	local option="$2"
	local value="$3"
	insert_preauth "$pam_file" "$option" "$value"
	insert_authfail "$pam_file" "$option" "$value"
	insert_account "$pam_file"
}

include_set_faillock_option

AUTH_FILES[0]="/etc/pam.d/system-auth"
AUTH_FILES[1]="/etc/pam.d/password-auth"

for pam_file in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
do
	set_faillock_option "$pam_file" "deny" "$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny"
done
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny: !!str |-
        6
  tags:
    - always
- name: XCCDF Value var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time: !!str |-
        1800
  tags:
    - always
- name: XCCDF Value var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval: !!str |-
        900
  tags:
    - always

- name: set auth pam_faillock before pam_unix.so
  pamd:
    name: system-auth
    type: auth
    control: sufficient
    module_path: pam_unix.so
    new_type: auth
    new_control: required
    new_module_path: pam_faillock.so
    module_arguments: 'preauth
        silent
        deny: {{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny }}
        unlock_time={{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time }}
        fail_interval={{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval }}'
    state: before
  tags:
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-26844-1
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.6
    - CJIS-5.5.3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000061

- name: set auth pam_faillock after pam_unix.so
  pamd:
    name: system-auth
    type: auth
    control: sufficient
    module_path: pam_unix.so
    new_type: auth
    new_control: '[default=die]'
    new_module_path: pam_faillock.so
    module_arguments: 'preauth
        silent
        deny: {{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny }}
        unlock_time={{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time }}
        fail_interval={{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval }}'
    state: after
  tags:
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-26844-1
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.6
    - CJIS-5.5.3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000061

- name: set account pam_faillock before pam_unix.so
  pamd:
    name: system-auth
    type: account
    control: required
    module_path: pam_unix.so
    new_type: account
    new_control: required
    new_module_path: pam_faillock.so
    state: before
  tags:
    - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-26844-1
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.6
    - CJIS-5.5.3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000061

8.1.7   [ref]group

Set the lockout duration to a

contains 1 rule

Set Lockout Time For Failed Password Attempts   [ref]rule

To configure the system to lock out accounts after a number of incorrect login attempts and require an administrator to unlock the account using pam_faillock.so, modify the content of both /etc/pam.d/system-auth and /etc/pam.d/password-auth as follows:

  • add the following line immediately before the pam_unix.so statement in the AUTH section:
    auth required pam_faillock.so preauth silent deny=6 unlock_time=1800 fail_interval=900
  • add the following line immediately after the pam_unix.so statement in the AUTH section:
    auth [default=die] pam_faillock.so authfail deny=6 unlock_time=1800 fail_interval=900
  • add the following line immediately before the pam_unix.so statement in the ACCOUNT section:
    account required pam_faillock.so

Rationale:

Locking out user accounts after a number of incorrect attempts prevents direct password guessing attacks. Ensuring that an administrator is involved in unlocking locked accounts draws appropriate attention to such situations.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)


var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time="1800"
function include_set_faillock_option {
	:
}

function insert_preauth {
	local pam_file="$1"
	local option="$2"
	local value="$3"
	# is auth required pam_faillock.so preauth present?
	if grep -qE "^\s*auth\s+required\s+pam_faillock\.so\s+preauth.*$" "$pam_file" ; then
		# is the option set?
		if grep -qE "^\s*auth\s+required\s+pam_faillock\.so\s+preauth.*$option=([0-9]*).*$" "$pam_file" ; then
			# just change the value of option to a correct value
			sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/\(^auth.*required.*pam_faillock.so.*preauth.*silent.*\)\($option *= *\).*/\1\2$value/" "$pam_file"
		# the option is not set.
		else
			# append the option
			sed -i --follow-symlinks "/^auth.*required.*pam_faillock.so.*preauth.*silent.*/ s/$/ $option=$value/" "$pam_file"
		fi
	# auth required pam_faillock.so preauth is not present, insert the whole line
	else
		sed -i --follow-symlinks "/^auth.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so.*/i auth        required      pam_faillock.so preauth silent $option=$value" "$pam_file"
	fi
}

function insert_authfail {
	local pam_file="$1"
	local option="$2"
	local value="$3"
	# is auth default pam_faillock.so authfail present?
	if grep -qE "^\s*auth\s+(\[default=die\])\s+pam_faillock\.so\s+authfail.*$" "$pam_file" ; then
		# is the option set?
		if grep -qE "^\s*auth\s+(\[default=die\])\s+pam_faillock\.so\s+authfail.*$option=([0-9]*).*$" "$pam_file" ; then
			# just change the value of option to a correct value
			sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/\(^auth.*[default=die].*pam_faillock.so.*authfail.*\)\($option *= *\).*/\1\2$value/" "$pam_file"
		# the option is not set.
		else
			# append the option
			sed -i --follow-symlinks "/^auth.*[default=die].*pam_faillock.so.*authfail.*/ s/$/ $option=$value/" "$pam_file"
		fi
	# auth default pam_faillock.so authfail is not present, insert the whole line
	else
		sed -i --follow-symlinks "/^auth.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so.*/a auth        [default=die] pam_faillock.so authfail $option=$value" "$pam_file"
	fi
}

function insert_account {
	local pam_file="$1"
	if ! grep -qE "^\s*account\s+required\s+pam_faillock\.so.*$" "$pam_file" ; then
		sed -E -i --follow-symlinks "/^\s*account\s*required\s*pam_unix.so/i account     required      pam_faillock.so" "$pam_file"
	fi
}

function set_faillock_option {
	local pam_file="$1"
	local option="$2"
	local value="$3"
	insert_preauth "$pam_file" "$option" "$value"
	insert_authfail "$pam_file" "$option" "$value"
	insert_account "$pam_file"
}

include_set_faillock_option

AUTH_FILES[0]="/etc/pam.d/system-auth"
AUTH_FILES[1]="/etc/pam.d/password-auth"

for pam_file in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
do
	set_faillock_option "$pam_file" "unlock_time" "$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time"
done

8.1.8   [ref]group

If a session has been idle for

contains 5 rules

Set SSH Idle Timeout Interval   [ref]rule

SSH allows administrators to set an idle timeout interval. After this interval has passed, the idle user will be automatically logged out.

To set an idle timeout interval, edit the following line in /etc/ssh/sshd_config as follows:

ClientAliveInterval 900
The timeout interval is given in seconds. To have a timeout of 15 minutes, set interval to 900.

If a shorter timeout has already been set for the login shell, that value will preempt any SSH setting made here. Keep in mind that some processes may stop SSH from correctly detecting that the user is idle.

Rationale:

Terminating an idle ssh session within a short time period reduces the window of opportunity for unauthorized personnel to take control of a management session enabled on the console or console port that has been let unattended.

Severity:  unknown

Remediation Shell script:   (show)


sshd_idle_timeout_value="900"
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="CCE-${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append '/etc/ssh/sshd_config' '^ClientAliveInterval' $sshd_idle_timeout_value 'CCE-26919-1' '%s %s'
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value sshd_idle_timeout_value # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    sshd_idle_timeout_value: !!str |-
        900
  tags:
    - always

- name: Set SSH Idle Timeout Interval
  lineinfile:
    create: yes
    dest: /etc/ssh/sshd_config
    regexp: ^ClientAliveInterval
    line: "ClientAliveInterval {{ sshd_idle_timeout_value }}"
    validate: sshd -t -f %s
  #notify: restart sshd
  tags:
    - sshd_set_idle_timeout
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-26919-1
    - NIST-800-53-SA-8
    - NIST-800-53-AC-2(5)
    - NIST-800-53-SA-8(i)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-12
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.11
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.8
    - CJIS-5.5.6
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000230

Implement Blank Screensaver   [ref]rule

Run the following command to set the screensaver mode in the GNOME desktop to a blank screen:

$ sudo gconftool-2 --direct \
  --config-source xml:readwrite:/etc/gconf/gconf.xml.mandatory \
  --type string \
  --set /apps/gnome-screensaver/mode blank-only

Rationale:

Setting the screensaver mode to blank-only conceals the contents of the display from passersby.

Severity:  unknown

Identifiers:  CCE-26638-7

References:  CCI-000060, SRG-OS-000031, RHEL-06-000260, SV-50440r3_rule, AC-11(b), Req-8.1.8

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

# Install GConf2 package if not installed
if ! rpm -q GConf2; then
  yum -y install GConf2
fi

# Set the screensaver mode in the GNOME desktop to a blank screen
gconftool-2 --direct \
            --config-source "xml:readwrite:/etc/gconf/gconf.xml.mandatory" \
            --type string \
            --set /apps/gnome-screensaver/mode blank-only

Enable Screen Lock Activation After Idle Period   [ref]rule

Run the following command to activate locking of the screensaver in the GNOME desktop when it is activated:

$ sudo gconftool-2 --direct \
  --config-source xml:readwrite:/etc/gconf/gconf.xml.mandatory \
  --type bool \
  --set /apps/gnome-screensaver/lock_enabled true

Rationale:

Enabling the activation of the screen lock after an idle period ensures password entry will be required in order to access the system, preventing access by passersby.

Severity:  medium

Identifiers:  CCE-26235-2

References:  CCI-000057, SRG-OS-000029, RHEL-06-000259, SV-50439r3_rule, AC-11(a), Req-8.1.8

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

# Install GConf2 package if not installed
if ! rpm -q GConf2; then
  yum -y install GConf2
fi

# Set the screensaver locking activation in the GNOME desktop when the
# screensaver is activated
gconftool-2 --direct \
            --config-source "xml:readwrite:/etc/gconf/gconf.xml.mandatory" \
            --type bool \
            --set /apps/gnome-screensaver/lock_enabled true

GNOME Desktop Screensaver Mandatory Use   [ref]rule

Run the following command to activate the screensaver in the GNOME desktop after a period of inactivity:

$ sudo gconftool-2 --direct \
  --config-source xml:readwrite:/etc/gconf/gconf.xml.mandatory \
  --type bool \
  --set /apps/gnome-screensaver/idle_activation_enabled true

Rationale:

Enabling idle activation of the screensaver ensures the screensaver will be activated after the idle delay. Applications requiring continuous, real-time screen display (such as network management products) require the login session does not have administrator rights and the display station is located in a controlled-access area.

Severity:  medium

Identifiers:  CCE-26600-7

References:  CCI-000057, SRG-OS-000029, RHEL-06-000258, SV-50431r3_rule, AC-11(a), Req-8.1.8

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

# Install GConf2 package if not installed
if ! rpm -q GConf2; then
  yum -y install GConf2
fi

# Set the screensaver activation in the GNOME desktop after a period of inactivity
gconftool-2 --direct \
            --config-source "xml:readwrite:/etc/gconf/gconf.xml.mandatory" \
            --type bool \
            --set /apps/gnome-screensaver/idle_activation_enabled true

Set GNOME Login Inactivity Timeout   [ref]rule

Run the following command to set the idle time-out value for inactivity in the GNOME desktop to 900 minutes:

$ sudo gconftool-2 \
  --direct \
  --config-source xml:readwrite:/etc/gconf/gconf.xml.mandatory \
  --type int \
  --set /desktop/gnome/session/idle_delay 900

Rationale:

Setting the idle delay controls when the screensaver will start, and can be combined with screen locking to prevent access from passersby.

Severity:  medium

Identifiers:  CCE-26828-4

References:  CCI-000057, SRG-OS-000029, RHEL-06-000257, SV-50430r3_rule, AC-11(a), Req-8.1.8

Remediation Shell script:   (show)


inactivity_timeout_value="900"

# Install GConf2 package if not installed
if ! rpm -q GConf2; then
  yum -y install GConf2
fi

# Set the idle time-out value for inactivity in the GNOME desktop to meet the
# requirement
gconftool-2 --direct \
            --config-source "xml:readwrite:/etc/gconf/gconf.xml.mandatory" \
            --type int \
            --set /desktop/gnome/session/idle_delay ${inactivity_timeout_value}

8.1.a   [ref]group

Review procedures and confirm they define processes for

8.1.b   [ref]group

Verify that procedures are implemented for user

8.2   [ref]group

In addition to assigning a unique ID,

contains 11 rules

8.2.1   [ref]group

Using strong cryptography,

contains 4 rules

8.2.1.a   [ref]group

Examine vendor documentation and system

8.2.1.b   [ref]group

For a sample of system components, examine

8.2.1.c   [ref]group

For a sample of system components, examine data

8.2.1.d   [ref]group

Set Password Hashing Algorithm in /etc/login.defs   [ref]rule

In /etc/login.defs, add or correct the following line to ensure the system will use SHA-512 as the hashing algorithm:

ENCRYPT_METHOD SHA512

Rationale:

Passwords need to be protected at all times, and encryption is the standard method for protecting passwords. If passwords are not encrypted, they can be plainly read (i.e., clear text) and easily compromised. Passwords that are encrypted with a weak algorithm are no more protected than if they are kept in plain text.

Using a stronger hashing algorithm makes password cracking attacks more difficult.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

if grep --silent ^ENCRYPT_METHOD /etc/login.defs ; then
	sed -i 's/^ENCRYPT_METHOD.*/ENCRYPT_METHOD SHA512/g' /etc/login.defs
else
	echo "" >> /etc/login.defs
	echo "ENCRYPT_METHOD SHA512" >> /etc/login.defs
fi
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: Set Password Hashing Algorithm in /etc/login.defs
  lineinfile:
      dest: /etc/login.defs
      regexp: ^#?ENCRYPT_METHOD
      line: ENCRYPT_METHOD SHA512
      state: present
  tags:
    - set_password_hashing_algorithm_logindefs
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-27228-6
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(b)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-7
    - NIST-800-171-3.13.11
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.1
    - CJIS-5.6.2.2
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000063

Set Password Hashing Algorithm in /etc/libuser.conf   [ref]rule

In /etc/libuser.conf, add or correct the following line in its [defaults] section to ensure the system will use the SHA-512 algorithm for password hashing:

crypt_style = sha512

Rationale:

Passwords need to be protected at all times, and encryption is the standard method for protecting passwords. If passwords are not encrypted, they can be plainly read (i.e., clear text) and easily compromised. Passwords that are encrypted with a weak algorithm are no more protected than if they are kepy in plain text.

This setting ensures user and group account administration utilities are configured to store only encrypted representations of passwords. Additionally, the crypt_style configuration option ensures the use of a strong hashing algorithm that makes password cracking attacks more difficult.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)


LIBUSER_CONF="/etc/libuser.conf"
CRYPT_STYLE_REGEX='[[:space:]]*\[defaults](.*(\n)+)+?[[:space:]]*crypt_style[[:space:]]*'

# Try find crypt_style in [defaults] section. If it is here, then change algorithm to sha512.
# If it isn't here, then add it to [defaults] section.
if grep -qzosP $CRYPT_STYLE_REGEX $LIBUSER_CONF ; then
        sed -i "s/\(crypt_style[[:space:]]*=[[:space:]]*\).*/\1sha512/g" $LIBUSER_CONF
elif grep -qs "\[defaults]" $LIBUSER_CONF ; then
        sed -i "/[[:space:]]*\[defaults]/a crypt_style = sha512" $LIBUSER_CONF
else
        echo -e "[defaults]\ncrypt_style = sha512" >> $LIBUSER_CONF
fi
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: Set Password Hashing Algorithm in /etc/libuser.conf
  lineinfile:
    dest: /etc/libuser.conf
    insertafter: '^\s*\[defaults]'
    regexp: ^#?crypt_style
    line: crypt_style = sha512
    state: present
  tags:
    - set_password_hashing_algorithm_libuserconf
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-27229-4
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(b)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-7
    - NIST-800-171-3.13.11
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.1
    - CJIS-5.6.2.2
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000064

Set PAM's Password Hashing Algorithm   [ref]rule

The PAM system service can be configured to only store encrypted representations of passwords. In /etc/pam.d/system-auth, the password section of the file controls which PAM modules execute during a password change. Set the pam_unix.so module in the password section to include the argument sha512, as shown below:

password    sufficient    pam_unix.so sha512 other arguments...

This will help ensure when local users change their passwords, hashes for the new passwords will be generated using the SHA-512 algorithm. This is the default.

Rationale:

Passwords need to be protected at all times, and encryption is the standard method for protecting passwords. If passwords are not encrypted, they can be plainly read (i.e., clear text) and easily compromised. Passwords that are encrypted with a weak algorithm are no more protected than if they are kepy in plain text.

This setting ensures user and group account administration utilities are configured to store only encrypted representations of passwords. Additionally, the crypt_style configuration option ensures the use of a strong hashing algorithm that makes password cracking attacks more difficult.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)


AUTH_FILES[0]="/etc/pam.d/system-auth"
AUTH_FILES[1]="/etc/pam.d/password-auth"

for pamFile in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
do
	if ! grep -q "^password.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so.*sha512" $pamFile; then
		sed -i --follow-symlinks "/^password.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so/ s/$/ sha512/" $pamFile
	fi
done

Verify All Account Password Hashes are Shadowed   [ref]rule

If any password hashes are stored in /etc/passwd (in the second field, instead of an x or *), the cause of this misconfiguration should be investigated. The account should have its password reset and the hash should be properly stored, or the account should be deleted entirely.

Rationale:

The hashes for all user account passwords should be stored in the file /etc/shadow and never in /etc/passwd, which is readable by all users.

Severity:  medium

Identifiers:  CCE-26476-2

References:  RHEL-06-000031, SV-50300r1_rule, CCI-000201, SRG-OS-999999, 5.5.2, 3.5.10, IA-5(h), Req-8.2.1

8.2.2   [ref]group

Verify user identity before

8.2.3   [ref]group

Passwords/phrases must meet

contains 5 rules

8.2.3.a   [ref]group

For a sample of system components, inspect system

8.2.3.b   [ref]group

Set Password Strength Minimum Digit Characters   [ref]rule

The pam_cracklib module's dcredit parameter controls requirements for usage of digits in a password. When set to a negative number, any password will be required to contain that many digits. When set to a positive number, pam_cracklib will grant +1 additional length credit for each digit. Add dcredit=-1 after pam_cracklib.so to require use of a digit in passwords.

Rationale:

Requiring digits makes password guessing attacks more difficult by ensuring a larger search space.

Severity:  unknown

Identifiers:  CCE-26374-9

References:  CCI-000194, SRG-OS-000071, RHEL-06-000056, SV-50282r1_rule, IA-5(b), IA-5(c), Req-8.2.3

Set Password Strength Minimum Uppercase Characters   [ref]rule

The pam_cracklib module's ucredit= parameter controls requirements for usage of uppercase letters in a password. When set to a negative number, any password will be required to contain that many uppercase characters. When set to a positive number, pam_cracklib will grant +1 additional length credit for each uppercase character. Add ucredit=-1 after pam_cracklib.so to require use of an upper case character in passwords.

Rationale:

Requiring a minimum number of uppercase characters makes password guessing attacks more difficult by ensuring a larger search space.

Severity:  unknown

Set Password Strength Minimum Lowercase Characters   [ref]rule

The pam_cracklib module's lcredit= parameter controls requirements for usage of lowercase letters in a password. When set to a negative number, any password will be required to contain that many lowercase characters. When set to a positive number, pam_cracklib will grant +1 additional length credit for each lowercase character. Add lcredit=-1 after pam_cracklib.so to require use of a lowercase character in passwords.

Rationale:

Requiring a minimum number of lowercase characters makes password guessing attacks more difficult by ensuring a larger search space.

Severity:  unknown

Set Password Minimum Length   [ref]rule

The pam_cracklib module's minlen parameter controls requirements for minimum characters required in a password. Add minlen=7 after pam_pwquality to set minimum password length requirements.

Rationale:

Password length is one factor of several that helps to determine strength and how long it takes to crack a password. Use of more characters in a password helps to exponentially increase the time and/or resources required to compromise the password.

Severity:  unknown

Identifiers:  CCE-26615-5

References:  CCI-000205, IA-5(1)(a), Req-8.2.3

Prevent Log In to Accounts With Empty Password   [ref]rule

If an account is configured for password authentication but does not have an assigned password, it may be possible to log into the account without authentication. Remove any instances of the nullok option in /etc/pam.d/system-auth to prevent logins with empty passwords.

Rationale:

If an account has an empty password, anyone could log in and run commands with the privileges of that account. Accounts with empty passwords should never be used in operational environments.

Severity:  high

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

sed --follow-symlinks -i 's/\<nullok\>//g' /etc/pam.d/system-auth
sed --follow-symlinks -i 's/\<nullok\>//g' /etc/pam.d/password-auth
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Strategy:configure
- name: "Prevent Log In to Accounts With Empty Password - system-auth"
  replace:
    dest: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    follow: yes
    regexp: 'nullok'
  tags:
    - no_empty_passwords
    - high_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - CCE-27038-9
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(b)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.5
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
    - CJIS-5.5.2
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000030

- name: "Prevent Log In to Accounts With Empty Password - password-auth"
  replace:
    dest: /etc/pam.d/password-auth
    follow: yes
    regexp: 'nullok'
  tags:
    - no_empty_passwords
    - high_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - CCE-27038-9
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(b)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.5
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
    - CJIS-5.5.2
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000030

8.2.4   [ref]group

Change user

contains 1 rule

8.2.4.a   [ref]group

For a sample of system components, inspect system

8.2.4.b   [ref]group

8.2.5   [ref]group

Do not allow an individual to

contains 1 rule

8.2.5.a   [ref]group

For a sample of system components, obtain and

8.2.5.b   [ref]group

Limit Password Reuse   [ref]rule

Do not allow users to reuse recent passwords. This can be accomplished by using the remember option for the pam_unix or pam_pwhistory PAM modules.

In the file /etc/pam.d/system-auth, append remember=4 to the line which refers to the pam_unix.so or pam_pwhistory.somodule, as shown below:

  • for the pam_unix.so case:
    password sufficient pam_unix.so ...existing_options... remember=4
  • for the pam_pwhistory.so case:
    password requisite pam_pwhistory.so ...existing_options... remember=4
The DoD STIG requirement is 5 passwords.

Rationale:

Preventing re-use of previous passwords helps ensure that a compromised password is not re-used by a user.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)


var_password_pam_unix_remember="4"

AUTH_FILES[0]="/etc/pam.d/system-auth"
AUTH_FILES[1]="/etc/pam.d/password-auth"

for pamFile in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
do
	if grep -q "remember=" $pamFile; then
		sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/\(^password.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so.*\)\(\(remember *= *\)[^ $]*\)/\1remember=$var_password_pam_unix_remember/" $pamFile
	else
		sed -i --follow-symlinks "/^password[[:space:]]\+sufficient[[:space:]]\+pam_unix.so/ s/$/ remember=$var_password_pam_unix_remember/" $pamFile
	fi
done
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Strategy:configure
- name: XCCDF Value var_password_pam_unix_remember # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_password_pam_unix_remember: !!str |-
        4
  tags:
    - always

- name: "Do not allow users to reuse recent passwords - system-auth (change)"
  replace:
    dest: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    follow: yes
    regexp: '^(password\s+sufficient\s+pam_unix\.so\s.*remember\s*=\s*)(\S+)(.*)$'
    replace: '\g<1>{{ var_password_pam_unix_remember }}\g<3>'
  tags:
    - accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
    - medium_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - CCE-26741-9
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(e)
    - NIST-800-171-3.5.8
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.5
    - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000274

- name: "Do not allow users to reuse recent passwords - system-auth (add)"
  replace:
    dest: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    follow: yes
    regexp: '^password\s+sufficient\s+pam_unix\.so\s(?!.*remember\s*=\s*).*$'
    replace: '\g<0> remember={{ var_password_pam_unix_remember }}'
  tags:
    - accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
    - medium_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - CCE-26741-9
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(e)
    - NIST-800-171-3.5.8
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.5
    - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000274

8.2.6   [ref]group

Set passwords/phrases for first-

8.3   [ref]group

Incorporate two-factor authentication

contains 1 rule

8.3.a   [ref]group

Examine system configurations for remote access servers

8.3.b   [ref]group

Observe a sample of personnel (for example, users and

Enable Smart Card Login   [ref]rule

To enable smart card authentication, consult the documentation at:

For guidance on enabling SSH to authenticate against a Common Access Card (CAC), consult documentation at:

Rationale:

Smart card login provides two-factor authentication stronger than that provided by a username and password combination. Smart cards leverage PKI (public key infrastructure) in order to provide and verify credentials.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# Install required packages
yum -y install esc
yum -y install pam_pkcs11

# Enable pcscd service
# Function to enable/disable and start/stop services on RHEL and Fedora systems.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     service_command enable bluetooth
#     service_command disable bluetooth.service
#
#     Using xinetd:
#     service_command disable rsh.socket xinetd=rsh
#
function service_command {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local service_state=$1
local service=$2
local xinetd=$(echo $3 | cut -d'=' -f2)

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -lt "2" ]
then
  echo "Usage: service_command 'enable/disable' 'service_name.service'"
  echo
  echo "To enable or disable xinetd services add \'xinetd=service_name\'"
  echo "as the last argument"  
  echo "Aborting."
  exit 1
fi

# If systemctl is installed, use systemctl command; otherwise, use the service/chkconfig commands
if [ -f "/usr/bin/systemctl" ] ; then
  service_util="/usr/bin/systemctl"
else
  service_util="/sbin/service"
  chkconfig_util="/sbin/chkconfig"
fi

# If disable is not specified in arg1, set variables to enable services.
# Otherwise, variables are to be set to disable services.
if [ "$service_state" != 'disable' ] ; then
  service_state="enable"
  service_operation="start"
  chkconfig_state="on"
else
  service_state="disable"
  service_operation="stop"
  chkconfig_state="off"
fi

# If chkconfig_util is not empty, use chkconfig/service commands.
if [ "x$chkconfig_util" != x ] ; then
  $service_util $service $service_operation
  $chkconfig_util --level 0123456 $service $chkconfig_state
else
  $service_util $service_operation $service
  $service_util $service_state $service
  # The service may not be running because it has been started and failed,
  # so let's reset the state so OVAL checks pass.
  # Service should be 'inactive', not 'failed' after reboot though.
  $service_util reset-failed $service
fi

# Test if local variable xinetd is empty using non-bashism.
# If empty, then xinetd is not being used.
if [ "x$xinetd" != x ] ; then
  grep -qi disable /etc/xinetd.d/$xinetd && \

  if [ "$service_operation" = 'disable' ] ; then
    sed -i "s/disable.*/disable         = no/gI" /etc/xinetd.d/$xinetd
  else
    sed -i "s/disable.*/disable         = yes/gI" /etc/xinetd.d/$xinetd
  fi
fi

}

service_command enable pcscd

# Configure the expected /etc/pam.d/system-auth{,-ac} settings directly
#
# The code below will configure system authentication in the way smart card
# logins will be enabled, but also user login(s) via other method to be allowed
#
# NOTE: In contrast to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 version of this remediation
#       script (based on the testing) it does NOT seem to be possible to use
#       the 'authconfig' command to perform the remediation for us. Because:
#
#       * calling '/usr/sbin/authconfig --enablesmartcard --update'
#	  does not update all the necessary files, while
#
#	* calling '/usr/sbin/authconfig --enablesmartcard --updateall'
#	  discards the necessary changes on /etc/pam_pkcs11/pam_pkcs11.conf
#	  performed subsequently below
#
#	Therefore we configure /etc/pam.d/system-auth{,-ac} settings directly.
#

# Define system-auth config location
SYSTEM_AUTH_CONF="/etc/pam.d/system-auth"
# Define expected 'pam_env.so' row in $SYSTEM_AUTH_CONF
PAM_ENV_SO="auth.*required.*pam_env.so"

# Define 'pam_succeed_if.so' row to be appended past $PAM_ENV_SO row into $SYSTEM_AUTH_CONF
SYSTEM_AUTH_PAM_SUCCEED="\
auth        \[success=1 default=ignore\] pam_succeed_if.so service notin \
login:gdm:xdm:kdm:xscreensaver:gnome-screensaver:kscreensaver quiet use_uid"
# Define 'pam_pkcs11.so' row to be appended past $SYSTEM_AUTH_PAM_SUCCEED
# row into SYSTEM_AUTH_CONF file
SYSTEM_AUTH_PAM_PKCS11="\
auth        \[success=done authinfo_unavail=ignore ignore=ignore default=die\] \
pam_pkcs11.so card_only"

# Define smartcard-auth config location
SMARTCARD_AUTH_CONF="/etc/pam.d/smartcard-auth"
# Define 'pam_pkcs11.so' auth section to be appended past $PAM_ENV_SO into $SMARTCARD_AUTH_CONF
SMARTCARD_AUTH_SECTION="\
auth        [success=done ignore=ignore default=die] pam_pkcs11.so wait_for_card card_only"
# Define expected 'pam_permit.so' row in $SMARTCARD_AUTH_CONF
PAM_PERMIT_SO="account.*required.*pam_permit.so"
# Define 'pam_pkcs11.so' password section
SMARTCARD_PASSWORD_SECTION="\
password    required      pam_pkcs11.so"

# First Correct the SYSTEM_AUTH_CONF configuration
if ! grep -q 'pam_pkcs11.so' "$SYSTEM_AUTH_CONF"
then
	# Append (expected) pam_succeed_if.so row past the pam_env.so into SYSTEM_AUTH_CONF file
	sed -i --follow-symlinks -e '/^'"$PAM_ENV_SO"'/a '"$SYSTEM_AUTH_PAM_SUCCEED" "$SYSTEM_AUTH_CONF"
	# Append (expected) pam_pkcs11.so row past the pam_succeed_if.so into SYSTEM_AUTH_CONF file
	sed -i --follow-symlinks -e '/^'"$SYSTEM_AUTH_PAM_SUCCEED"'/a '"$SYSTEM_AUTH_PAM_PKCS11" "$SYSTEM_AUTH_CONF"
fi

# Then also correct the SMARTCARD_AUTH_CONF
if ! grep -q 'pam_pkcs11.so' "$SMARTCARD_AUTH_CONF"
then
	# Append (expected) SMARTCARD_AUTH_SECTION row past the pam_env.so into SMARTCARD_AUTH_CONF file
	sed -i --follow-symlinks -e '/^'"$PAM_ENV_SO"'/a '"$SMARTCARD_AUTH_SECTION" "$SMARTCARD_AUTH_CONF"
	# Append (expected) SMARTCARD_PASSWORD_SECTION row past the pam_permit.so into SMARTCARD_AUTH_CONF file
	sed -i --follow-symlinks -e '/^'"$PAM_PERMIT_SO"'/a '"$SMARTCARD_PASSWORD_SECTION" "$SMARTCARD_AUTH_CONF"
fi

# Perform /etc/pam_pkcs11/pam_pkcs11.conf settings below
# Define selected constants for later reuse
SP="[:space:]"
PAM_PKCS11_CONF="/etc/pam_pkcs11/pam_pkcs11.conf"

# Ensure OCSP is turned on in $PAM_PKCS11_CONF
# 1) First replace any occurrence of 'none' value of 'cert_policy' key setting with the correct configuration
# On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 a space isn't required between 'cert_policy' key and value assignment !!!
sed -i "s/^[$SP]*cert_policy=none;/    cert_policy=ca, ocsp_on, signature;/g" "$PAM_PKCS11_CONF"

# 2) Then append 'ocsp_on' value setting to each 'cert_policy' key in $PAM_PKCS11_CONF configuration line,
# which does not contain it yet
# On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 a space isn't required between 'cert_policy' key and value assignment !!!
sed -i "/ocsp_on/! s/^[$SP]*cert_policy=\(.*\);/    cert_policy=\1, ocsp_on;/" "$PAM_PKCS11_CONF"
Remediation Anaconda snippet:   (show)


package --add=pam_pkcs11 --add=esc

8.4   [ref]group

Document and communicate

8.4.a   [ref]group

Examine

8.4.b   [ref]group

Review authentication policies and procedures that are

8.4.c   [ref]group

Interview a sample of users to verify that they are familiar

8.5   [ref]group

Do not use group, shared, or generic

contains 1 rule

8.5.1   [ref]group

8.5.a   [ref]group

For a sample of system components, examine user ID lists

contains 1 rule

All GIDs referenced in /etc/passwd must be defined in /etc/group   [ref]rule

Add a group to the system for each GID referenced without a corresponding group.

Rationale:

If a user is assigned the Group Identifier (GID) of a group not existing on the system, and a group with the Gruop Identifier (GID) is subsequently created, the user may have unintended rights to any files associated with the group.

Severity:  low

8.5.b   [ref]group

Examine authentication policies and procedures to verify

8.5.c   [ref]group

Interview system administrators to verify that group and

8.6   [ref]group

Where other authentication

8.6.a   [ref]group

Examine authentication policies and procedures to verify

8.6.b   [ref]group

Interview security personnel to verify authentication

8.6.c   [ref]group

Examine system configuration settings and/or physical

8.7   [ref]group

All access to any database

contains 9 rules

8.7.a   [ref]group

Review database and application configuration settings

8.7.b   [ref]group

Examine database and application configuration settings to

8.7.c   [ref]group

Examine database access control settings and database

contains 9 rules

Verify Permissions on shadow File   [ref]rule

To properly set the permissions of /etc/shadow, run the command:

$ sudo chmod 0640 /etc/shadow

Rationale:

The /etc/shadow file contains the list of local system accounts and stores password hashes. Protection of this file is critical for system security. Failure to give ownership of this file to root provides the designated owner with access to sensitive information which could weaken the system security posture.

Severity:  medium

Identifiers:  CCE-26992-8

References:  CCI-000225, RHEL-06-000035, SV-50305r1_rule, SRG-OS-999999, 6.1.3, 5.5.2.2, AC-6, Req-8.7.c

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure

chmod 0000 /etc/shadow
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure
- name: Ensure permission 0000 on /etc/shadow
  file:
    path: /etc/shadow
    mode: 0000
  tags:
    - file_permissions_etc_shadow
    - medium_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-26992-8
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.7.c
    - CJIS-5.5.2.2
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000035

Verify User Who Owns shadow File   [ref]rule

To properly set the owner of /etc/shadow, run the command:

$ sudo chown root /etc/shadow 

Rationale:

The /etc/shadow file contains the list of local system accounts and stores password hashes. Protection of this file is critical for system security. Failure to give ownership of this file to root provides the designated owner with access to sensitive information which could weaken the system security posture.

Severity:  medium

Identifiers:  CCE-26947-2

References:  RHEL-06-000033, SV-50303r1_rule, CCI-000225, SRG-OS-999999, 6.1.3, 5.5.2.2, AC-6, Req-8.7.c

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure

chown 0 /etc/shadow
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure
- name: Test for existence /etc/shadow
  stat:
    path: /etc/shadow
  register: file_exists

- name: Ensure owner 0 on /etc/shadow
  file:
    path: /etc/shadow
    owner: 0
  when: file_exists.stat.exists
  tags:
    - file_owner_etc_shadow
    - medium_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-26947-2
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.7.c
    - CJIS-5.5.2.2
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000033

Verify User Who Owns group File   [ref]rule

To properly set the owner of /etc/group, run the command:

$ sudo chown root /etc/group 

Rationale:

The /etc/group file contains information regarding groups that are configured on the system. Protection of this file is important for system security.

Severity:  medium

Identifiers:  CCE-26822-7

References:  RHEL-06-000042, SV-50258r1_rule, SRG-OS-999999, 6.1.4, 5.5.2.2, AC-6, Req-8.7.c

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure

chown 0 /etc/group
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure
- name: Test for existence /etc/group
  stat:
    path: /etc/group
  register: file_exists

- name: Ensure owner 0 on /etc/group
  file:
    path: /etc/group
    owner: 0
  when: file_exists.stat.exists
  tags:
    - file_owner_etc_group
    - medium_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-26822-7
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.7.c
    - CJIS-5.5.2.2
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000042

Verify Permissions on group File   [ref]rule

To properly set the permissions of /etc/passwd, run the command:

$ sudo chmod 0644 /etc/passwd

Rationale:

The /etc/group file contains information regarding groups that are configured on the system. Protection of this file is important for system security.

Severity:  medium

Identifiers:  CCE-26954-8

References:  RHEL-06-000044, SV-50261r1_rule, CCI-000225, SRG-OS-999999, 6.1.4, 5.5.2.2, AC-6, Req-8.7.c

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure

chmod 0644 /etc/group
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure
- name: Ensure permission 0644 on /etc/group
  file:
    path: /etc/group
    mode: 0644
  tags:
    - file_permissions_etc_group
    - medium_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-26954-8
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.7.c
    - CJIS-5.5.2.2
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000044

Verify Group Who Owns passwd File   [ref]rule

To properly set the group owner of /etc/passwd, run the command:

$ sudo chgrp root /etc/passwd

Rationale:

The /etc/passwd file contains information about the users that are configured on the system. Protection of this file is critical for system security.

Severity:  medium

Identifiers:  CCE-26856-5

References:  RHEL-06-000040, SV-50251r1_rule, CCI-000225, SRG-OS-999999, 6.1.2, 5.5.2.2, AC-6, Req-8.7.c

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure

chgrp 0 /etc/passwd
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure
- name: Test for existence /etc/passwd
  stat:
    path: /etc/passwd
  register: file_exists

- name: Ensure group owner 0 on /etc/passwd
  file:
    path: /etc/passwd
    group: 0
  when: file_exists.stat.exists
  tags:
    - file_groupowner_etc_passwd
    - medium_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-26856-5
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.7.c
    - CJIS-5.5.2.2
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000040

Verify Group Who Owns shadow File   [ref]rule

To properly set the group owner of /etc/shadow, run the command:

$ sudo chgrp root /etc/shadow

Rationale:

The /etc/shadow file stores password hashes. Protection of this file is critical for system security.

Severity:  medium

Identifiers:  CCE-26967-0

References:  RHEL-06-000034, SV-50304r1_rule, CCI-000225, SRG-OS-999999, 6.1.3, 5.5.2.2, AC-6, Req-8.7.c

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure

chgrp 0 /etc/shadow
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure
- name: Test for existence /etc/shadow
  stat:
    path: /etc/shadow
  register: file_exists

- name: Ensure group owner 0 on /etc/shadow
  file:
    path: /etc/shadow
    group: 0
  when: file_exists.stat.exists
  tags:
    - file_groupowner_etc_shadow
    - medium_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-26967-0
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.7.c
    - CJIS-5.5.2.2
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000034

Verify Group Who Owns group File   [ref]rule

To properly set the group owner of /etc/group, run the command:

$ sudo chgrp root /etc/group

Rationale:

The /etc/group file contains information regarding groups that are configured on the system. Protection of this file is important for system security.

Severity:  medium

Identifiers:  CCE-26930-8

References:  RHEL-06-000043, SV-50259r1_rule, CCI-000225, SRG-OS-999999, 6.1.4, 5.5.2.2, AC-6, Req-8.7.c

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure

chgrp 0 /etc/group
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure
- name: Test for existence /etc/group
  stat:
    path: /etc/group
  register: file_exists

- name: Ensure group owner 0 on /etc/group
  file:
    path: /etc/group
    group: 0
  when: file_exists.stat.exists
  tags:
    - file_groupowner_etc_group
    - medium_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-26930-8
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.7.c
    - CJIS-5.5.2.2
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000043

Verify User Who Owns passwd File   [ref]rule

To properly set the owner of /etc/passwd, run the command:

$ sudo chown root /etc/passwd 

Rationale:

The /etc/passwd file contains information about the users that are configured on the system. Protection of this file is critical for system security.

Severity:  medium

Identifiers:  CCE-26953-0

References:  RHEL-06-000039, SV-50250r1_rule, CCI-000225, SRG-OS-999999, 6.1.2, 5.5.2.2, AC-6, Req-8.7.c

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure

chown 0 /etc/passwd
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure
- name: Test for existence /etc/passwd
  stat:
    path: /etc/passwd
  register: file_exists

- name: Ensure owner 0 on /etc/passwd
  file:
    path: /etc/passwd
    owner: 0
  when: file_exists.stat.exists
  tags:
    - file_owner_etc_passwd
    - medium_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-26953-0
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.7.c
    - CJIS-5.5.2.2
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000039

Verify Permissions on passwd File   [ref]rule

To properly set the permissions of /etc/passwd, run the command:

$ sudo chmod 0644 /etc/passwd

Rationale:

If the /etc/passwd file is writable by a group-owner or the world the risk of its compromise is increased. The file contains the list of accounts on the system and associated information, and protection of this file is critical for system security.

Severity:  medium

Identifiers:  CCE-26868-0

References:  RHEL-06-000041, SV-50257r1_rule, CCI-000225, SRG-OS-999999, 6.1.2, 5.5.2.2, AC-6, Req-8.7.c

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure

chmod 0644 /etc/passwd
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure
- name: Ensure permission 0644 on /etc/passwd
  file:
    path: /etc/passwd
    mode: 0644
  tags:
    - file_permissions_etc_passwd
    - medium_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-26868-0
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.7.c
    - CJIS-5.5.2.2
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000041

8.7.d   [ref]group

Examine database access control settings, database

8.8   [ref]group

Ensure that security policies and

10.   [ref]group

Track and monitor all access to network resources and cardholder data

contains 49 rules

10.1   [ref]group

Implement audit trails to link all

contains 1 rule

Enable auditd Service   [ref]rule

The auditd service is an essential userspace component of the Linux Auditing System, as it is responsible for writing audit records to disk. The auditd service can be enabled with the following command:

$ sudo chkconfig --level 2345 auditd on

Rationale:

Without establishing what type of events occurred, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events leading up to an outage or attack. Ensuring the auditd service is active ensures audit records generated by the kernel are appropriately recorded.

Additionally, a properly configured audit subsystem ensures that actions of individual system users can be uniquely traced to those users so they can be held accountable for their actions.

Severity:  high

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable

/sbin/service 'auditd' disable
/sbin/chkconfig --level 0123456 'auditd' off
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
- name: Enable service auditd
  service:
    name: auditd
    enabled: "yes"
    state: "started"
  tags:
    - service_auditd_enabled
    - high_severity
    - enable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-27058-7
    - NIST-800-53-AU-3
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(1)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-10
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-14(1)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.3.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.3.2
    - NIST-800-171-3.3.6
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.1
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000145

10.2   [ref]group

Implement automated audit trails for

contains 10 rules

10.2.1   [ref]group

All individual user accesses to

contains 1 rule

Ensure auditd Collects Unauthorized Access Attempts to Files (unsuccessful)   [ref]rule

At a minimum the audit system should collect unauthorized file accesses for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following lines:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following lines:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access

Warning:  This rule checks for multiple syscalls related to unsuccessful file modification; it was written with DISA STIG in mind. Other policies should use a separate rule for each syscall that needs to be checked. For example:
  • audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_open
  • audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_ftruncate
  • audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_creat
Rationale:

Unsuccessful attempts to access files could be an indicator of malicious activity on a system. Auditing these events could serve as evidence of potential system compromise.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# Perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ $(getconf LONG_BIT) = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do

	# First fix the -EACCES requirement
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S .* -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=500 -F auid!=4294967295 -k *"
	# Use escaped BRE regex to specify rule group
	GROUP="\(creat\|open\|truncate\)"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S creat -S open -S openat -S open_by_handle_at -S truncate -S ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=500 -F auid!=4294967295 -k access"
# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
	key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)' '|' "$full_rule" : '.*-F[[:space:]]key=\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
	# Check if particular audit rule is already defined
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
	done
	# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
	# * follow the rule pattern, and
	# * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
	# * are current syscall group specific
	IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS

	# Process rules found case-by-case
	for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
	do
		# Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
		if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
		then
			# If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
			rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
			# Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
			# of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
			if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
			then
				# Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
				# subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
				# Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
			else
				# Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
				# for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
				# group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
				# since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
				# Therefore:
				# * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
				# * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
				# keep those not belonging to this syscall group
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
				# * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
				# if the same rule not already present
				#
				# 1) Delete the original rule
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				# 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
				# Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
				IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
				# Reset IFS back to default
				unset IFS
				# Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
				new_syscalls_for_rule=''
				# Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
				for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
				do
					# Skip empty $syscall_arg values
					if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
					then
						continue
					fi
					# If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
					# (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
					if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
					then
						new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
					fi
				done
				# Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
				updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
				# Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
				updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
				# 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
				#    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
				if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
				then
					echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
				fi
			fi
		else
			# $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
			# architecture & key => don't insert it second time
			append_expected_rule=1
		fi
	done

	# We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
	# Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
	# Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
	if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
	then
		echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
	fi
done

return $retval

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"

	# Then fix the -EPERM requirement
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S .* -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=500 -F auid!=4294967295 -k *"
	# No need to change content of $GROUP variable - it's the same as for -EACCES case above
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S creat -S open -S openat -S open_by_handle_at -S truncate -S ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=500 -F auid!=4294967295 -k access"
# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
	key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)' '|' "$full_rule" : '.*-F[[:space:]]key=\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
	# Check if particular audit rule is already defined
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
	done
	# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
	# * follow the rule pattern, and
	# * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
	# * are current syscall group specific
	IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS

	# Process rules found case-by-case
	for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
	do
		# Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
		if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
		then
			# If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
			rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
			# Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
			# of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
			if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
			then
				# Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
				# subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
				# Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
			else
				# Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
				# for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
				# group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
				# since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
				# Therefore:
				# * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
				# * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
				# keep those not belonging to this syscall group
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
				# * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
				# if the same rule not already present
				#
				# 1) Delete the original rule
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				# 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
				# Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
				IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
				# Reset IFS back to default
				unset IFS
				# Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
				new_syscalls_for_rule=''
				# Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
				for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
				do
					# Skip empty $syscall_arg values
					if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
					then
						continue
					fi
					# If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
					# (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
					if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
					then
						new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
					fi
				done
				# Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
				updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
				# Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
				updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
				# 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
				#    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
				if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
				then
					echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
				fi
			fi
		else
			# $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
			# architecture & key => don't insert it second time
			append_expected_rule=1
		fi
	done

	# We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
	# Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
	# Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
	if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
	then
		echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
	fi
done

return $retval

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"

done

10.2.2   [ref]group

All actions taken by any

contains 2 rules

Ensure auditd Collects Information on the Use of Privileged Commands   [ref]rule

At a minimum, the audit system should collect the execution of privileged commands for all users and root. To find the relevant setuid / setgid programs, run the following command for each local partition PART:

$ sudo find PART -xdev -type f -perm -4000 -o -type f -perm -2000 2>/dev/null
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add a line of the following form to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d for each setuid / setgid program on the system, replacing the SETUID_PROG_PATH part with the full path of that setuid / setgid program in the list:
-a always,exit -F path=SETUID_PROG_PATH -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add a line of the following form to /etc/audit/audit.rules for each setuid / setgid program on the system, replacing the SETUID_PROG_PATH part with the full path of that setuid / setgid program in the list:
-a always,exit -F path=SETUID_PROG_PATH -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged

Warning:  This rule checks for multiple syscalls related to privileged commands; it was written with DISA STIG in mind. Other policies should use a separate rule for each syscall that needs to be checked. For example:
  • audit_rules_privileged_commands_su
  • audit_rules_privileged_commands_umount
  • audit_rules_privileged_commands_passwd
Rationale:

Misuse of privileged functions, either intentionally or unintentionally by authorized users, or by unauthorized external entities that have compromised system accounts, is a serious and ongoing concern and can have significant adverse impacts on organizations. Auditing the use of privileged functions is one way to detect such misuse and identify the risk from insider and advanced persistent threast.

Privileged programs are subject to escalation-of-privilege attacks, which attempt to subvert their normal role of providing some necessary but limited capability. As such, motivation exists to monitor these programs for unusual activity.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# Perform the remediation
# Function to perform remediation for 'audit_rules_privileged_commands' rule
#
# Expects two arguments:
#
# audit_tool		tool used to load audit rules
# 			One of 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'
#
# min_auid		Minimum original ID the user logged in with
# 			'500' for RHEL-6 and before, '1000' for RHEL-7 and after.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#      perform_audit_rules_privileged_commands_remediation "auditctl" "500"
#      perform_audit_rules_privileged_commands_remediation "augenrules"	"1000"
#
function perform_audit_rules_privileged_commands_remediation {
#
# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local min_auid="$2"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "2" ]
then
	echo "Usage: perform_audit_rules_privileged_commands_remediation 'auditctl | augenrules' '500 | 1000'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

declare -a files_to_inspect=()

# Check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	exit 1
# If the audit tool is 'auditctl', then:
# * add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'to the list of files to be inspected,
# * specify '/etc/audit/audit.rules' as the output audit file, where
#   missing rules should be inserted
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("/etc/audit/audit.rules")
	output_audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"
#
# If the audit tool is 'augenrules', then:
# * add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list of files to be inspected
#   (split by newline),
# * specify /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules' as the output file, where
#   missing rules should be inserted
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	IFS=$'\n' files_to_inspect=($(find /etc/audit/rules.d -maxdepth 1 -type f -name '*.rules' -print))
	output_audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules"
fi

# Obtain the list of SUID/SGID binaries on the particular system (split by newline)
# into privileged_binaries array
IFS=$'\n' privileged_binaries=($(find / -xdev -type f -perm -4000 -o -type f -perm -2000 2>/dev/null))

# Keep list of SUID/SGID binaries that have been already handled within some previous iteration
declare -a sbinaries_to_skip=()

# For each found sbinary in privileged_binaries list
for sbinary in "${privileged_binaries[@]}"
do

	# Check if this sbinary wasn't already handled in some of the previous iterations
	# Return match only if whole sbinary definition matched (not in the case just prefix matched!!!)
	if [[ $(sed -ne "\|${sbinary}|p" <<< "${sbinaries_to_skip[*]}") ]]
	then
		# If so, don't process it second time & go to process next sbinary
		continue
	fi

	# Reset the counter of inspected files when starting to check
	# presence of existing audit rule for new sbinary
	local count_of_inspected_files=0

	# Define expected rule form for this binary
	expected_rule="-a always,exit -F path=${sbinary} -F perm=x -F auid>=${min_auid} -F auid!=unset -k privileged"

	# If list of audit rules files to be inspected is empty, just add new rule and move on to next binary
	if [[ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq 0 ]]; then
		echo "$expected_rule" >> "$output_audit_file"
		continue
	fi

	# Replace possible slash '/' character in sbinary definition so we could use it in sed expressions below
	sbinary_esc=${sbinary//$'/'/$'\/'}

	# For each audit rules file from the list of files to be inspected
	for afile in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
	do

		# Search current audit rules file's content for match. Match criteria:
		# * existing rule is for the same SUID/SGID binary we are currently processing (but
		#   can contain multiple -F path= elements covering multiple SUID/SGID binaries)
		# * existing rule contains all arguments from expected rule form (though can contain
		#   them in arbitrary order)
	
		base_search=$(sed -e '/-a always,exit/!d' -e '/-F path='"${sbinary_esc}"'/!d'		\
				-e '/-F path=[^[:space:]]\+/!d'   -e '/-F perm=.*/!d'						\
				-e '/-F auid>='"${min_auid}"'/!d' -e '/-F auid!=\(?:4294967295\|unset\)/!d'	\
				-e '/-k privileged/!d' "$afile")

		# Increase the count of inspected files for this sbinary
		count_of_inspected_files=$((count_of_inspected_files + 1))

		# Require execute access type to be set for existing audit rule
		exec_access='x'

		# Search current audit rules file's content for presence of rule pattern for this sbinary
		if [[ $base_search ]]
		then

			# Current audit rules file already contains rule for this binary =>
			# Store the exact form of found rule for this binary for further processing
			concrete_rule=$base_search

			# Select all other SUID/SGID binaries possibly also present in the found rule
			IFS=$'\n' handled_sbinaries=($(grep -o -e "-F path=[^[:space:]]\+" <<< "$concrete_rule"))
			IFS=$' ' handled_sbinaries=(${handled_sbinaries[@]//-F path=/})

			# Merge the list of such SUID/SGID binaries found in this iteration with global list ignoring duplicates
			sbinaries_to_skip=($(for i in "${sbinaries_to_skip[@]}" "${handled_sbinaries[@]}"; do echo "$i"; done | sort -du))

			# Separate concrete_rule into three sections using hash '#'
			# sign as a delimiter around rule's permission section borders
			concrete_rule="$(echo "$concrete_rule" | sed -n "s/\(.*\)\+\(-F perm=[rwax]\+\)\+/\1#\2#/p")"

			# Split concrete_rule into head, perm, and tail sections using hash '#' delimiter
			IFS=$'#' read -r rule_head rule_perm rule_tail <<<  "$concrete_rule"

			# Extract already present exact access type [r|w|x|a] from rule's permission section
			access_type=${rule_perm//-F perm=/}

			# Verify current permission access type(s) for rule contain 'x' (execute) permission
			if ! grep -q "$exec_access" <<< "$access_type"
			then

				# If not, append the 'x' (execute) permission to the existing access type bits
				access_type="$access_type$exec_access"
				# Reconstruct the permissions section for the rule
				new_rule_perm="-F perm=$access_type"
				# Update existing rule in current audit rules file with the new permission section
				sed -i "s#${rule_head}\(.*\)${rule_tail}#${rule_head}${new_rule_perm}${rule_tail}#" "$afile"

			fi

		# If the required audit rule for particular sbinary wasn't found yet, insert it under following conditions:
		#
		# * in the "auditctl" mode of operation insert particular rule each time
		#   (because in this mode there's only one file -- /etc/audit/audit.rules to be inspected for presence of this rule),
		#
		# * in the "augenrules" mode of operation insert particular rule only once and only in case we have already
		#   searched all of the files from /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules location (since that audit rule can be defined
		#   in any of those files and if not, we want it to be inserted only once into /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules file)
		#
		elif [ "$tool" == "auditctl" ] || [[ "$tool" == "augenrules" && $count_of_inspected_files -eq "${#files_to_inspect[@]}" ]]
		then

			# Current audit rules file's content doesn't contain expected rule for this
			# SUID/SGID binary yet => append it
			echo "$expected_rule" >> "$output_audit_file"
			continue
		fi

	done

done
}

perform_audit_rules_privileged_commands_remediation "auditctl" "500"
perform_audit_rules_privileged_commands_remediation "augenrules" "500"
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict

- name: Search for privileged commands
  shell: "find / -xdev -type f -perm -4000 -o -type f -perm -2000 2>/dev/null | cat"
  check_mode: no
  register: find_result
  tags:
    - audit_rules_privileged_commands
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-26457-2
    - NIST-800-53-AC-3(10)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(4)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-6(9)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.2
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000198

# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/rules.d

- name: Search /etc/audit/rules.d for audit rule entries
  find:
    paths: "/etc/audit/rules.d"
    recurse: no
    contains: "^.*path={{ item }} .*$"
    patterns: "*.rules"
  with_items:
    - "{{ find_result.stdout_lines }}"
  register: files_result
  tags:
    - audit_rules_privileged_commands
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-26457-2
    - NIST-800-53-AC-3(10)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(4)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-6(9)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.2
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000198
  
- name: Overwrites the rule in rules.d
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ item.1.path }}"
    line: '-a always,exit -F path={{ item.0.item }} -F perm=x -F auid>=500 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged'
    create: no
    regexp: "^.*path={{ item.0.item }} .*$"
  with_subelements:
    - "{{ files_result.results }}"
    - files
  tags:
    - audit_rules_privileged_commands
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-26457-2
    - NIST-800-53-AC-3(10)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(4)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-6(9)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.2
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000198
    
- name: Adds the rule in rules.d
  lineinfile:
    path: /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules
    line: '-a always,exit -F path={{ item.item }} -F perm=x -F auid>=500 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged'
    create: yes
  with_items:
    - "{{ files_result.results }}"
  when: item.matched == 0
  tags:
    - audit_rules_privileged_commands
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-26457-2
    - NIST-800-53-AC-3(10)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(4)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-6(9)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.2
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000198
  
# Adds/overwrites the rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules

- name: Inserts/replaces the rule in audit.rules
  lineinfile:
    path: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    line: '-a always,exit -F path={{ item.item }} -F perm=x -F auid>=500 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged'
    create: yes
    regexp: "^.*path={{ item.item }} .*$"
  with_items:
    - "{{ files_result.results }}"
  tags:
    - audit_rules_privileged_commands
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-26457-2
    - NIST-800-53-AC-3(10)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(4)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-6(9)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.2
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000198


Ensure auditd Collects System Administrator Actions   [ref]rule

At a minimum, the audit system should collect administrator actions for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-w /etc/sudoers -p wa -k actions
-w /etc/sudoers.d/ -p wa -k actions
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-w /etc/sudoers -p wa -k actions
-w /etc/sudoers.d/ -p wa -k actions

Rationale:

The actions taken by system administrators should be audited to keep a record of what was executed on the system, as well as, for accountability purposes.

Severity:  unknown

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix audit file system object watch rule for given path:
# * if rule exists, also verifies the -w bits match the requirements
# * if rule doesn't exist yet, appends expected rule form to $files_to_inspect
#   audit rules file, depending on the tool which was used to load audit rules
#
# Expects four arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules'
# * path                        	value of -w audit rule's argument
# * required access bits        	value of -p audit rule's argument
# * key                         	value of -k audit rule's argument
#
# Example call:
#
#       fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/localtime" "wa" "audit_time_rules"
#
function fix_audit_watch_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local path="$2"
local required_access_bits="$3"
local key="$4"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "4" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_watch_rule 'tool' 'path' 'bits' 'key'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Tool used to load audit rules	| Rule already defined	|  Audit rules file to inspect	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#	auditctl		|     Doesn't matter	|  /etc/audit/audit.rules	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# 	augenrules		|          Yes		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules	  |
# 	augenrules		|          No		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
declare -a files_to_inspect

# Check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	exit 1
# If the audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# into the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules')
# If the audit is 'augenrules', then check if rule is already defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to list of files for inspection.
# If rule isn't defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to list of files for inspection.
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Case when particular audit rule is already defined in some of /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules file
	# Get pair -- filepath : matching_row into @matches array
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(grep -P "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	# For each of the matched entries
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		# Extract filepath from the match
		rulesd_audit_file=$(echo $match | cut -f1 -d ':')
		# Append that path into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "$rulesd_audit_file")
	done
	# Case when particular audit rule isn't defined yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		# Append '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		# If the $key.rules file doesn't exist yet, create it with correct permissions
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

# Finally perform the inspection and possible subsequent audit rule
# correction for each of the files previously identified for inspection
for audit_rules_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Check if audit watch file system object rule for given path already present
	if grep -q -P -- "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" "$audit_rules_file"
	then
		# Rule is found => verify yet if existing rule definition contains
		# all of the required access type bits

		# Escape slashes in path for use in sed pattern below
		local esc_path=${path//$'/'/$'\/'}
		# Define BRE whitespace class shortcut
		local sp="[[:space:]]"
		# Extract current permission access types (e.g. -p [r|w|x|a] values) from audit rule
		current_access_bits=$(sed -ne "s/$sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\).*/\1/p" "$audit_rules_file")
		# Split required access bits string into characters array
		# (to check bit's presence for one bit at a time)
		for access_bit in $(echo "$required_access_bits" | grep -o .)
		do
			# For each from the required access bits (e.g. 'w', 'a') check
			# if they are already present in current access bits for rule.
			# If not, append that bit at the end
			if ! grep -q "$access_bit" <<< "$current_access_bits"
			then
				# Concatenate the existing mask with the missing bit
				current_access_bits="$current_access_bits$access_bit"
			fi
		done
		# Propagate the updated rule's access bits (original + the required
		# ones) back into the /etc/audit/audit.rules file for that rule
		sed -i "s/\($sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\)\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\)\(.*\)/\1$current_access_bits\3/" "$audit_rules_file"
	else
		# Rule isn't present yet. Append it at the end of $audit_rules_file file
		# with proper key

		echo "-w $path -p $required_access_bits -k $key" >> "$audit_rules_file"
	fi
done
}

fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/sudoers" "wa" "actions"
fix_audit_watch_rule "augenrules" "/etc/sudoers" "wa" "actions"

10.2.3   [ref]group

Access to all audit trails

contains 2 rules

Record Attempts to Alter Process and Session Initiation Information   [ref]rule

The audit system already collects process information for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d in order to watch for attempted manual edits of files involved in storing such process information:

-w /var/run/utmp -p wa -k session
-w /var/log/btmp -p wa -k session
-w /var/log/wtmp -p wa -k session
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file in order to watch for attempted manual edits of files involved in storing such process information:
-w /var/run/utmp -p wa -k session
-w /var/log/btmp -p wa -k session
-w /var/log/wtmp -p wa -k session

Rationale:

Manual editing of these files may indicate nefarious activity, such as an attacker attempting to remove evidence of an intrusion.

Severity:  unknown

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# Perform the remediation
# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix audit file system object watch rule for given path:
# * if rule exists, also verifies the -w bits match the requirements
# * if rule doesn't exist yet, appends expected rule form to $files_to_inspect
#   audit rules file, depending on the tool which was used to load audit rules
#
# Expects four arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules'
# * path                        	value of -w audit rule's argument
# * required access bits        	value of -p audit rule's argument
# * key                         	value of -k audit rule's argument
#
# Example call:
#
#       fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/localtime" "wa" "audit_time_rules"
#
function fix_audit_watch_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local path="$2"
local required_access_bits="$3"
local key="$4"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "4" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_watch_rule 'tool' 'path' 'bits' 'key'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Tool used to load audit rules	| Rule already defined	|  Audit rules file to inspect	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#	auditctl		|     Doesn't matter	|  /etc/audit/audit.rules	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# 	augenrules		|          Yes		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules	  |
# 	augenrules		|          No		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
declare -a files_to_inspect

# Check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	exit 1
# If the audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# into the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules')
# If the audit is 'augenrules', then check if rule is already defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to list of files for inspection.
# If rule isn't defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to list of files for inspection.
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Case when particular audit rule is already defined in some of /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules file
	# Get pair -- filepath : matching_row into @matches array
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(grep -P "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	# For each of the matched entries
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		# Extract filepath from the match
		rulesd_audit_file=$(echo $match | cut -f1 -d ':')
		# Append that path into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "$rulesd_audit_file")
	done
	# Case when particular audit rule isn't defined yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		# Append '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		# If the $key.rules file doesn't exist yet, create it with correct permissions
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

# Finally perform the inspection and possible subsequent audit rule
# correction for each of the files previously identified for inspection
for audit_rules_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Check if audit watch file system object rule for given path already present
	if grep -q -P -- "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" "$audit_rules_file"
	then
		# Rule is found => verify yet if existing rule definition contains
		# all of the required access type bits

		# Escape slashes in path for use in sed pattern below
		local esc_path=${path//$'/'/$'\/'}
		# Define BRE whitespace class shortcut
		local sp="[[:space:]]"
		# Extract current permission access types (e.g. -p [r|w|x|a] values) from audit rule
		current_access_bits=$(sed -ne "s/$sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\).*/\1/p" "$audit_rules_file")
		# Split required access bits string into characters array
		# (to check bit's presence for one bit at a time)
		for access_bit in $(echo "$required_access_bits" | grep -o .)
		do
			# For each from the required access bits (e.g. 'w', 'a') check
			# if they are already present in current access bits for rule.
			# If not, append that bit at the end
			if ! grep -q "$access_bit" <<< "$current_access_bits"
			then
				# Concatenate the existing mask with the missing bit
				current_access_bits="$current_access_bits$access_bit"
			fi
		done
		# Propagate the updated rule's access bits (original + the required
		# ones) back into the /etc/audit/audit.rules file for that rule
		sed -i "s/\($sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\)\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\)\(.*\)/\1$current_access_bits\3/" "$audit_rules_file"
	else
		# Rule isn't present yet. Append it at the end of $audit_rules_file file
		# with proper key

		echo "-w $path -p $required_access_bits -k $key" >> "$audit_rules_file"
	fi
done
}

fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/var/run/utmp" "wa" "session"
fix_audit_watch_rule "augenrules" "/var/run/utmp" "wa" "session"
# Function to fix audit file system object watch rule for given path:
# * if rule exists, also verifies the -w bits match the requirements
# * if rule doesn't exist yet, appends expected rule form to $files_to_inspect
#   audit rules file, depending on the tool which was used to load audit rules
#
# Expects four arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules'
# * path                        	value of -w audit rule's argument
# * required access bits        	value of -p audit rule's argument
# * key                         	value of -k audit rule's argument
#
# Example call:
#
#       fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/localtime" "wa" "audit_time_rules"
#
function fix_audit_watch_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local path="$2"
local required_access_bits="$3"
local key="$4"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "4" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_watch_rule 'tool' 'path' 'bits' 'key'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Tool used to load audit rules	| Rule already defined	|  Audit rules file to inspect	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#	auditctl		|     Doesn't matter	|  /etc/audit/audit.rules	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# 	augenrules		|          Yes		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules	  |
# 	augenrules		|          No		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
declare -a files_to_inspect

# Check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	exit 1
# If the audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# into the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules')
# If the audit is 'augenrules', then check if rule is already defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to list of files for inspection.
# If rule isn't defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to list of files for inspection.
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Case when particular audit rule is already defined in some of /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules file
	# Get pair -- filepath : matching_row into @matches array
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(grep -P "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	# For each of the matched entries
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		# Extract filepath from the match
		rulesd_audit_file=$(echo $match | cut -f1 -d ':')
		# Append that path into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "$rulesd_audit_file")
	done
	# Case when particular audit rule isn't defined yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		# Append '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		# If the $key.rules file doesn't exist yet, create it with correct permissions
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

# Finally perform the inspection and possible subsequent audit rule
# correction for each of the files previously identified for inspection
for audit_rules_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Check if audit watch file system object rule for given path already present
	if grep -q -P -- "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" "$audit_rules_file"
	then
		# Rule is found => verify yet if existing rule definition contains
		# all of the required access type bits

		# Escape slashes in path for use in sed pattern below
		local esc_path=${path//$'/'/$'\/'}
		# Define BRE whitespace class shortcut
		local sp="[[:space:]]"
		# Extract current permission access types (e.g. -p [r|w|x|a] values) from audit rule
		current_access_bits=$(sed -ne "s/$sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\).*/\1/p" "$audit_rules_file")
		# Split required access bits string into characters array
		# (to check bit's presence for one bit at a time)
		for access_bit in $(echo "$required_access_bits" | grep -o .)
		do
			# For each from the required access bits (e.g. 'w', 'a') check
			# if they are already present in current access bits for rule.
			# If not, append that bit at the end
			if ! grep -q "$access_bit" <<< "$current_access_bits"
			then
				# Concatenate the existing mask with the missing bit
				current_access_bits="$current_access_bits$access_bit"
			fi
		done
		# Propagate the updated rule's access bits (original + the required
		# ones) back into the /etc/audit/audit.rules file for that rule
		sed -i "s/\($sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\)\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\)\(.*\)/\1$current_access_bits\3/" "$audit_rules_file"
	else
		# Rule isn't present yet. Append it at the end of $audit_rules_file file
		# with proper key

		echo "-w $path -p $required_access_bits -k $key" >> "$audit_rules_file"
	fi
done
}

fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/var/log/btmp" "wa" "session"
fix_audit_watch_rule "augenrules" "/var/log/btmp" "wa" "session"
# Function to fix audit file system object watch rule for given path:
# * if rule exists, also verifies the -w bits match the requirements
# * if rule doesn't exist yet, appends expected rule form to $files_to_inspect
#   audit rules file, depending on the tool which was used to load audit rules
#
# Expects four arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules'
# * path                        	value of -w audit rule's argument
# * required access bits        	value of -p audit rule's argument
# * key                         	value of -k audit rule's argument
#
# Example call:
#
#       fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/localtime" "wa" "audit_time_rules"
#
function fix_audit_watch_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local path="$2"
local required_access_bits="$3"
local key="$4"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "4" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_watch_rule 'tool' 'path' 'bits' 'key'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Tool used to load audit rules	| Rule already defined	|  Audit rules file to inspect	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#	auditctl		|     Doesn't matter	|  /etc/audit/audit.rules	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# 	augenrules		|          Yes		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules	  |
# 	augenrules		|          No		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
declare -a files_to_inspect

# Check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	exit 1
# If the audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# into the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules')
# If the audit is 'augenrules', then check if rule is already defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to list of files for inspection.
# If rule isn't defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to list of files for inspection.
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Case when particular audit rule is already defined in some of /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules file
	# Get pair -- filepath : matching_row into @matches array
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(grep -P "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	# For each of the matched entries
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		# Extract filepath from the match
		rulesd_audit_file=$(echo $match | cut -f1 -d ':')
		# Append that path into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "$rulesd_audit_file")
	done
	# Case when particular audit rule isn't defined yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		# Append '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		# If the $key.rules file doesn't exist yet, create it with correct permissions
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

# Finally perform the inspection and possible subsequent audit rule
# correction for each of the files previously identified for inspection
for audit_rules_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Check if audit watch file system object rule for given path already present
	if grep -q -P -- "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" "$audit_rules_file"
	then
		# Rule is found => verify yet if existing rule definition contains
		# all of the required access type bits

		# Escape slashes in path for use in sed pattern below
		local esc_path=${path//$'/'/$'\/'}
		# Define BRE whitespace class shortcut
		local sp="[[:space:]]"
		# Extract current permission access types (e.g. -p [r|w|x|a] values) from audit rule
		current_access_bits=$(sed -ne "s/$sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\).*/\1/p" "$audit_rules_file")
		# Split required access bits string into characters array
		# (to check bit's presence for one bit at a time)
		for access_bit in $(echo "$required_access_bits" | grep -o .)
		do
			# For each from the required access bits (e.g. 'w', 'a') check
			# if they are already present in current access bits for rule.
			# If not, append that bit at the end
			if ! grep -q "$access_bit" <<< "$current_access_bits"
			then
				# Concatenate the existing mask with the missing bit
				current_access_bits="$current_access_bits$access_bit"
			fi
		done
		# Propagate the updated rule's access bits (original + the required
		# ones) back into the /etc/audit/audit.rules file for that rule
		sed -i "s/\($sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\)\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\)\(.*\)/\1$current_access_bits\3/" "$audit_rules_file"
	else
		# Rule isn't present yet. Append it at the end of $audit_rules_file file
		# with proper key

		echo "-w $path -p $required_access_bits -k $key" >> "$audit_rules_file"
	fi
done
}

fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/var/log/wtmp" "wa" "session"
fix_audit_watch_rule "augenrules" "/var/log/wtmp" "wa" "session"

10.2.4   [ref]group

Invalid logical access attempts

contains 1 rule

10.2.5   [ref]group

Use of and changes to

contains 1 rule

10.2.5.a   [ref]group

Verify use of identification and authentication

10.2.5.b   [ref]group

Verify all elevation of privileges is logged.

10.2.5.c   [ref]group

Verify all changes, additions, or deletions to any account

Record Events that Modify User/Group Information   [ref]rule

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d, in order to capture events that modify account changes:

-w /etc/group -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification
-w /etc/passwd -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification
-w /etc/gshadow -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification
-w /etc/shadow -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification
-w /etc/security/opasswd -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file, in order to capture events that modify account changes:
-w /etc/group -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification
-w /etc/passwd -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification
-w /etc/gshadow -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification
-w /etc/shadow -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification
-w /etc/security/opasswd -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification

Warning:  This rule checks for multiple syscalls related to account changes; it was written with DISA STIG in mind. Other policies should use a separate rule for each syscall that needs to be checked. For example:
  • audit_rules_usergroup_modification_group
  • audit_rules_usergroup_modification_gshadow
  • audit_rules_usergroup_modification_passwd
Rationale:

In addition to auditing new user and group accounts, these watches will alert the system administrator(s) to any modifications. Any unexpected users, groups, or modifications should be investigated for legitimacy.

Severity:  unknown

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# Perform the remediation
# Function to fix audit file system object watch rule for given path:
# * if rule exists, also verifies the -w bits match the requirements
# * if rule doesn't exist yet, appends expected rule form to $files_to_inspect
#   audit rules file, depending on the tool which was used to load audit rules
#
# Expects four arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules'
# * path                        	value of -w audit rule's argument
# * required access bits        	value of -p audit rule's argument
# * key                         	value of -k audit rule's argument
#
# Example call:
#
#       fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/localtime" "wa" "audit_time_rules"
#
function fix_audit_watch_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local path="$2"
local required_access_bits="$3"
local key="$4"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "4" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_watch_rule 'tool' 'path' 'bits' 'key'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Tool used to load audit rules	| Rule already defined	|  Audit rules file to inspect	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#	auditctl		|     Doesn't matter	|  /etc/audit/audit.rules	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# 	augenrules		|          Yes		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules	  |
# 	augenrules		|          No		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
declare -a files_to_inspect

# Check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	exit 1
# If the audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# into the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules')
# If the audit is 'augenrules', then check if rule is already defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to list of files for inspection.
# If rule isn't defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to list of files for inspection.
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Case when particular audit rule is already defined in some of /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules file
	# Get pair -- filepath : matching_row into @matches array
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(grep -P "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	# For each of the matched entries
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		# Extract filepath from the match
		rulesd_audit_file=$(echo $match | cut -f1 -d ':')
		# Append that path into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "$rulesd_audit_file")
	done
	# Case when particular audit rule isn't defined yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		# Append '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		# If the $key.rules file doesn't exist yet, create it with correct permissions
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

# Finally perform the inspection and possible subsequent audit rule
# correction for each of the files previously identified for inspection
for audit_rules_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Check if audit watch file system object rule for given path already present
	if grep -q -P -- "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" "$audit_rules_file"
	then
		# Rule is found => verify yet if existing rule definition contains
		# all of the required access type bits

		# Escape slashes in path for use in sed pattern below
		local esc_path=${path//$'/'/$'\/'}
		# Define BRE whitespace class shortcut
		local sp="[[:space:]]"
		# Extract current permission access types (e.g. -p [r|w|x|a] values) from audit rule
		current_access_bits=$(sed -ne "s/$sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\).*/\1/p" "$audit_rules_file")
		# Split required access bits string into characters array
		# (to check bit's presence for one bit at a time)
		for access_bit in $(echo "$required_access_bits" | grep -o .)
		do
			# For each from the required access bits (e.g. 'w', 'a') check
			# if they are already present in current access bits for rule.
			# If not, append that bit at the end
			if ! grep -q "$access_bit" <<< "$current_access_bits"
			then
				# Concatenate the existing mask with the missing bit
				current_access_bits="$current_access_bits$access_bit"
			fi
		done
		# Propagate the updated rule's access bits (original + the required
		# ones) back into the /etc/audit/audit.rules file for that rule
		sed -i "s/\($sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\)\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\)\(.*\)/\1$current_access_bits\3/" "$audit_rules_file"
	else
		# Rule isn't present yet. Append it at the end of $audit_rules_file file
		# with proper key

		echo "-w $path -p $required_access_bits -k $key" >> "$audit_rules_file"
	fi
done
}

fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/group" "wa" "audit_rules_usergroup_modification"
fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/passwd" "wa" "audit_rules_usergroup_modification"
# Function to fix audit file system object watch rule for given path:
# * if rule exists, also verifies the -w bits match the requirements
# * if rule doesn't exist yet, appends expected rule form to $files_to_inspect
#   audit rules file, depending on the tool which was used to load audit rules
#
# Expects four arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules'
# * path                        	value of -w audit rule's argument
# * required access bits        	value of -p audit rule's argument
# * key                         	value of -k audit rule's argument
#
# Example call:
#
#       fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/localtime" "wa" "audit_time_rules"
#
function fix_audit_watch_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local path="$2"
local required_access_bits="$3"
local key="$4"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "4" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_watch_rule 'tool' 'path' 'bits' 'key'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Tool used to load audit rules	| Rule already defined	|  Audit rules file to inspect	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#	auditctl		|     Doesn't matter	|  /etc/audit/audit.rules	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# 	augenrules		|          Yes		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules	  |
# 	augenrules		|          No		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
declare -a files_to_inspect

# Check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	exit 1
# If the audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# into the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules')
# If the audit is 'augenrules', then check if rule is already defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to list of files for inspection.
# If rule isn't defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to list of files for inspection.
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Case when particular audit rule is already defined in some of /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules file
	# Get pair -- filepath : matching_row into @matches array
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(grep -P "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	# For each of the matched entries
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		# Extract filepath from the match
		rulesd_audit_file=$(echo $match | cut -f1 -d ':')
		# Append that path into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "$rulesd_audit_file")
	done
	# Case when particular audit rule isn't defined yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		# Append '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		# If the $key.rules file doesn't exist yet, create it with correct permissions
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

# Finally perform the inspection and possible subsequent audit rule
# correction for each of the files previously identified for inspection
for audit_rules_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Check if audit watch file system object rule for given path already present
	if grep -q -P -- "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" "$audit_rules_file"
	then
		# Rule is found => verify yet if existing rule definition contains
		# all of the required access type bits

		# Escape slashes in path for use in sed pattern below
		local esc_path=${path//$'/'/$'\/'}
		# Define BRE whitespace class shortcut
		local sp="[[:space:]]"
		# Extract current permission access types (e.g. -p [r|w|x|a] values) from audit rule
		current_access_bits=$(sed -ne "s/$sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\).*/\1/p" "$audit_rules_file")
		# Split required access bits string into characters array
		# (to check bit's presence for one bit at a time)
		for access_bit in $(echo "$required_access_bits" | grep -o .)
		do
			# For each from the required access bits (e.g. 'w', 'a') check
			# if they are already present in current access bits for rule.
			# If not, append that bit at the end
			if ! grep -q "$access_bit" <<< "$current_access_bits"
			then
				# Concatenate the existing mask with the missing bit
				current_access_bits="$current_access_bits$access_bit"
			fi
		done
		# Propagate the updated rule's access bits (original + the required
		# ones) back into the /etc/audit/audit.rules file for that rule
		sed -i "s/\($sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\)\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\)\(.*\)/\1$current_access_bits\3/" "$audit_rules_file"
	else
		# Rule isn't present yet. Append it at the end of $audit_rules_file file
		# with proper key

		echo "-w $path -p $required_access_bits -k $key" >> "$audit_rules_file"
	fi
done
}

fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/gshadow" "wa" "audit_rules_usergroup_modification"
fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/shadow" "wa" "audit_rules_usergroup_modification"
# Function to fix audit file system object watch rule for given path:
# * if rule exists, also verifies the -w bits match the requirements
# * if rule doesn't exist yet, appends expected rule form to $files_to_inspect
#   audit rules file, depending on the tool which was used to load audit rules
#
# Expects four arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules'
# * path                        	value of -w audit rule's argument
# * required access bits        	value of -p audit rule's argument
# * key                         	value of -k audit rule's argument
#
# Example call:
#
#       fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/localtime" "wa" "audit_time_rules"
#
function fix_audit_watch_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local path="$2"
local required_access_bits="$3"
local key="$4"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "4" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_watch_rule 'tool' 'path' 'bits' 'key'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Tool used to load audit rules	| Rule already defined	|  Audit rules file to inspect	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#	auditctl		|     Doesn't matter	|  /etc/audit/audit.rules	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# 	augenrules		|          Yes		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules	  |
# 	augenrules		|          No		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
declare -a files_to_inspect

# Check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	exit 1
# If the audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# into the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules')
# If the audit is 'augenrules', then check if rule is already defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to list of files for inspection.
# If rule isn't defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to list of files for inspection.
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Case when particular audit rule is already defined in some of /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules file
	# Get pair -- filepath : matching_row into @matches array
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(grep -P "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	# For each of the matched entries
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		# Extract filepath from the match
		rulesd_audit_file=$(echo $match | cut -f1 -d ':')
		# Append that path into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "$rulesd_audit_file")
	done
	# Case when particular audit rule isn't defined yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		# Append '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		# If the $key.rules file doesn't exist yet, create it with correct permissions
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

# Finally perform the inspection and possible subsequent audit rule
# correction for each of the files previously identified for inspection
for audit_rules_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Check if audit watch file system object rule for given path already present
	if grep -q -P -- "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" "$audit_rules_file"
	then
		# Rule is found => verify yet if existing rule definition contains
		# all of the required access type bits

		# Escape slashes in path for use in sed pattern below
		local esc_path=${path//$'/'/$'\/'}
		# Define BRE whitespace class shortcut
		local sp="[[:space:]]"
		# Extract current permission access types (e.g. -p [r|w|x|a] values) from audit rule
		current_access_bits=$(sed -ne "s/$sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\).*/\1/p" "$audit_rules_file")
		# Split required access bits string into characters array
		# (to check bit's presence for one bit at a time)
		for access_bit in $(echo "$required_access_bits" | grep -o .)
		do
			# For each from the required access bits (e.g. 'w', 'a') check
			# if they are already present in current access bits for rule.
			# If not, append that bit at the end
			if ! grep -q "$access_bit" <<< "$current_access_bits"
			then
				# Concatenate the existing mask with the missing bit
				current_access_bits="$current_access_bits$access_bit"
			fi
		done
		# Propagate the updated rule's access bits (original + the required
		# ones) back into the /etc/audit/audit.rules file for that rule
		sed -i "s/\($sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\)\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\)\(.*\)/\1$current_access_bits\3/" "$audit_rules_file"
	else
		# Rule isn't present yet. Append it at the end of $audit_rules_file file
		# with proper key

		echo "-w $path -p $required_access_bits -k $key" >> "$audit_rules_file"
	fi
done
}

fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/security/opasswd" "wa" "audit_rules_usergroup_modification"

10.2.6   [ref]group

Initialization, stopping, or

10.2.7   [ref]group

Creation and deletion of system-

contains 3 rules

Ensure auditd Collects Information on Kernel Module Loading and Unloading   [ref]rule

To capture kernel module loading and unloading events, use following lines, setting ARCH to either b32 for 32-bit system, or having two lines for both b32 and b64 in case your system is 64-bit:

-w /usr/sbin/insmod -p x -k modules
-w /usr/sbin/rmmod -p x -k modules
-w /usr/sbin/modprobe -p x -k modules

-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S init_module,delete_module -F key=modules

The place to add the lines depends on a way auditd daemon is configured. If it is configured to use the augenrules program (the default), add the lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility, add the lines to file /etc/audit/audit.rules.

Warning:  This rule checks for multiple syscalls related to kernel module loading and unloading; it was written with DISA STIG in mind. Other policies should use a separate rule for each syscall that needs to be checked. For example:
  • audit_rules_kernel_module_loading_insmod
  • audit_rules_kernel_module_loading_rmmod
  • audit_rules_kernel_module_loading_modprobe
Rationale:

The addition/removal of kernel modules can be used to alter the behavior of the kernel and potentially introduce malicious code into kernel space. It is important to have an audit trail of modules that have been introduced into the kernel.

Severity:  medium

Ensure auditd Collects File Deletion Events by User   [ref]rule

At a minimum the audit system should collect file deletion events for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:

-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S rmdir,unlink,unlinkat,rename,renameat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=delete
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S rmdir,unlink,unlinkat,rename -S renameat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=delete

Warning:  This rule checks for multiple syscalls related to file deletion; it was written with DISA STIG in mind. Other policies should use a separate rule for each syscall that needs to be checked. For example:
  • audit_rules_file_deletion_events_rmdir
  • audit_rules_file_deletion_events_unlink
  • audit_rules_file_deletion_events_unlinkat
Rationale:

Auditing file deletions will create an audit trail for files that are removed from the system. The audit trail could aid in system troubleshooting, as well as, detecting malicious processes that attempt to delete log files to conceal their presence.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# Perform the remediation for the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ $(getconf LONG_BIT) = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in ${RULE_ARCHS[@]}
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S .* -F auid>=500 -F auid!=4294967295 -k delete"
	# Use escaped BRE regex to specify rule group
	GROUP="\(rmdir\|unlink\|rename\)"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S rmdir -S unlink -S unlinkat -S rename -S renameat -F auid>=500 -F auid!=4294967295 -k delete"
# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
	key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)' '|' "$full_rule" : '.*-F[[:space:]]key=\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
	# Check if particular audit rule is already defined
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
	done
	# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
	# * follow the rule pattern, and
	# * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
	# * are current syscall group specific
	IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS

	# Process rules found case-by-case
	for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
	do
		# Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
		if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
		then
			# If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
			rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
			# Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
			# of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
			if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
			then
				# Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
				# subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
				# Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
			else
				# Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
				# for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
				# group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
				# since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
				# Therefore:
				# * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
				# * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
				# keep those not belonging to this syscall group
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
				# * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
				# if the same rule not already present
				#
				# 1) Delete the original rule
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				# 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
				# Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
				IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
				# Reset IFS back to default
				unset IFS
				# Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
				new_syscalls_for_rule=''
				# Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
				for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
				do
					# Skip empty $syscall_arg values
					if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
					then
						continue
					fi
					# If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
					# (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
					if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
					then
						new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
					fi
				done
				# Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
				updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
				# Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
				updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
				# 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
				#    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
				if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
				then
					echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
				fi
			fi
		else
			# $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
			# architecture & key => don't insert it second time
			append_expected_rule=1
		fi
	done

	# We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
	# Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
	# Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
	if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
	then
		echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
	fi
done

return $retval

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done

Ensure auditd Collects Information on Exporting to Media (successful)   [ref]rule

At a minimum, the audit system should collect media exportation events for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:

-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S mount -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=export
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S mount -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=export

Rationale:

The unauthorized exportation of data to external media could result in an information leak where classified information, Privacy Act information, and intellectual property could be lost. An audit trail should be created each time a filesystem is mounted to help identify and guard against information loss.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# Perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ $(getconf LONG_BIT) = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S .* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -k *"
	GROUP="mount"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S mount -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -k export"
	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
	key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)' '|' "$full_rule" : '.*-F[[:space:]]key=\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
	# Check if particular audit rule is already defined
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
	done
	# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
	# * follow the rule pattern, and
	# * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
	# * are current syscall group specific
	IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS

	# Process rules found case-by-case
	for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
	do
		# Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
		if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
		then
			# If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
			rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
			# Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
			# of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
			if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
			then
				# Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
				# subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
				# Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
			else
				# Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
				# for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
				# group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
				# since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
				# Therefore:
				# * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
				# * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
				# keep those not belonging to this syscall group
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
				# * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
				# if the same rule not already present
				#
				# 1) Delete the original rule
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				# 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
				# Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
				IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
				# Reset IFS back to default
				unset IFS
				# Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
				new_syscalls_for_rule=''
				# Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
				for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
				do
					# Skip empty $syscall_arg values
					if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
					then
						continue
					fi
					# If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
					# (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
					if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
					then
						new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
					fi
				done
				# Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
				updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
				# Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
				updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
				# 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
				#    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
				if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
				then
					echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
				fi
			fi
		else
			# $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
			# architecture & key => don't insert it second time
			append_expected_rule=1
		fi
	done

	# We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
	# Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
	# Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
	if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
	then
		echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
	fi
done

return $retval

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done

10.3   [ref]group

Record at least the following audit

contains 1 rule

10.3.1   [ref]group

User identification

10.3.2   [ref]group

Type of event

10.3.3   [ref]group

Date and time

10.3.4   [ref]group

Success or failure indication

10.3.5   [ref]group

Origination of event

10.3.6   [ref]group

Identity or name of affected

Enable Auditing for Processes Which Start Prior to the Audit Daemon   [ref]rule

To ensure all processes can be audited, even those which start prior to the audit daemon, add the argument audit=1 to the kernel line in /etc/grub.conf, in the manner below:

kernel /vmlinuz-version ro vga=ext root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00 rhgb quiet audit=1

Rationale:

Each process on the system carries an "auditable" flag which indicates whether its activities can be audited. Although auditd takes care of enabling this for all processes which launch after it does, adding the kernel argument ensures it is set for every process during boot.

Severity:  low

Remediation Shell script:   (show)


# Correct the form of kernel command line for each installed kernel
# in the bootloader
/sbin/grubby --update-kernel=ALL --args="audit=1"
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
- name: "Enable Auditing for Processes Which Start Prior to the Audit Daemon"
  shell: /sbin/grubby --update-kernel=ALL --args="audit=1"
  tags:
    - grub_legacy_audit_argument
    - low_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-26785-6
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(1)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-14(1)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-10
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.3
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000525

10.4   [ref]group

Using time-synchronization

contains 8 rules

10.4.1   [ref]group

Critical systems have the

contains 1 rule

10.4.1.a   [ref]group

Examine the process for acquiring, distributing and

10.4.1.b   [ref]group

Observe the time-related system-parameter settings for

Specify a Remote NTP Server   [ref]rule

To specify a remote NTP server for time synchronization, edit the file /etc/ntp.conf. Add or correct the following lines, substituting the IP or hostname of a remote NTP server for ntpserver:

server ntpserver
This instructs the NTP software to contact that remote server to obtain time data.

Rationale:

Synchronizing with an NTP server makes it possible to collate system logs from multiple sources or correlate computer events with real time events.

Severity:  medium

10.4.2   [ref]group

Time data is protected.

contains 5 rules

10.4.2.a   [ref]group

Examine system configurations and time-

10.4.2.b   [ref]group

Examine system configurations, time synchronization

contains 5 rules

Record Attempts to Alter Time Through stime   [ref]rule

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d for both 32 bit and 64 bit systems:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S stime -F key=audit_time_rules
Since the 64 bit version of the "stime" system call is not defined in the audit lookup table, the corresponding "-F arch=b64" form of this rule is not expected to be defined on 64 bit systems (the aforementioned "-F arch=b32" stime rule form itself is sufficient for both 32 bit and 64 bit systems). If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file for both 32 bit and 64 bit systems:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S stime -F key=audit_time_rules
Since the 64 bit version of the "stime" system call is not defined in the audit lookup table, the corresponding "-F arch=b64" form of this rule is not expected to be defined on 64 bit systems (the aforementioned "-F arch=b32" stime rule form itself is sufficient for both 32 bit and 64 bit systems). The -k option allows for the specification of a key in string form that can be used for better reporting capability through ausearch and aureport. Multiple system calls can be defined on the same line to save space if desired, but is not required. See an example of multiple combined system calls:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S adjtimex,settimeofday -F key=audit_time_rules

Rationale:

Arbitrary changes to the system time can be used to obfuscate nefarious activities in log files, as well as to confuse network services that are highly dependent upon an accurate system time (such as sshd). All changes to the system time should be audited.

Severity:  unknown

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
	key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)' '|' "$full_rule" : '.*-F[[:space:]]key=\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
	# Check if particular audit rule is already defined
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
	done
	# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
	# * follow the rule pattern, and
	# * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
	# * are current syscall group specific
	IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS

	# Process rules found case-by-case
	for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
	do
		# Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
		if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
		then
			# If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
			rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
			# Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
			# of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
			if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
			then
				# Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
				# subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
				# Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
			else
				# Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
				# for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
				# group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
				# since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
				# Therefore:
				# * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
				# * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
				# keep those not belonging to this syscall group
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
				# * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
				# if the same rule not already present
				#
				# 1) Delete the original rule
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				# 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
				# Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
				IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
				# Reset IFS back to default
				unset IFS
				# Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
				new_syscalls_for_rule=''
				# Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
				for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
				do
					# Skip empty $syscall_arg values
					if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
					then
						continue
					fi
					# If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
					# (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
					if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
					then
						new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
					fi
				done
				# Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
				updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
				# Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
				updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
				# 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
				#    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
				if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
				then
					echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
				fi
			fi
		else
			# $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
			# architecture & key => don't insert it second time
			append_expected_rule=1
		fi
	done

	# We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
	# Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
	# Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
	if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
	then
		echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
	fi
done

return $retval

}


# Function to perform remediation for the 'adjtimex', 'settimeofday', and 'stime' audit
# system calls on RHEL, Fedora or OL systems.
# Remediation performed for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'.
#
# Note: 'stime' system call isn't known at 64-bit arch (see "$ ausyscall x86_64 stime" 's output)
# therefore excluded from the list of time group system calls to be audited on this arch
#
# Example Call:
#
#      perform_audit_adjtimex_settimeofday_stime_remediation
#
function perform_audit_adjtimex_settimeofday_stime_remediation {

# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ $(getconf LONG_BIT) = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do

	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S .* -k *"
	# Create expected audit group and audit rule form for particular system call & architecture
	if [ ${ARCH} = "b32" ]
	then
		# stime system call is known at 32-bit arch (see e.g "$ ausyscall i386 stime" 's output)
		# so append it to the list of time group system calls to be audited
		GROUP="\(adjtimex\|settimeofday\|stime\)"
		FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S adjtimex -S settimeofday -S stime -k audit_time_rules"
	elif [ ${ARCH} = "b64" ]
	then
		# stime system call isn't known at 64-bit arch (see "$ ausyscall x86_64 stime" 's output)
		# therefore don't add it to the list of time group system calls to be audited
		GROUP="\(adjtimex\|settimeofday\)"
		FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S adjtimex -S settimeofday -k audit_time_rules"
	fi
	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done

}

perform_audit_adjtimex_settimeofday_stime_remediation

Record attempts to alter time through settimeofday   [ref]rule

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S settimeofday -F key=audit_time_rules
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S settimeofday -F key=audit_time_rules
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S settimeofday -F key=audit_time_rules
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S settimeofday -F key=audit_time_rules
The -k option allows for the specification of a key in string form that can be used for better reporting capability through ausearch and aureport. Multiple system calls can be defined on the same line to save space if desired, but is not required. See an example of multiple combined syscalls:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S adjtimex,settimeofday -F key=audit_time_rules

Rationale:

Arbitrary changes to the system time can be used to obfuscate nefarious activities in log files, as well as to confuse network services that are highly dependent upon an accurate system time (such as sshd). All changes to the system time should be audited.

Severity:  unknown

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
	key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)' '|' "$full_rule" : '.*-F[[:space:]]key=\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
	# Check if particular audit rule is already defined
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
	done
	# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
	# * follow the rule pattern, and
	# * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
	# * are current syscall group specific
	IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS

	# Process rules found case-by-case
	for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
	do
		# Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
		if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
		then
			# If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
			rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
			# Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
			# of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
			if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
			then
				# Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
				# subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
				# Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
			else
				# Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
				# for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
				# group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
				# since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
				# Therefore:
				# * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
				# * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
				# keep those not belonging to this syscall group
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
				# * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
				# if the same rule not already present
				#
				# 1) Delete the original rule
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				# 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
				# Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
				IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
				# Reset IFS back to default
				unset IFS
				# Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
				new_syscalls_for_rule=''
				# Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
				for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
				do
					# Skip empty $syscall_arg values
					if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
					then
						continue
					fi
					# If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
					# (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
					if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
					then
						new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
					fi
				done
				# Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
				updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
				# Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
				updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
				# 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
				#    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
				if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
				then
					echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
				fi
			fi
		else
			# $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
			# architecture & key => don't insert it second time
			append_expected_rule=1
		fi
	done

	# We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
	# Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
	# Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
	if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
	then
		echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
	fi
done

return $retval

}


# Function to perform remediation for the 'adjtimex', 'settimeofday', and 'stime' audit
# system calls on RHEL, Fedora or OL systems.
# Remediation performed for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'.
#
# Note: 'stime' system call isn't known at 64-bit arch (see "$ ausyscall x86_64 stime" 's output)
# therefore excluded from the list of time group system calls to be audited on this arch
#
# Example Call:
#
#      perform_audit_adjtimex_settimeofday_stime_remediation
#
function perform_audit_adjtimex_settimeofday_stime_remediation {

# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ $(getconf LONG_BIT) = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do

	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S .* -k *"
	# Create expected audit group and audit rule form for particular system call & architecture
	if [ ${ARCH} = "b32" ]
	then
		# stime system call is known at 32-bit arch (see e.g "$ ausyscall i386 stime" 's output)
		# so append it to the list of time group system calls to be audited
		GROUP="\(adjtimex\|settimeofday\|stime\)"
		FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S adjtimex -S settimeofday -S stime -k audit_time_rules"
	elif [ ${ARCH} = "b64" ]
	then
		# stime system call isn't known at 64-bit arch (see "$ ausyscall x86_64 stime" 's output)
		# therefore don't add it to the list of time group system calls to be audited
		GROUP="\(adjtimex\|settimeofday\)"
		FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S adjtimex -S settimeofday -k audit_time_rules"
	fi
	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done

}

perform_audit_adjtimex_settimeofday_stime_remediation

Record Attempts to Alter the localtime File   [ref]rule

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-w /etc/localtime -p wa -k audit_time_rules
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-w /etc/localtime -p wa -k audit_time_rules
The -k option allows for the specification of a key in string form that can be used for better reporting capability through ausearch and aureport and should always be used.

Rationale:

Arbitrary changes to the system time can be used to obfuscate nefarious activities in log files, as well as to confuse network services that are highly dependent upon an accurate system time (such as sshd). All changes to the system time should be audited.

Severity:  unknown

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix audit file system object watch rule for given path:
# * if rule exists, also verifies the -w bits match the requirements
# * if rule doesn't exist yet, appends expected rule form to $files_to_inspect
#   audit rules file, depending on the tool which was used to load audit rules
#
# Expects four arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules'
# * path                        	value of -w audit rule's argument
# * required access bits        	value of -p audit rule's argument
# * key                         	value of -k audit rule's argument
#
# Example call:
#
#       fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/localtime" "wa" "audit_time_rules"
#
function fix_audit_watch_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local path="$2"
local required_access_bits="$3"
local key="$4"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "4" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_watch_rule 'tool' 'path' 'bits' 'key'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Tool used to load audit rules	| Rule already defined	|  Audit rules file to inspect	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#	auditctl		|     Doesn't matter	|  /etc/audit/audit.rules	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# 	augenrules		|          Yes		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules	  |
# 	augenrules		|          No		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
declare -a files_to_inspect

# Check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	exit 1
# If the audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# into the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules')
# If the audit is 'augenrules', then check if rule is already defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to list of files for inspection.
# If rule isn't defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to list of files for inspection.
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Case when particular audit rule is already defined in some of /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules file
	# Get pair -- filepath : matching_row into @matches array
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(grep -P "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	# For each of the matched entries
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		# Extract filepath from the match
		rulesd_audit_file=$(echo $match | cut -f1 -d ':')
		# Append that path into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "$rulesd_audit_file")
	done
	# Case when particular audit rule isn't defined yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		# Append '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		# If the $key.rules file doesn't exist yet, create it with correct permissions
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

# Finally perform the inspection and possible subsequent audit rule
# correction for each of the files previously identified for inspection
for audit_rules_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Check if audit watch file system object rule for given path already present
	if grep -q -P -- "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" "$audit_rules_file"
	then
		# Rule is found => verify yet if existing rule definition contains
		# all of the required access type bits

		# Escape slashes in path for use in sed pattern below
		local esc_path=${path//$'/'/$'\/'}
		# Define BRE whitespace class shortcut
		local sp="[[:space:]]"
		# Extract current permission access types (e.g. -p [r|w|x|a] values) from audit rule
		current_access_bits=$(sed -ne "s/$sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\).*/\1/p" "$audit_rules_file")
		# Split required access bits string into characters array
		# (to check bit's presence for one bit at a time)
		for access_bit in $(echo "$required_access_bits" | grep -o .)
		do
			# For each from the required access bits (e.g. 'w', 'a') check
			# if they are already present in current access bits for rule.
			# If not, append that bit at the end
			if ! grep -q "$access_bit" <<< "$current_access_bits"
			then
				# Concatenate the existing mask with the missing bit
				current_access_bits="$current_access_bits$access_bit"
			fi
		done
		# Propagate the updated rule's access bits (original + the required
		# ones) back into the /etc/audit/audit.rules file for that rule
		sed -i "s/\($sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\)\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\)\(.*\)/\1$current_access_bits\3/" "$audit_rules_file"
	else
		# Rule isn't present yet. Append it at the end of $audit_rules_file file
		# with proper key

		echo "-w $path -p $required_access_bits -k $key" >> "$audit_rules_file"
	fi
done
}

fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/localtime" "wa" "audit_time_rules"
fix_audit_watch_rule "augenrules" "/etc/localtime" "wa" "audit_time_rules"

Record Attempts to Alter Time Through clock_settime   [ref]rule

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S clock_settime -F a0=0x0 -F key=time-change
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S clock_settime -F a0=0x0 -F key=time-change
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S clock_settime -F a0=0x0 -F key=time-change
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S clock_settime -F a0=0x0 -F key=time-change
The -k option allows for the specification of a key in string form that can be used for better reporting capability through ausearch and aureport. Multiple system calls can be defined on the same line to save space if desired, but is not required. See an example of multiple combined syscalls:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S adjtimex,settimeofday -F key=audit_time_rules

Rationale:

Arbitrary changes to the system time can be used to obfuscate nefarious activities in log files, as well as to confuse network services that are highly dependent upon an accurate system time (such as sshd). All changes to the system time should be audited.

Severity:  unknown

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S clock_settime -F a0=.* \(-F key=\|-k \).*"
	GROUP="clock_settime"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S clock_settime -F a0=0x0 -k time-change"
	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
	key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)' '|' "$full_rule" : '.*-F[[:space:]]key=\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
	# Check if particular audit rule is already defined
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
	done
	# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
	# * follow the rule pattern, and
	# * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
	# * are current syscall group specific
	IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS

	# Process rules found case-by-case
	for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
	do
		# Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
		if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
		then
			# If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
			rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
			# Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
			# of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
			if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
			then
				# Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
				# subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
				# Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
			else
				# Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
				# for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
				# group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
				# since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
				# Therefore:
				# * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
				# * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
				# keep those not belonging to this syscall group
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
				# * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
				# if the same rule not already present
				#
				# 1) Delete the original rule
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				# 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
				# Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
				IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
				# Reset IFS back to default
				unset IFS
				# Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
				new_syscalls_for_rule=''
				# Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
				for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
				do
					# Skip empty $syscall_arg values
					if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
					then
						continue
					fi
					# If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
					# (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
					if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
					then
						new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
					fi
				done
				# Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
				updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
				# Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
				updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
				# 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
				#    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
				if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
				then
					echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
				fi
			fi
		else
			# $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
			# architecture & key => don't insert it second time
			append_expected_rule=1
		fi
	done

	# We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
	# Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
	# Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
	if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
	then
		echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
	fi
done

return $retval

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done

Record attempts to alter time through adjtimex   [ref]rule

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S adjtimex -F key=audit_time_rules
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S adjtimex -F key=audit_time_rules
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S adjtimex -F key=audit_time_rules
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S adjtimex -F key=audit_time_rules
The -k option allows for the specification of a key in string form that can be used for better reporting capability through ausearch and aureport. Multiple system calls can be defined on the same line to save space if desired, but is not required. See an example of multiple combined syscalls:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S adjtimex,settimeofday -F key=audit_time_rules

Rationale:

Arbitrary changes to the system time can be used to obfuscate nefarious activities in log files, as well as to confuse network services that are highly dependent upon an accurate system time (such as sshd). All changes to the system time should be audited.

Severity:  unknown

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
	key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)' '|' "$full_rule" : '.*-F[[:space:]]key=\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
	# Check if particular audit rule is already defined
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
	done
	# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
	# * follow the rule pattern, and
	# * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
	# * are current syscall group specific
	IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS

	# Process rules found case-by-case
	for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
	do
		# Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
		if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
		then
			# If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
			rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
			# Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
			# of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
			if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
			then
				# Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
				# subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
				# Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
			else
				# Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
				# for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
				# group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
				# since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
				# Therefore:
				# * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
				# * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
				# keep those not belonging to this syscall group
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
				# * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
				# if the same rule not already present
				#
				# 1) Delete the original rule
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				# 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
				# Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
				IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
				# Reset IFS back to default
				unset IFS
				# Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
				new_syscalls_for_rule=''
				# Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
				for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
				do
					# Skip empty $syscall_arg values
					if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
					then
						continue
					fi
					# If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
					# (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
					if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
					then
						new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
					fi
				done
				# Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
				updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
				# Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
				updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
				# 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
				#    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
				if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
				then
					echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
				fi
			fi
		else
			# $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
			# architecture & key => don't insert it second time
			append_expected_rule=1
		fi
	done

	# We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
	# Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
	# Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
	if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
	then
		echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
	fi
done

return $retval

}


# Function to perform remediation for the 'adjtimex', 'settimeofday', and 'stime' audit
# system calls on RHEL, Fedora or OL systems.
# Remediation performed for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'.
#
# Note: 'stime' system call isn't known at 64-bit arch (see "$ ausyscall x86_64 stime" 's output)
# therefore excluded from the list of time group system calls to be audited on this arch
#
# Example Call:
#
#      perform_audit_adjtimex_settimeofday_stime_remediation
#
function perform_audit_adjtimex_settimeofday_stime_remediation {

# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ $(getconf LONG_BIT) = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do

	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S .* -k *"
	# Create expected audit group and audit rule form for particular system call & architecture
	if [ ${ARCH} = "b32" ]
	then
		# stime system call is known at 32-bit arch (see e.g "$ ausyscall i386 stime" 's output)
		# so append it to the list of time group system calls to be audited
		GROUP="\(adjtimex\|settimeofday\|stime\)"
		FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S adjtimex -S settimeofday -S stime -k audit_time_rules"
	elif [ ${ARCH} = "b64" ]
	then
		# stime system call isn't known at 64-bit arch (see "$ ausyscall x86_64 stime" 's output)
		# therefore don't add it to the list of time group system calls to be audited
		GROUP="\(adjtimex\|settimeofday\)"
		FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S adjtimex -S settimeofday -k audit_time_rules"
	fi
	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done

}

perform_audit_adjtimex_settimeofday_stime_remediation

10.4.3   [ref]group

Time settings are received from

contains 1 rule

Specify Additional Remote NTP Servers   [ref]rule

Additional NTP servers can be specified for time synchronization in the file /etc/ntp.conf. To do so, add additional lines of the following form, substituting the IP address or hostname of a remote NTP server for ntpserver:

server ntpserver

Rationale:

Specifying additional NTP servers increases the availability of accurate time data, in the event that one of the specified servers becomes unavailable. This is typical for a system acting as an NTP server for other systems.

Severity:  unknown

Identifiers:  CCE-26958-9

References:  AU-8(1), Req-10.4.3

Enable the NTP Daemon   [ref]rule

The ntpd service can be enabled with the following command:

$ sudo chkconfig --level 2345 ntpd on

Rationale:

Enabling the ntpd service ensures that the ntpd service will be running and that the system will synchronize its time to any servers specified. This is important whether the system is configured to be a client (and synchronize only its own clock) or it is also acting as an NTP server to other systems. Synchronizing time is essential for authentication services such as Kerberos, but it is also important for maintaining accurate logs and auditing possible security breaches.

The NTP daemon offers all of the functionality of ntpdate, which is now deprecated. Additional information on this is available at http://support.ntp.org/bin/view/Dev/DeprecatingNtpdate.

Severity:  medium

Identifiers:  CCE-27093-4

References:  CCI-000160, SRG-OS-000056, RHEL-06-000247, SV-50421r1_rule, AU-8(1), Req-10.4

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable

/sbin/service 'ntpd' disable
/sbin/chkconfig --level 0123456 'ntpd' off
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
- name: Enable service ntpd
  service:
    name: ntpd
    enabled: "yes"
    state: "started"
  tags:
    - service_ntpd_enabled
    - medium_severity
    - enable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-27093-4
    - NIST-800-53-AU-8(1)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.4
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000247

10.5   [ref]group

Secure audit trails so they cannot

contains 22 rules

10.5.1   [ref]group

Limit viewing of audit trails to

contains 4 rules

Ensure Log Files Are Owned By Appropriate User   [ref]rule

The owner of all log files written by rsyslog should be (N/A). These log files are determined by the second part of each Rule line in /etc/rsyslog.conf and typically all appear in /var/log. For each log file LOGFILE referenced in /etc/rsyslog.conf, run the following command to inspect the file's owner:

$ ls -l LOGFILE
If the owner is not (N/A), run the following command to correct this:
$ sudo chown (N/A) LOGFILE

Rationale:

The log files generated by rsyslog contain valuable information regarding system configuration, user authentication, and other such information. Log files should be protected from unauthorized access.

Severity:  medium

Identifiers:  CCE-26812-8

References:  RHEL-06-000133, SV-50319r2_rule, SRG-OS-000206, CCI-001314, AC-6, SI-11, Req-10.5.1, Req-10.5.2

Ensure Log Files Are Owned By Appropriate Group   [ref]rule

The group-owner of all log files written by rsyslog should be (N/A). These log files are determined by the second part of each Rule line in /etc/rsyslog.conf and typically all appear in /var/log. For each log file LOGFILE referenced in /etc/rsyslog.conf, run the following command to inspect the file's group owner:

$ ls -l LOGFILE
If the owner is not (N/A), run the following command to correct this:
$ sudo chgrp (N/A) LOGFILE

Rationale:

The log files generated by rsyslog contain valuable information regarding system configuration, user authentication, and other such information. Log files should be protected from unauthorized access.

Severity:  medium

Identifiers:  CCE-26821-9

References:  RHEL-06-000134, SV-50320r2_rule, SRG-OS-000206, CCI-001314, AC-6, SI-11, Req-10.5.1, Req-10.5.2

Ensure System Log Files Have Correct Permissions   [ref]rule

The file permissions for all log files written by rsyslog should be set to 600, or more restrictive. These log files are determined by the second part of each Rule line in /etc/rsyslog.conf and typically all appear in /var/log. For each log file LOGFILE referenced in /etc/rsyslog.conf, run the following command to inspect the file's permissions:

$ ls -l LOGFILE
If the permissions are not 600 or more restrictive, run the following command to correct this:
$ sudo chmod 0600 LOGFILE

Rationale:

Log files can contain valuable information regarding system configuration. If the system log files are not protected unauthorized users could change the logged data, eliminating their forensic value.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)


# List of log file paths to be inspected for correct permissions
# * Primarily inspect log file paths listed in /etc/rsyslog.conf
RSYSLOG_ETC_CONFIG="/etc/rsyslog.conf"
# * And also the log file paths listed after rsyslog's $IncludeConfig directive
#   (store the result into array for the case there's shell glob used as value of IncludeConfig)
RSYSLOG_INCLUDE_CONFIG=($(grep -e "\$IncludeConfig[[:space:]]\+[^[:space:];]\+" /etc/rsyslog.conf | cut -d ' ' -f 2))
# Declare an array to hold the final list of different log file paths
declare -a LOG_FILE_PATHS

# Browse each file selected above as containing paths of log files
# ('/etc/rsyslog.conf' and '/etc/rsyslog.d/*.conf' in the default configuration)
for LOG_FILE in "${RSYSLOG_ETC_CONFIG}" "${RSYSLOG_INCLUDE_CONFIG[@]}"
do
	# From each of these files extract just particular log file path(s), thus:
	# * Ignore lines starting with space (' '), comment ('#"), or variable syntax ('$') characters,
	# * Ignore empty lines,
	# * From the remaining valid rows select only fields constituting a log file path
	# Text file column is understood to represent a log file path if and only if all of the following are met:
	# * it contains at least one slash '/' character,
	# * it doesn't contain space (' '), colon (':'), and semicolon (';') characters
	# Search log file for path(s) only in case it exists!
	if [[ -f "${LOG_FILE}" ]]
	then
		MATCHED_ITEMS=$(sed -e "/^[[:space:]|#|$]/d ; s/[^\/]*[[:space:]]*\([^:;[:space:]]*\)/\1/g ; /^$/d" "${LOG_FILE}")
		# Since above sed command might return more than one item (delimited by newline), split the particular
		# matches entries into new array specific for this log file
		readarray -t ARRAY_FOR_LOG_FILE <<< "$MATCHED_ITEMS"
		# Concatenate the two arrays - previous content of $LOG_FILE_PATHS array with
		# items from newly created array for this log file
		LOG_FILE_PATHS=("${LOG_FILE_PATHS[@]}" "${ARRAY_FOR_LOG_FILE[@]}")
		# Delete the temporary array
		unset ARRAY_FOR_LOG_FILE
	fi
done

for LOG_FILE_PATH in "${LOG_FILE_PATHS[@]}"
do
	# Sanity check - if particular $LOG_FILE_PATH is empty string, skip it from further processing
	if [ -z "$LOG_FILE_PATH" ]
	then
		continue
	fi

	
	# Per https://access.redhat.com/solutions/66805 '/var/log/boot.log' log file needs special care => perform it
	# This has been fixed in RHEL7, the workaround is only necessary for RHEL6
	if [ "$LOG_FILE_PATH" == "/var/log/boot.log" ]
	then
		# Ensure permissions of /var/log/boot.log are configured to be updated in /etc/rc.local
		if ! /bin/grep -q "boot.log" "/etc/rc.local"
		then
			echo "/bin/chmod 600 /var/log/boot.log" >> /etc/rc.local
		fi
		# Ensure /etc/rc.d/rc.local has user-executable permission
		# (in order to be actually executed during boot)
		if [ "$(/usr/bin/stat -c %a /etc/rc.d/rc.local)" -ne 744 ]
		then
			/bin/chmod u+x /etc/rc.d/rc.local
		fi
	fi
	

	# Also for each log file check if its permissions differ from 600. If so, correct them
	if [ "$(/usr/bin/stat -c %a "$LOG_FILE_PATH")" -ne 600 ]
	then
		/bin/chmod 600 "$LOG_FILE_PATH"
	fi
done

System Audit Logs Must Be Owned By Root   [ref]rule

All audit logs must be owned by root user and group. By default, the path for audit log is

/var/log/audit/
. To properly set the owner of /var/log/audit, run the command:
$ sudo chown root /var/log/audit 
To properly set the owner of /var/log/audit/*, run the command:
$ sudo chown root /var/log/audit/* 

Rationale:

Unauthorized disclosure of audit records can reveal system and configuration data to attackers, thus compromising its confidentiality.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)


if LC_ALL=C grep -m 1 -q ^log_group /etc/audit/auditd.conf; then
  GROUP=$(awk -F "=" '/log_group/ {print $2}' /etc/audit/auditd.conf | tr -d ' ')
  if ! [ "${GROUP}" == 'root' ] ; then
    chown root.${GROUP} /var/log/audit
    chown root.${GROUP} /var/log/audit/audit.log*
  else
    chown root.root /var/log/audit
    chown root.root /var/log/audit/audit.log*
  fi
else
  chown root.root /var/log/audit
  chown root.root /var/log/audit/audit.log*
fi

10.5.2   [ref]group

Protect audit trail files from

contains 1 rule

Make the auditd Configuration Immutable   [ref]rule

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d in order to make the auditd configuration immutable:

-e 2
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file in order to make the auditd configuration immutable:
-e 2
With this setting, a reboot will be required to change any audit rules.

Rationale:

Making the audit configuration immutable prevents accidental as well as malicious modification of the audit rules, although it may be problematic if legitimate changes are needed during system operation

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)


# Traverse all of:
#
# /etc/audit/audit.rules,			(for auditctl case)
# /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules			(for augenrules case)
#
# files to check if '-e .*' setting is present in that '*.rules' file already.
# If found, delete such occurrence since auditctl(8) manual page instructs the
# '-e 2' rule should be placed as the last rule in the configuration
find /etc/audit /etc/audit/rules.d -maxdepth 1 -type f -name *.rules -exec sed -i '/-e[[:space:]]\+.*/d' {} ';'

# Append '-e 2' requirement at the end of both:
# * /etc/audit/audit.rules file 		(for auditctl case)
# * /etc/audit/rules.d/immutable.rules		(for augenrules case)

for AUDIT_FILE in "/etc/audit/audit.rules" "/etc/audit/rules.d/immutable.rules"
do
	echo '' >> $AUDIT_FILE
	echo '# Set the audit.rules configuration immutable per security requirements' >> $AUDIT_FILE
	echo '# Reboot is required to change audit rules once this setting is applied' >> $AUDIT_FILE
	echo '-e 2' >> $AUDIT_FILE
done

10.5.3   [ref]group

Promptly back up audit trail files

contains 1 rule

Configure auditd to use audispd's syslog plugin   [ref]rule

To configure the auditd service to use the syslog plug-in of the audispd audit event multiplexor, set the active line in /etc/audisp/plugins.d/syslog.conf to yes. Restart the auditd service:

$ sudo service auditd restart

Rationale:

The auditd service does not include the ability to send audit records to a centralized server for management directly. It does, however, include a plug-in for audit event multiplexor (audispd) to pass audit records to the local syslog server

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)


var_syslog_active="yes"

AUDISP_SYSLOGCONFIG=/etc/audisp/plugins.d/syslog.conf
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="CCE-${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append $AUDISP_SYSLOGCONFIG '^active' "$var_syslog_active" "CCE-26933-2"

10.5.4   [ref]group

Write logs for external-facing

10.5.5   [ref]group

Use file-integrity monitoring or

contains 15 rules

Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - fchown   [ref]rule

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod

Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.

Severity:  unknown

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S fchown.*"
	GROUP="perm_mod"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S fchown -F auid>=500 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
	key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)' '|' "$full_rule" : '.*-F[[:space:]]key=\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
	# Check if particular audit rule is already defined
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
	done
	# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
	# * follow the rule pattern, and
	# * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
	# * are current syscall group specific
	IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS

	# Process rules found case-by-case
	for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
	do
		# Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
		if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
		then
			# If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
			rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
			# Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
			# of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
			if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
			then
				# Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
				# subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
				# Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
			else
				# Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
				# for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
				# group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
				# since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
				# Therefore:
				# * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
				# * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
				# keep those not belonging to this syscall group
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
				# * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
				# if the same rule not already present
				#
				# 1) Delete the original rule
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				# 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
				# Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
				IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
				# Reset IFS back to default
				unset IFS
				# Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
				new_syscalls_for_rule=''
				# Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
				for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
				do
					# Skip empty $syscall_arg values
					if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
					then
						continue
					fi
					# If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
					# (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
					if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
					then
						new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
					fi
				done
				# Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
				updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
				# Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
				updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
				# 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
				#    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
				if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
				then
					echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
				fi
			fi
		else
			# $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
			# architecture & key => don't insert it second time
			append_expected_rule=1
		fi
	done

	# We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
	# Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
	# Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
	if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
	then
		echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
	fi
done

return $retval

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict

#
# What architecture are we on?
#
- name: Set architecture for audit fchown tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: "b{{ ansible_architecture | regex_replace('.*(\\d\\d$)','\\1') }}"

#
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/rules.d
#
- name: Search /etc/audit/rules.d for other DAC audit rules
  find:
    paths: "/etc/audit/rules.d"
    recurse: no
    contains: "-F key=perm_mod$"
    patterns: "*.rules"
  register: find_fchown

- name: If existing DAC ruleset not found, use /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules
  when: find_fchown.matched == 0

- name: Use matched file as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - "{{ find_fchown.files | map(attribute='path') | list | first }}"
  when: find_fchown.matched > 0

- name: Inserts/replaces the fchown rule in rules.d when on x86
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    create: yes
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchown
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-27177-5
    - NIST-800-53-AC-3(10)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000188

- name: Inserts/replaces the fchown rule in rules.d when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    create: yes
  when: audit_arch == 'b64'
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchown
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-27177-5
    - NIST-800-53-AC-3(10)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000188
#   
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules
#
- name: Inserts/replaces the fchown rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules when on x86
  lineinfile:
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchown
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-27177-5
    - NIST-800-53-AC-3(10)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000188

- name: Inserts/replaces the fchown rule in audit.rules when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: yes
  when: audit_arch == 'b64'
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchown
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-27177-5
    - NIST-800-53-AC-3(10)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000188

Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - setxattr   [ref]rule

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S setxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S setxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S setxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S setxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod

Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.

Severity:  unknown

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S setxattr.*"
	GROUP="perm_mod"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S setxattr -F auid>=500 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
	key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)' '|' "$full_rule" : '.*-F[[:space:]]key=\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
	# Check if particular audit rule is already defined
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
	done
	# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
	# * follow the rule pattern, and
	# * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
	# * are current syscall group specific
	IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS

	# Process rules found case-by-case
	for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
	do
		# Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
		if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
		then
			# If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
			rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
			# Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
			# of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
			if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
			then
				# Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
				# subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
				# Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
			else
				# Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
				# for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
				# group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
				# since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
				# Therefore:
				# * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
				# * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
				# keep those not belonging to this syscall group
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
				# * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
				# if the same rule not already present
				#
				# 1) Delete the original rule
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				# 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
				# Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
				IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
				# Reset IFS back to default
				unset IFS
				# Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
				new_syscalls_for_rule=''
				# Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
				for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
				do
					# Skip empty $syscall_arg values
					if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
					then
						continue
					fi
					# If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
					# (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
					if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
					then
						new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
					fi
				done
				# Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
				updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
				# Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
				updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
				# 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
				#    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
				if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
				then
					echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
				fi
			fi
		else
			# $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
			# architecture & key => don't insert it second time
			append_expected_rule=1
		fi
	done

	# We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
	# Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
	# Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
	if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
	then
		echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
	fi
done

return $retval

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict

#
# What architecture are we on?
#
- name: Set architecture for audit setxattr tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: "b{{ ansible_architecture | regex_replace('.*(\\d\\d$)','\\1') }}"

#
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/rules.d
#
- name: Search /etc/audit/rules.d for other DAC audit rules
  find:
    paths: "/etc/audit/rules.d"
    recurse: no
    contains: "-F key=perm_mod$"
    patterns: "*.rules"
  register: find_setxattr

- name: If existing DAC ruleset not found, use /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules
  when: find_setxattr.matched == 0

- name: Use matched file as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - "{{ find_setxattr.files | map(attribute='path') | list | first }}"
  when: find_setxattr.matched > 0

- name: Inserts/replaces the setxattr rule in rules.d when on x86
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S setxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    create: yes
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_setxattr
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-27185-8
    - NIST-800-53-AC-3(10)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000196

- name: Inserts/replaces the setxattr rule in rules.d when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S setxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    create: yes
  when: audit_arch == 'b64'
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_setxattr
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-27185-8
    - NIST-800-53-AC-3(10)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000196
#   
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules
#
- name: Inserts/replaces the setxattr rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules when on x86
  lineinfile:
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S setxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_setxattr
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-27185-8
    - NIST-800-53-AC-3(10)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000196

- name: Inserts/replaces the setxattr rule in audit.rules when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S setxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: yes
  when: audit_arch == 'b64'
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_setxattr
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-27185-8
    - NIST-800-53-AC-3(10)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000196

Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - chown   [ref]rule

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod

Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.

Severity:  unknown

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S chown.*"
	GROUP="perm_mod"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S chown -F auid>=500 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
	key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)' '|' "$full_rule" : '.*-F[[:space:]]key=\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
	# Check if particular audit rule is already defined
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
	done
	# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
	# * follow the rule pattern, and
	# * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
	# * are current syscall group specific
	IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS

	# Process rules found case-by-case
	for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
	do
		# Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
		if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
		then
			# If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
			rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
			# Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
			# of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
			if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
			then
				# Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
				# subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
				# Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
			else
				# Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
				# for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
				# group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
				# since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
				# Therefore:
				# * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
				# * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
				# keep those not belonging to this syscall group
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
				# * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
				# if the same rule not already present
				#
				# 1) Delete the original rule
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				# 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
				# Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
				IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
				# Reset IFS back to default
				unset IFS
				# Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
				new_syscalls_for_rule=''
				# Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
				for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
				do
					# Skip empty $syscall_arg values
					if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
					then
						continue
					fi
					# If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
					# (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
					if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
					then
						new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
					fi
				done
				# Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
				updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
				# Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
				updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
				# 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
				#    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
				if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
				then
					echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
				fi
			fi
		else
			# $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
			# architecture & key => don't insert it second time
			append_expected_rule=1
		fi
	done

	# We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
	# Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
	# Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
	if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
	then
		echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
	fi
done

return $retval

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict

#
# What architecture are we on?
#
- name: Set architecture for audit chown tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: "b{{ ansible_architecture | regex_replace('.*(\\d\\d$)','\\1') }}"

#
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/rules.d
#
- name: Search /etc/audit/rules.d for other DAC audit rules
  find:
    paths: "/etc/audit/rules.d"
    recurse: no
    contains: "-F key=perm_mod$"
    patterns: "*.rules"
  register: find_chown

- name: If existing DAC ruleset not found, use /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules
  when: find_chown.matched == 0

- name: Use matched file as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - "{{ find_chown.files | map(attribute='path') | list | first }}"
  when: find_chown.matched > 0

- name: Inserts/replaces the chown rule in rules.d when on x86
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    create: yes
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_chown
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-27173-4
    - NIST-800-53-AC-3(10)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000185

- name: Inserts/replaces the chown rule in rules.d when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    create: yes
  when: audit_arch == 'b64'
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_chown
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-27173-4
    - NIST-800-53-AC-3(10)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000185
#   
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules
#
- name: Inserts/replaces the chown rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules when on x86
  lineinfile:
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_chown
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-27173-4
    - NIST-800-53-AC-3(10)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000185

- name: Inserts/replaces the chown rule in audit.rules when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: yes
  when: audit_arch == 'b64'
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_chown
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-27173-4
    - NIST-800-53-AC-3(10)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000185

Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - removexattr   [ref]rule

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root.

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S removexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod


If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S removexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod


If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S removexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod


If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S removexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod

Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S removexattr.*"
	GROUP="perm_mod"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S removexattr -F auid>=500 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
	key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)' '|' "$full_rule" : '.*-F[[:space:]]key=\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
	# Check if particular audit rule is already defined
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
	done
	# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
	# * follow the rule pattern, and
	# * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
	# * are current syscall group specific
	IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS

	# Process rules found case-by-case
	for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
	do
		# Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
		if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
		then
			# If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
			rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
			# Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
			# of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
			if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
			then
				# Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
				# subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
				# Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
			else
				# Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
				# for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
				# group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
				# since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
				# Therefore:
				# * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
				# * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
				# keep those not belonging to this syscall group
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
				# * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
				# if the same rule not already present
				#
				# 1) Delete the original rule
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				# 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
				# Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
				IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
				# Reset IFS back to default
				unset IFS
				# Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
				new_syscalls_for_rule=''
				# Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
				for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
				do
					# Skip empty $syscall_arg values
					if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
					then
						continue
					fi
					# If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
					# (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
					if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
					then
						new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
					fi
				done
				# Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
				updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
				# Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
				updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
				# 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
				#    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
				if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
				then
					echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
				fi
			fi
		else
			# $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
			# architecture & key => don't insert it second time
			append_expected_rule=1
		fi
	done

	# We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
	# Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
	# Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
	if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
	then
		echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
	fi
done

return $retval

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict

#
# What architecture are we on?
#
- name: Set architecture for audit removexattr tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: "b{{ ansible_architecture | regex_replace('.*(\\d\\d$)','\\1') }}"

#
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/rules.d
#
- name: Search /etc/audit/rules.d for other DAC audit rules
  find:
    paths: "/etc/audit/rules.d"
    recurse: no
    contains: "-F key=perm_mod$"
    patterns: "*.rules"
  register: find_removexattr

- name: If existing DAC ruleset not found, use /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules
  when: find_removexattr.matched == 0

- name: Use matched file as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - "{{ find_removexattr.files | map(attribute='path') | list | first }}"
  when: find_removexattr.matched > 0

- name: Inserts/replaces the removexattr rule in rules.d when on x86
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S removexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    create: yes
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_removexattr
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-27184-1
    - NIST-800-53-AC-3(10)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000195

- name: Inserts/replaces the removexattr rule in rules.d when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S removexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    create: yes
  when: audit_arch == 'b64'
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_removexattr
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-27184-1
    - NIST-800-53-AC-3(10)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000195
#   
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules
#
- name: Inserts/replaces the removexattr rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules when on x86
  lineinfile:
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S removexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_removexattr
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-27184-1
    - NIST-800-53-AC-3(10)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000195

- name: Inserts/replaces the removexattr rule in audit.rules when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S removexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: yes
  when: audit_arch == 'b64'
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_removexattr
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-27184-1
    - NIST-800-53-AC-3(10)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000195

Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - fchownat   [ref]rule

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchownat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchownat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchownat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchownat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod

Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.

Severity:  unknown

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S fchownat.*"
	GROUP="perm_mod"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S fchownat -F auid>=500 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
	key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)' '|' "$full_rule" : '.*-F[[:space:]]key=\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
	# Check if particular audit rule is already defined
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
	done
	# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
	# * follow the rule pattern, and
	# * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
	# * are current syscall group specific
	IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS

	# Process rules found case-by-case
	for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
	do
		# Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
		if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
		then
			# If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
			rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
			# Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
			# of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
			if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
			then
				# Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
				# subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
				# Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
			else
				# Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
				# for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
				# group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
				# since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
				# Therefore:
				# * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
				# * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
				# keep those not belonging to this syscall group
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
				# * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
				# if the same rule not already present
				#
				# 1) Delete the original rule
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				# 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
				# Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
				IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
				# Reset IFS back to default
				unset IFS
				# Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
				new_syscalls_for_rule=''
				# Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
				for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
				do
					# Skip empty $syscall_arg values
					if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
					then
						continue
					fi
					# If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
					# (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
					if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
					then
						new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
					fi
				done
				# Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
				updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
				# Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
				updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
				# 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
				#    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
				if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
				then
					echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
				fi
			fi
		else
			# $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
			# architecture & key => don't insert it second time
			append_expected_rule=1
		fi
	done

	# We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
	# Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
	# Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
	if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
	then
		echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
	fi
done

return $retval

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict

#
# What architecture are we on?
#
- name: Set architecture for audit fchownat tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: "b{{ ansible_architecture | regex_replace('.*(\\d\\d$)','\\1') }}"

#
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/rules.d
#
- name: Search /etc/audit/rules.d for other DAC audit rules
  find:
    paths: "/etc/audit/rules.d"
    recurse: no
    contains: "-F key=perm_mod$"
    patterns: "*.rules"
  register: find_fchownat

- name: If existing DAC ruleset not found, use /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules
  when: find_fchownat.matched == 0

- name: Use matched file as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - "{{ find_fchownat.files | map(attribute='path') | list | first }}"
  when: find_fchownat.matched > 0

- name: Inserts/replaces the fchownat rule in rules.d when on x86
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchownat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    create: yes
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchownat
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-27178-3
    - NIST-800-53-AC-3(10)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000189

- name: Inserts/replaces the fchownat rule in rules.d when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchownat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    create: yes
  when: audit_arch == 'b64'
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchownat
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-27178-3
    - NIST-800-53-AC-3(10)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000189
#   
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules
#
- name: Inserts/replaces the fchownat rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules when on x86
  lineinfile:
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchownat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchownat
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-27178-3
    - NIST-800-53-AC-3(10)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000189

- name: Inserts/replaces the fchownat rule in audit.rules when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchownat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: yes
  when: audit_arch == 'b64'
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchownat
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - CCE-27178-3
    - NIST-800-53-AC-3(10)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
    - DISA-STIG-RHEL-06-000189

Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - chmod   [ref]rule

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod

Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.

Severity:  unknown

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S chmod.*"
	GROUP="perm_mod"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S chmod -F auid>=500 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extrac