Guide to the Secure Configuration of Oracle Linux 7

with profile PCI-DSS v3 Control Baseline Draft for Oracle Linux 7
Ensures PCI-DSS v3 related security configuration settings are applied.
This guide presents a catalog of security-relevant configuration settings for Oracle Linux 7. It is a rendering of content structured in the eXtensible Configuration Checklist Description Format (XCCDF) in order to support security automation. The SCAP content is is available in the scap-security-guide package which is developed at https://www.open-scap.org/security-policies/scap-security-guide.

Providing system administrators with such guidance informs them how to securely configure systems under their control in a variety of network roles. Policy makers and baseline creators can use this catalog of settings, with its associated references to higher-level security control catalogs, in order to assist them in security baseline creation. This guide is a catalog, not a checklist, and satisfaction of every item is not likely to be possible or sensible in many operational scenarios. However, the XCCDF format enables granular selection and adjustment of settings, and their association with OVAL and OCIL content provides an automated checking capability. Transformations of this document, and its associated automated checking content, are capable of providing baselines that meet a diverse set of policy objectives. Some example XCCDF Profiles, which are selections of items that form checklists and can be used as baselines, are available with this guide. They can be processed, in an automated fashion, with tools that support the Security Content Automation Protocol (SCAP). The DISA STIG, which provides required settings for US Department of Defense systems, is one example of a baseline created from this guidance.
Do not attempt to implement any of the settings in this guide without first testing them in a non-operational environment. The creators of this guidance assume no responsibility whatsoever for its use by other parties, and makes no guarantees, expressed or implied, about its quality, reliability, or any other characteristic.
Profile TitlePCI-DSS v3 Control Baseline Draft for Oracle Linux 7
Profile IDxccdf_org.ssgproject.content_profile_pci-dss

Revision History

Current version: 0.1.41

  • draft (as of 2018-10-09)

Platforms

  • cpe:/o:oracle:linux:7

Table of Contents

  1. System Settings
    1. Installing and Maintaining Software
    2. Configure Syslog
    3. Network Configuration and Firewalls
    4. Set Boot Loader Password
    5. Account and Access Control
    6. System Accounting with auditd
    7. File Permissions and Masks

Checklist

contains 64 rules

System Settings   [ref]group

Contains rules that check correct system settings.

contains 64 rules

Installing and Maintaining Software   [ref]group

The following sections contain information on security-relevant choices during the initial operating system installation process and the setup of software updates.

contains 9 rules

SAP Specific Requirement   [ref]group

SAP (Systems, Applications and Products in Data Processing) is enterprise software to manage business operations and customer relations. The following section contains SAP specific requirement that is not part of standard or common OS setting.

System and Software Integrity   [ref]group

System and software integrity can be gained by installing antivirus, increasing system encryption strength with FIPS, verifying installed software, enabling SELinux, installing an Intrusion Prevention System, etc. However, installing or enabling integrity checking tools cannot prevent intrusions, but they can detect that an intrusion may have occurred. Requirements for integrity checking may be highly dependent on the environment in which the system will be used. Snapshot-based approaches such as AIDE may induce considerable overhead in the presence of frequent software updates.

contains 5 rules

Software Integrity Checking   [ref]group

Both the AIDE (Advanced Intrusion Detection Environment) software and the RPM package management system provide mechanisms for verifying the integrity of installed software. AIDE uses snapshots of file metadata (such as hashes) and compares these to current system files in order to detect changes.

The RPM package management system can conduct integrity checks by comparing information in its metadata database with files installed on the system.

contains 5 rules

Verify Integrity with RPM   [ref]group

The RPM package management system includes the ability to verify the integrity of installed packages by comparing the installed files with information about the files taken from the package metadata stored in the RPM database. Although an attacker could corrupt the RPM database (analogous to attacking the AIDE database as described above), this check can still reveal modification of important files. To list which files on the system differ from what is expected by the RPM database:

$ rpm -qVa
See the man page for rpm to see a complete explanation of each column.

contains 2 rules

Verify and Correct File Permissions with RPM   [ref]rule

The RPM package management system can check file access permissions of installed software packages, including many that are important to system security. Verify that the file permissions of system files and commands match vendor values. Check the file permissions with the following command:

$ sudo rpm -Va | grep '^.M'
Output indicates files that do not match vendor defaults. After locating a file with incorrect permissions, run the following command to determine which package owns it:
$ rpm -qf FILENAME

Next, run the following command to reset its permissions to the correct values:
$ sudo rpm --quiet --setperms PACKAGENAME

Warning:  Note: Due to a bug in the gdm package, the RPM verify command may continue to fail even after file permissions have been correctly set on /var/log/gdm. This is being tracked in Red Hat Bugzilla #1277603.
Rationale:

Permissions on system binaries and configuration files that are too generous could allow an unauthorized user to gain privileges that they should not have. The permissions set by the vendor should be maintained. Any deviations from this baseline should be investigated.

Severity:  high

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:high
Disruption:medium
Strategy:restrict

# Declare array to hold list of RPM packages we need to correct permissions for
declare -a SETPERMS_RPM_LIST

# Create a list of files on the system having permissions different from what
# is expected by the RPM database
FILES_WITH_INCORRECT_PERMS=($(rpm -Va --nofiledigest | grep '^.M' | awk '{print $NF}'))

# For each file path from that list:
# * Determine the RPM package the file path is shipped by,
# * Include it into SETPERMS_RPM_LIST array

for FILE_PATH in "${FILES_WITH_INCORRECT_PERMS[@]}"
do
	RPM_PACKAGE=$(rpm -qf "$FILE_PATH")
	SETPERMS_RPM_LIST=("${SETPERMS_RPM_LIST[@]}" "$RPM_PACKAGE")
done

# Remove duplicate mention of same RPM in $SETPERMS_RPM_LIST (if any)
SETPERMS_RPM_LIST=( $(echo "${SETPERMS_RPM_LIST[@]}" | tr ' ' '\n' | sort -u | tr '\n' ' ') )

# For each of the RPM packages left in the list -- reset its permissions to the
# correct values
for RPM_PACKAGE in "${SETPERMS_RPM_LIST[@]}"
do
	rpm --quiet --setperms "${RPM_PACKAGE}"
done

Verify File Hashes with RPM   [ref]rule

Without cryptographic integrity protections, system executables and files can be altered by unauthorized users without detection. The RPM package management system can check the hashes of installed software packages, including many that are important to system security. To verify that the cryptographic hash of system files and commands match vendor values, run the following command to list which files on the system have hashes that differ from what is expected by the RPM database:

$ rpm -Va | grep '^..5'
A "c" in the second column indicates that a file is a configuration file, which may appropriately be expected to change. If the file was not expected to change, investigate the cause of the change using audit logs or other means. The package can then be reinstalled to restore the file. Run the following command to determine which package owns the file:
$ rpm -qf FILENAME
The package can be reinstalled from a yum repository using the command:
$ sudo yum reinstall PACKAGENAME
Alternatively, the package can be reinstalled from trusted media using the command:
$ sudo rpm -Uvh PACKAGENAME

Rationale:

The hashes of important files like system executables should match the information given by the RPM database. Executables with erroneous hashes could be a sign of nefarious activity on the system.

Severity:  high

Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:high
Disruption:medium
- name: "Set fact: Package manager reinstall command (dnf)"
  set_fact:
    package_manager_reinstall_cmd: dnf reinstall -y
  when: ansible_distribution == "Fedora"
  tags:
    - rpm_verify_hashes
    - high_severity
    - unknown_strategy
    - high_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(3)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7(1)
    - NIST-800-171-3.3.8
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
    - CJIS-5.10.4.1

- name: "Set fact: Package manager reinstall command (yum)"
  set_fact:
    package_manager_reinstall_cmd: yum reinstall -y
  when: ansible_distribution == "RedHat" or ansible_distribution == "OracleLinux"
  tags:
    - rpm_verify_hashes
    - high_severity
    - unknown_strategy
    - high_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(3)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7(1)
    - NIST-800-171-3.3.8
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
    - CJIS-5.10.4.1

- name: "Read files with incorrect hash"
  shell: "rpm -Va | grep -E '^..5.* /(bin|sbin|lib|lib64|usr)/' | awk '{print $NF}'"
  register: files_with_incorrect_hash
  changed_when: False
  when: package_manager_reinstall_cmd is defined
  check_mode: no
  tags:
    - rpm_verify_hashes
    - high_severity
    - unknown_strategy
    - high_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(3)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7(1)
    - NIST-800-171-3.3.8
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
    - CJIS-5.10.4.1

- name: "Reinstall packages of files with incorrect hash"
  shell: "{{package_manager_reinstall_cmd}} $(rpm -qf '{{item}}')"
  with_items: "{{ files_with_incorrect_hash.stdout_lines }}"
  when: package_manager_reinstall_cmd is defined and (files_with_incorrect_hash.stdout_lines | length > 0)
  tags:
    - rpm_verify_hashes
    - high_severity
    - unknown_strategy
    - high_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(3)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7(1)
    - NIST-800-171-3.3.8
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
    - CJIS-5.10.4.1

Verify Integrity with AIDE   [ref]group

AIDE conducts integrity checks by comparing information about files with previously-gathered information. Ideally, the AIDE database is created immediately after initial system configuration, and then again after any software update. AIDE is highly configurable, with further configuration information located in /usr/share/doc/aide-VERSION.

contains 3 rules

Install AIDE   [ref]rule

The aide package can be installed with the following command:

$ sudo yum install aide

Rationale:

The AIDE package must be installed if it is to be available for integrity checking.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
# Function to install packages on RHEL, Fedora, Debian, and possibly other systems.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     package_install aide
#
function package_install {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local package="$1"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "1" ]
then
  echo "Usage: package_install 'package_name'"
  echo "Aborting."
  exit 1
fi

if which dnf ; then
  if ! rpm -q --quiet "$package"; then
    dnf install -y "$package"
  fi
elif which yum ; then
  if ! rpm -q --quiet "$package"; then
    yum install -y "$package"
  fi
elif which apt-get ; then
  apt-get install -y "$package"
else
  echo "Failed to detect available packaging system, tried dnf, yum and apt-get!"
  echo "Aborting."
  exit 1
fi

}

package_install aide
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
- name: Ensure aide is installed
  package:
    name: aide
    state: present
  tags:
    - package_aide_installed
    - medium_severity
    - enable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-CM-3(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-3(e)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(3)
    - NIST-800-53-SC-28
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
    - CJIS-5.10.1.3
Remediation Puppet snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
include install_aide

class install_aide {
  package { 'aide':
    ensure => 'installed',
  }
}
Remediation Anaconda snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable

package --add=aide

Configure Periodic Execution of AIDE   [ref]rule

At a minimum, AIDE should be configured to run a weekly scan. At most, AIDE should be run daily. To implement a daily execution of AIDE at 4:05am using cron, add the following line to /etc/crontab:

05 4 * * * root /usr/sbin/aide --check
To implement a weekly execution of AIDE at 4:05am using cron, add the following line to /etc/crontab:
05 4 * * 0 root /usr/sbin/aide --check
AIDE can be executed periodically through other means; this is merely one example. The usage of cron's special time codes, such as @daily and @weekly is acceptable.

Rationale:

By default, AIDE does not install itself for periodic execution. Periodically running AIDE is necessary to reveal unexpected changes in installed files.

Unauthorized changes to the baseline configuration could make the system vulnerable to various attacks or allow unauthorized access to the operating system. Changes to operating system configurations can have unintended side effects, some of which may be relevant to security.

Detecting such changes and providing an automated response can help avoid unintended, negative consequences that could ultimately affect the security state of the operating system. The operating system's Information Management Officer (IMO)/Information System Security Officer (ISSO) and System Administrators (SAs) must be notified via email and/or monitoring system trap when there is an unauthorized modification of a configuration item.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

# Function to install packages on RHEL, Fedora, Debian, and possibly other systems.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     package_install aide
#
function package_install {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local package="$1"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "1" ]
then
  echo "Usage: package_install 'package_name'"
  echo "Aborting."
  exit 1
fi

if which dnf ; then
  if ! rpm -q --quiet "$package"; then
    dnf install -y "$package"
  fi
elif which yum ; then
  if ! rpm -q --quiet "$package"; then
    yum install -y "$package"
  fi
elif which apt-get ; then
  apt-get install -y "$package"
else
  echo "Failed to detect available packaging system, tried dnf, yum and apt-get!"
  echo "Aborting."
  exit 1
fi

}

package_install aide

if ! grep -q "/usr/sbin/aide --check" /etc/crontab ; then
    echo "05 4 * * * root /usr/sbin/aide --check" >> /etc/crontab
fi
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: "Ensure AIDE is installed"
  package:
    name: "{{item}}"
    state: present
  with_items:
    - aide
  tags:
    - aide_periodic_cron_checking
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-CM-3(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-3(e)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-3(5)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(3)
    - NIST-800-53-SC-28
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
    - CJIS-5.10.1.3

- name: "Configure Periodic Execution of AIDE"
  cron:
    name: "run AIDE check"
    minute: 05
    hour: 04
    weekday: 0
    user: root
    job: "/usr/sbin/aide --check"
  tags:
    - aide_periodic_cron_checking
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-CM-3(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-3(e)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-3(5)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(3)
    - NIST-800-53-SC-28
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
    - CJIS-5.10.1.3

Build and Test AIDE Database   [ref]rule

Run the following command to generate a new database:

$ sudo /usr/sbin/aide --init
By default, the database will be written to the file /var/lib/aide/aide.db.new.gz. Storing the database, the configuration file /etc/aide.conf, and the binary /usr/sbin/aide (or hashes of these files), in a secure location (such as on read-only media) provides additional assurance about their integrity. The newly-generated database can be installed as follows:
$ sudo cp /var/lib/aide/aide.db.new.gz /var/lib/aide/aide.db.gz
To initiate a manual check, run the following command:
$ sudo /usr/sbin/aide --check
If this check produces any unexpected output, investigate.

Rationale:

For AIDE to be effective, an initial database of "known-good" information about files must be captured and it should be able to be verified against the installed files.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

# Function to install packages on RHEL, Fedora, Debian, and possibly other systems.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     package_install aide
#
function package_install {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local package="$1"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "1" ]
then
  echo "Usage: package_install 'package_name'"
  echo "Aborting."
  exit 1
fi

if which dnf ; then
  if ! rpm -q --quiet "$package"; then
    dnf install -y "$package"
  fi
elif which yum ; then
  if ! rpm -q --quiet "$package"; then
    yum install -y "$package"
  fi
elif which apt-get ; then
  apt-get install -y "$package"
else
  echo "Failed to detect available packaging system, tried dnf, yum and apt-get!"
  echo "Aborting."
  exit 1
fi

}

package_install aide

/usr/sbin/aide --init
/bin/cp -p /var/lib/aide/aide.db.new.gz /var/lib/aide/aide.db.gz
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: "Ensure AIDE is installed"
  package:
    name: "{{item}}"
    state: present
  with_items:
    - aide
  tags:
    - aide_build_database
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-CM-3(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-3(e)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(3)
    - NIST-800-53-SC-28
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
    - CJIS-5.10.1.3

- name: "Build and Test AIDE Database"
  shell: /usr/sbin/aide --init
  tags:
    - aide_build_database
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-CM-3(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-3(e)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(3)
    - NIST-800-53-SC-28
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
    - CJIS-5.10.1.3

# mainly to allow ansible's check mode to work
- name: "Check whether the stock AIDE Database exists"
  stat:
    path: /var/lib/aide/aide.db.new.gz
  register: aide_database_stat
  tags:
    - aide_build_database
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-CM-3(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-3(e)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(3)
    - NIST-800-53-SC-28
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
    - CJIS-5.10.1.3

- name: "Stage AIDE Database"
  copy:
    src: /var/lib/aide/aide.db.new.gz
    dest: /var/lib/aide/aide.db.gz
    backup: yes
    remote_src: yes
  when: aide_database_stat.stat.exists is defined and aide_database_stat.stat.exists
  tags:
    - aide_build_database
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-CM-3(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-3(e)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(d)
    - NIST-800-53-CM-6(3)
    - NIST-800-53-SC-28
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
    - CJIS-5.10.1.3

Updating Software   [ref]group

The yum command line tool is used to install and update software packages. The system also provides a graphical software update tool in the System menu, in the Administration submenu, called Software Update.

Oracle Linux 7 systems contain an installed software catalog called the RPM database, which records metadata of installed packages. Consistently using yum or the graphical Software Update for all software installation allows for insight into the current inventory of installed software on the system.

contains 4 rules

Ensure Oracle Linux GPG Key Installed   [ref]rule

To ensure the system can cryptographically verify base software packages come from Oracle (and to connect to the Unbreakable Linux Network to receive them), the Oracle GPG key must properly be installed. To install the Oracle GPG key, run:

$ sudo uln_register
If the system is not connected to the Internet, then install the Oracle GPG key from trusted media such as the Oracle installation CD-ROM or DVD. Assuming the disc is mounted in /media/cdrom, use the following command as the root user to import it into the keyring:
$ sudo rpm --import /media/cdrom/RPM-GPG-KEY

Rationale:

Changes to software components can have significant effects on the overall security of the operating system. This requirement ensures the software has not been tampered with and that it has been provided by a trusted vendor. The Oracle GPG key is necessary to cryptographically verify packages are from Oracle.

Severity:  high

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

# OL fingerprints below retrieved from "Oracle Linux Unbreakable Linux Network User's Guide"
# https://docs.oracle.com/cd/E37670_01/E39381/html/ol_import_gpg.html
readonly OL_FINGERPRINT="4214 4123 FECF C55B 9086 313D 72F9 7B74 EC55 1F03"
# Location of the key we would like to import (once it's integrity verified)
readonly OL_RELEASE_KEY="/etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle"

RPM_GPG_DIR_PERMS=$(stat -c %a "$(dirname "$OL_RELEASE_KEY")")

# Verify /etc/pki/rpm-gpg directory permissions are safe
if [ "${RPM_GPG_DIR_PERMS}" -le "755" ]
then
  # If they are safe, try to obtain fingerprints from the key file
  # (to ensure there won't be e.g. CRC error)
  IFS=$'\n' GPG_OUT=($(gpg --with-fingerprint "${OL_RELEASE_KEY}"))
  GPG_RESULT=$?
  # No CRC error, safe to proceed
  if [ "${GPG_RESULT}" -eq "0" ]
  then
    for ITEM in "${GPG_OUT[@]}"
    do
      # Filter just hexadecimal fingerprints from gpg's output from
      # processing of a key file
      RESULT=$(echo ${ITEM} | sed -n "s/[[:space:]]*Key fingerprint = \(.*\)/\1/p" | tr -s '[:space:]')
      # If fingerprint matches Oracle Linux 6 and 7 key import the key
      if [[ ${RESULT} ]] && [[ ${RESULT} = "${OL_FINGERPRINT}" ]] 
      then
        rpm --import "${OL_RELEASE_KEY}"
      fi
    done
  fi
fi

Ensure gpgcheck Enabled For All yum Package Repositories   [ref]rule

To ensure signature checking is not disabled for any repos, remove any lines from files in /etc/yum.repos.d of the form:

gpgcheck=0

Rationale:

Verifying the authenticity of the software prior to installation validates the integrity of the patch or upgrade received from a vendor. This ensures the software has not been tampered with and that it has been provided by a trusted vendor. Self-signed certificates are disallowed by this requirement. Certificates used to verify the software must be from an approved Certificate Authority (CA).

Severity:  high

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

sed -i 's/gpgcheck=.*/gpgcheck=1/g' /etc/yum.repos.d/*
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
#
- name: Find All yum Repositories
  find:
    paths: "/etc/yum.repos.d/"
    patterns: "*.repo"
  register: yum_find

- name: Ensure gpgcheck Enabled For All yum Package Repositories
  with_items: "{{ yum_find.files }}"
  lineinfile:
    create: yes
    dest: "{{ item.path }}"
    regexp: '^gpgcheck'
    line: 'gpgcheck=1'
  tags:
    - ensure_gpgcheck_never_disabled
    - high_severity
    - unknown_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
    - NIST-800-53-SI-7
    - NIST-800-53-MA-1(b)
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
    - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
    - CJIS-5.10.4.1

Ensure Software Patches Installed   [ref]rule

If the system is joined to the ULN or a yum server, run the following command to install updates:

$ sudo yum update
If the system is not configured to use one of these sources, updates (in the form of RPM packages) can be manually downloaded from the ULN and installed using rpm.

NOTE: U.S. Defense systems are required to be patched within 30 days or sooner as local policy dictates.

Rationale:

Installing software updates is a fundamental mitigation against the exploitation of publicly-known vulnerabilities. If the most recent security patches and updates are not installed, unauthorized users may take advantage of weaknesses in the unpatched software. The lack of prompt attention to patching could result in a system compromise.

Severity:  high

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Reboot:true
Strategy:patch
yum -y update
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Reboot:true
Strategy:patch
- name: "Security patches are up to date"
  package:
    name: "*"
    state: "latest"
  tags:
    - security_patches_up_to_date
    - high_severity
    - patch_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - high_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-SI-2
    - NIST-800-53-SI-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-MA-1(b)
    - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
    - CJIS-5.10.4.1

Ensure gpgcheck Enabled In Main yum Configuration   [ref]rule

The gpgcheck option controls whether RPM packages' signatures are always checked prior to installation. To configure yum to check package signatures before installing them, ensure the following line appears in /etc/yum.conf in the [main] section:

gpgcheck=1

Rationale:

Changes to any software components can have significant effects on the overall security of the operating system. This requirement ensures the software has not been tampered with and that it has been provided by a trusted vendor.
Accordingly, patches, service packs, device drivers, or operating system components must be signed with a certificate recognized and approved by the organization.
Verifying the authenticity of the software prior to installation validates the integrity of the patch or upgrade received from a vendor. This ensures the software has not been tampered with and that it has been provided by a trusted vendor. Self-signed certificates are disallowed by this requirement. Certificates used to verify the software must be from an approved Certificate Authority (CA).

Severity:  high

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="CCE-${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append "/etc/yum.conf" '^gpgcheck' '1' ''

Configure Syslog   [ref]group

The syslog service has been the default Unix logging mechanism for many years. It has a number of downsides, including inconsistent log format, lack of authentication for received messages, and lack of authentication, encryption, or reliable transport for messages sent over a network. However, due to its long history, syslog is a de facto standard which is supported by almost all Unix applications.

In Oracle Linux 7, rsyslog has replaced ksyslogd as the syslog daemon of choice, and it includes some additional security features such as reliable, connection-oriented (i.e. TCP) transmission of logs, the option to log to database formats, and the encryption of log data en route to a central logging server. This section discusses how to configure rsyslog for best effect, and how to use tools provided with the system to maintain and monitor logs.

contains 3 rules

Ensure Proper Configuration of Log Files   [ref]group

The file /etc/rsyslog.conf controls where log message are written. These are controlled by lines called rules, which consist of a selector and an action. These rules are often customized depending on the role of the system, the requirements of the environment, and whatever may enable the administrator to most effectively make use of log data. The default rules in Oracle Linux 7 are:

*.info;mail.none;authpriv.none;cron.none                /var/log/messages
authpriv.*                                              /var/log/secure
mail.*                                                  -/var/log/maillog
cron.*                                                  /var/log/cron
*.emerg                                                 *
uucp,news.crit                                          /var/log/spooler
local7.*                                                /var/log/boot.log
See the man page rsyslog.conf(5) for more information. Note that the rsyslog daemon can be configured to use a timestamp format that some log processing programs may not understand. If this occurs, edit the file /etc/rsyslog.conf and add or edit the following line:
$ ActionFileDefaultTemplate RSYSLOG_TraditionalFileFormat

contains 3 rules

Ensure Log Files Are Owned By Appropriate User   [ref]rule

The owner of all log files written by rsyslog should be (N/A). These log files are determined by the second part of each Rule line in /etc/rsyslog.conf and typically all appear in /var/log. For each log file LOGFILE referenced in /etc/rsyslog.conf, run the following command to inspect the file's owner:

$ ls -l LOGFILE
If the owner is not (N/A), run the following command to correct this:
$ sudo chown (N/A) LOGFILE

Rationale:

The log files generated by rsyslog contain valuable information regarding system configuration, user authentication, and other such information. Log files should be protected from unauthorized access.

Severity:  medium

Ensure Log Files Are Owned By Appropriate Group   [ref]rule

The group-owner of all log files written by rsyslog should be (N/A). These log files are determined by the second part of each Rule line in /etc/rsyslog.conf and typically all appear in /var/log. For each log file LOGFILE referenced in /etc/rsyslog.conf, run the following command to inspect the file's group owner:

$ ls -l LOGFILE
If the owner is not (N/A), run the following command to correct this:
$ sudo chgrp (N/A) LOGFILE

Rationale:

The log files generated by rsyslog contain valuable information regarding system configuration, user authentication, and other such information. Log files should be protected from unauthorized access.

Severity:  medium

Ensure System Log Files Have Correct Permissions   [ref]rule

The file permissions for all log files written by rsyslog should be set to 600, or more restrictive. These log files are determined by the second part of each Rule line in /etc/rsyslog.conf and typically all appear in /var/log. For each log file LOGFILE referenced in /etc/rsyslog.conf, run the following command to inspect the file's permissions:

$ ls -l LOGFILE
If the permissions are not 600 or more restrictive, run the following command to correct this:
$ sudo chmod 0600 LOGFILE

Rationale:

Log files can contain valuable information regarding system configuration. If the system log files are not protected unauthorized users could change the logged data, eliminating their forensic value.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)


# List of log file paths to be inspected for correct permissions
# * Primarily inspect log file paths listed in /etc/rsyslog.conf
RSYSLOG_ETC_CONFIG="/etc/rsyslog.conf"
# * And also the log file paths listed after rsyslog's $IncludeConfig directive
#   (store the result into array for the case there's shell glob used as value of IncludeConfig)
RSYSLOG_INCLUDE_CONFIG=($(grep -e "\$IncludeConfig[[:space:]]\+[^[:space:];]\+" /etc/rsyslog.conf | cut -d ' ' -f 2))
# Declare an array to hold the final list of different log file paths
declare -a LOG_FILE_PATHS

# Browse each file selected above as containing paths of log files
# ('/etc/rsyslog.conf' and '/etc/rsyslog.d/*.conf' in the default configuration)
for LOG_FILE in "${RSYSLOG_ETC_CONFIG}" "${RSYSLOG_INCLUDE_CONFIG[@]}"
do
	# From each of these files extract just particular log file path(s), thus:
	# * Ignore lines starting with space (' '), comment ('#"), or variable syntax ('$') characters,
	# * Ignore empty lines,
	# * From the remaining valid rows select only fields constituting a log file path
	# Text file column is understood to represent a log file path if and only if all of the following are met:
	# * it contains at least one slash '/' character,
	# * it doesn't contain space (' '), colon (':'), and semicolon (';') characters
	# Search log file for path(s) only in case it exists!
	if [[ -f "${LOG_FILE}" ]]
	then
		MATCHED_ITEMS=$(sed -e "/^[[:space:]|#|$]/d ; s/[^\/]*[[:space:]]*\([^:;[:space:]]*\)/\1/g ; /^$/d" "${LOG_FILE}")
		# Since above sed command might return more than one item (delimited by newline), split the particular
		# matches entries into new array specific for this log file
		readarray -t ARRAY_FOR_LOG_FILE <<< "$MATCHED_ITEMS"
		# Concatenate the two arrays - previous content of $LOG_FILE_PATHS array with
		# items from newly created array for this log file
		LOG_FILE_PATHS=("${LOG_FILE_PATHS[@]}" "${ARRAY_FOR_LOG_FILE[@]}")
		# Delete the temporary array
		unset ARRAY_FOR_LOG_FILE
	fi
done

for LOG_FILE_PATH in "${LOG_FILE_PATHS[@]}"
do
	# Sanity check - if particular $LOG_FILE_PATH is empty string, skip it from further processing
	if [ -z "$LOG_FILE_PATH" ]
	then
		continue
	fi

	

	# Also for each log file check if its permissions differ from 600. If so, correct them
	if [ "$(/usr/bin/stat -c %a "$LOG_FILE_PATH")" -ne 600 ]
	then
		/bin/chmod 600 "$LOG_FILE_PATH"
	fi
done

Network Configuration and Firewalls   [ref]group

Most systems must be connected to a network of some sort, and this brings with it the substantial risk of network attack. This section discusses the security impact of decisions about networking which must be made when configuring a system.

This section also discusses firewalls, network access controls, and other network security frameworks, which allow system-level rules to be written that can limit an attackers' ability to connect to your system. These rules can specify that network traffic should be allowed or denied from certain IP addresses, hosts, and networks. The rules can also specify which of the system's network services are available to particular hosts or networks.

contains 1 rule

IPSec Support   [ref]group

Support for Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) is provided in Oracle Linux 7 with Libreswan.

contains 1 rule

Install libreswan Package   [ref]rule

The Libreswan package provides an implementation of IPsec and IKE, which permits the creation of secure tunnels over untrusted networks. The libreswan package can be installed with the following command:

$ sudo yum install libreswan

Rationale:

Providing the ability for remote users or systems to initiate a secure VPN connection protects information when it is transmitted over a wide area network.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
# Function to install packages on RHEL, Fedora, Debian, and possibly other systems.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     package_install aide
#
function package_install {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local package="$1"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "1" ]
then
  echo "Usage: package_install 'package_name'"
  echo "Aborting."
  exit 1
fi

if which dnf ; then
  if ! rpm -q --quiet "$package"; then
    dnf install -y "$package"
  fi
elif which yum ; then
  if ! rpm -q --quiet "$package"; then
    yum install -y "$package"
  fi
elif which apt-get ; then
  apt-get install -y "$package"
else
  echo "Failed to detect available packaging system, tried dnf, yum and apt-get!"
  echo "Aborting."
  exit 1
fi

}

package_install libreswan
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
- name: Ensure libreswan is installed
  package:
    name: libreswan
    state: present
  tags:
    - package_libreswan_installed
    - medium_severity
    - enable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17
    - NIST-800-53-MA-4
    - NIST-800-53-SC-9
    - PCI-DSS-Req-4.1
Remediation Puppet snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
include install_libreswan

class install_libreswan {
  package { 'libreswan':
    ensure => 'installed',
  }
}
Remediation Anaconda snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable

package --add=libreswan

Set Boot Loader Password   [ref]group

During the boot process, the boot loader is responsible for starting the execution of the kernel and passing options to it. The boot loader allows for the selection of different kernels - possibly on different partitions or media. The default Oracle Linux 7 boot loader for x86 systems is called GRUB2. Options it can pass to the kernel include single-user mode, which provides root access without any authentication, and the ability to disable SELinux. To prevent local users from modifying the boot parameters and endangering security, protect the boot loader configuration with a password and ensure its configuration file's permissions are set properly.

contains 2 rules

Verify /boot/grub2/grub.cfg User Ownership   [ref]rule

The file /boot/grub2/grub.cfg should be owned by the root user to prevent destruction or modification of the file. To properly set the owner of /boot/grub2/grub.cfg, run the command:

$ sudo chown root /boot/grub2/grub.cfg 

Rationale:

Only root should be able to modify important boot parameters.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure

chown 0 /boot/grub2/grub.cfg
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure
- name: Test for existence /boot/grub2/grub.cfg
  stat:
    path: /boot/grub2/grub.cfg
  register: file_exists

- name: Ensure owner 0 on /boot/grub2/grub.cfg
  file:
    path: /boot/grub2/grub.cfg
    owner: 0
  when: file_exists.stat.exists
  tags:
    - file_owner_grub2_cfg
    - medium_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6(7)
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.5
    - PCI-DSS-Req-7.1
    - CJIS-5.5.2.2

Verify /boot/grub2/grub.cfg Group Ownership   [ref]rule

The file /boot/grub2/grub.cfg should be group-owned by the root group to prevent destruction or modification of the file. To properly set the group owner of /boot/grub2/grub.cfg, run the command:

$ sudo chgrp root /boot/grub2/grub.cfg

Rationale:

The root group is a highly-privileged group. Furthermore, the group-owner of this file should not have any access privileges anyway.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure

chgrp 0 /boot/grub2/grub.cfg
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure
- name: Test for existence /boot/grub2/grub.cfg
  stat:
    path: /boot/grub2/grub.cfg
  register: file_exists

- name: Ensure group owner 0 on /boot/grub2/grub.cfg
  file:
    path: /boot/grub2/grub.cfg
    group: 0
  when: file_exists.stat.exists
  tags:
    - file_groupowner_grub2_cfg
    - medium_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6(7)
    - NIST-800-171-3.4.5
    - PCI-DSS-Req-7.1
    - CJIS-5.5.2.2

Account and Access Control   [ref]group

In traditional Unix security, if an attacker gains shell access to a certain login account, they can perform any action or access any file to which that account has access. Therefore, making it more difficult for unauthorized people to gain shell access to accounts, particularly to privileged accounts, is a necessary part of securing a system. This section introduces mechanisms for restricting access to accounts under Oracle Linux 7.

contains 5 rules

Protect Accounts by Configuring PAM   [ref]group

PAM, or Pluggable Authentication Modules, is a system which implements modular authentication for Linux programs. PAM provides a flexible and configurable architecture for authentication, and it should be configured to minimize exposure to unnecessary risk. This section contains guidance on how to accomplish that.

PAM is implemented as a set of shared objects which are loaded and invoked whenever an application wishes to authenticate a user. Typically, the application must be running as root in order to take advantage of PAM, because PAM's modules often need to be able to access sensitive stores of account information, such as /etc/shadow. Traditional privileged network listeners (e.g. sshd) or SUID programs (e.g. sudo) already meet this requirement. An SUID root application, userhelper, is provided so that programs which are not SUID or privileged themselves can still take advantage of PAM.

PAM looks in the directory /etc/pam.d for application-specific configuration information. For instance, if the program login attempts to authenticate a user, then PAM's libraries follow the instructions in the file /etc/pam.d/login to determine what actions should be taken.

One very important file in /etc/pam.d is /etc/pam.d/system-auth. This file, which is included by many other PAM configuration files, defines 'default' system authentication measures. Modifying this file is a good way to make far-reaching authentication changes, for instance when implementing a centralized authentication service.

Warning:  Be careful when making changes to PAM's configuration files. The syntax for these files is complex, and modifications can have unexpected consequences. The default configurations shipped with applications should be sufficient for most users.
Warning:  Running authconfig or system-config-authentication will re-write the PAM configuration files, destroying any manually made changes and replacing them with a series of system defaults. One reference to the configuration file syntax can be found at http://www.linux-pam.org/Linux-PAM-html/sag-configuration-file.html.
contains 3 rules

Set Password Hashing Algorithm   [ref]group

The system's default algorithm for storing password hashes in /etc/shadow is SHA-512. This can be configured in several locations.

contains 3 rules

Set Password Hashing Algorithm in /etc/login.defs   [ref]rule

In /etc/login.defs, add or correct the following line to ensure the system will use SHA-512 as the hashing algorithm:

ENCRYPT_METHOD SHA512

Rationale:

Passwords need to be protected at all times, and encryption is the standard method for protecting passwords. If passwords are not encrypted, they can be plainly read (i.e., clear text) and easily compromised. Passwords that are encrypted with a weak algorithm are no more protected than if they are kept in plain text.

Using a stronger hashing algorithm makes password cracking attacks more difficult.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

if grep --silent ^ENCRYPT_METHOD /etc/login.defs ; then
	sed -i 's/^ENCRYPT_METHOD.*/ENCRYPT_METHOD SHA512/g' /etc/login.defs
else
	echo "" >> /etc/login.defs
	echo "ENCRYPT_METHOD SHA512" >> /etc/login.defs
fi
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: Set Password Hashing Algorithm in /etc/login.defs
  lineinfile:
      dest: /etc/login.defs
      regexp: ^#?ENCRYPT_METHOD
      line: ENCRYPT_METHOD SHA512
      state: present
  tags:
    - set_password_hashing_algorithm_logindefs
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(b)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-7
    - NIST-800-171-3.13.11
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.1
    - CJIS-5.6.2.2

Set Password Hashing Algorithm in /etc/libuser.conf   [ref]rule

In /etc/libuser.conf, add or correct the following line in its [defaults] section to ensure the system will use the SHA-512 algorithm for password hashing:

crypt_style = sha512

Rationale:

Passwords need to be protected at all times, and encryption is the standard method for protecting passwords. If passwords are not encrypted, they can be plainly read (i.e., clear text) and easily compromised. Passwords that are encrypted with a weak algorithm are no more protected than if they are kepy in plain text.

This setting ensures user and group account administration utilities are configured to store only encrypted representations of passwords. Additionally, the crypt_style configuration option ensures the use of a strong hashing algorithm that makes password cracking attacks more difficult.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)


LIBUSER_CONF="/etc/libuser.conf"
CRYPT_STYLE_REGEX='[[:space:]]*\[defaults](.*(\n)+)+?[[:space:]]*crypt_style[[:space:]]*'

# Try find crypt_style in [defaults] section. If it is here, then change algorithm to sha512.
# If it isn't here, then add it to [defaults] section.
if grep -qzosP $CRYPT_STYLE_REGEX $LIBUSER_CONF ; then
        sed -i "s/\(crypt_style[[:space:]]*=[[:space:]]*\).*/\1sha512/g" $LIBUSER_CONF
elif grep -qs "\[defaults]" $LIBUSER_CONF ; then
        sed -i "/[[:space:]]*\[defaults]/a crypt_style = sha512" $LIBUSER_CONF
else
        echo -e "[defaults]\ncrypt_style = sha512" >> $LIBUSER_CONF
fi
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: Set Password Hashing Algorithm in /etc/libuser.conf
  lineinfile:
    dest: /etc/libuser.conf
    insertafter: '^\s*\[defaults]'
    regexp: ^#?crypt_style
    line: crypt_style = sha512
    state: present
  tags:
    - set_password_hashing_algorithm_libuserconf
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(b)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-7
    - NIST-800-171-3.13.11
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.1
    - CJIS-5.6.2.2

Set PAM's Password Hashing Algorithm   [ref]rule

The PAM system service can be configured to only store encrypted representations of passwords. In /etc/pam.d/system-auth, the password section of the file controls which PAM modules execute during a password change. Set the pam_unix.so module in the password section to include the argument sha512, as shown below:

password    sufficient    pam_unix.so sha512 other arguments...

This will help ensure when local users change their passwords, hashes for the new passwords will be generated using the SHA-512 algorithm. This is the default.

Rationale:

Passwords need to be protected at all times, and encryption is the standard method for protecting passwords. If passwords are not encrypted, they can be plainly read (i.e., clear text) and easily compromised. Passwords that are encrypted with a weak algorithm are no more protected than if they are kepy in plain text.

This setting ensures user and group account administration utilities are configured to store only encrypted representations of passwords. Additionally, the crypt_style configuration option ensures the use of a strong hashing algorithm that makes password cracking attacks more difficult.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)


AUTH_FILES[0]="/etc/pam.d/system-auth"
AUTH_FILES[1]="/etc/pam.d/password-auth"

for pamFile in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
do
	if ! grep -q "^password.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so.*sha512" $pamFile; then
		sed -i --follow-symlinks "/^password.*sufficient.*pam_unix.so/ s/$/ sha512/" $pamFile
	fi
done

Protect Accounts by Restricting Password-Based Login   [ref]group

Conventionally, Unix shell accounts are accessed by providing a username and password to a login program, which tests these values for correctness using the /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow files. Password-based login is vulnerable to guessing of weak passwords, and to sniffing and man-in-the-middle attacks against passwords entered over a network or at an insecure console. Therefore, mechanisms for accessing accounts by entering usernames and passwords should be restricted to those which are operationally necessary.

contains 2 rules

Verify Proper Storage and Existence of Password Hashes   [ref]group

By default, password hashes for local accounts are stored in the second field (colon-separated) in /etc/shadow. This file should be readable only by processes running with root credentials, preventing users from casually accessing others' password hashes and attempting to crack them. However, it remains possible to misconfigure the system and store password hashes in world-readable files such as /etc/passwd, or to even store passwords themselves in plaintext on the system. Using system-provided tools for password change/creation should allow administrators to avoid such misconfiguration.

contains 2 rules

Prevent Log In to Accounts With Empty Password   [ref]rule

If an account is configured for password authentication but does not have an assigned password, it may be possible to log into the account without authentication. Remove any instances of the nullok option in /etc/pam.d/system-auth to prevent logins with empty passwords.

Rationale:

If an account has an empty password, anyone could log in and run commands with the privileges of that account. Accounts with empty passwords should never be used in operational environments.

Severity:  high

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

sed --follow-symlinks -i 's/\<nullok\>//g' /etc/pam.d/system-auth
sed --follow-symlinks -i 's/\<nullok\>//g' /etc/pam.d/password-auth
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Strategy:configure
- name: "Prevent Log In to Accounts With Empty Password - system-auth"
  replace:
    dest: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    follow: yes
    regexp: 'nullok'
  tags:
    - no_empty_passwords
    - high_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(b)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.5
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
    - CJIS-5.5.2

- name: "Prevent Log In to Accounts With Empty Password - password-auth"
  replace:
    dest: /etc/pam.d/password-auth
    follow: yes
    regexp: 'nullok'
  tags:
    - no_empty_passwords
    - high_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - medium_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(b)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.5
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
    - CJIS-5.5.2

Verify All Account Password Hashes are Shadowed   [ref]rule

If any password hashes are stored in /etc/passwd (in the second field, instead of an x or *), the cause of this misconfiguration should be investigated. The account should have its password reset and the hash should be properly stored, or the account should be deleted entirely.

Rationale:

The hashes for all user account passwords should be stored in the file /etc/shadow and never in /etc/passwd, which is readable by all users.

Severity:  medium

References:  5.5.2, 3.5.10, IA-5(h), Req-8.2.1

System Accounting with auditd   [ref]group

The audit service provides substantial capabilities for recording system activities. By default, the service audits about SELinux AVC denials and certain types of security-relevant events such as system logins, account modifications, and authentication events performed by programs such as sudo. Under its default configuration, auditd has modest disk space requirements, and should not noticeably impact system performance.

NOTE: The Linux Audit daemon auditd can be configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules files (*.rules) located in /etc/audit/rules.d location and compile them to create the resulting form of the /etc/audit/audit.rules configuration file during the daemon startup (default configuration). Alternatively, the auditd daemon can use the auditctl utility to read audit rules from the /etc/audit/audit.rules configuration file during daemon startup, and load them into the kernel. The expected behavior is configured via the appropriate ExecStartPost directive setting in the /usr/lib/systemd/system/auditd.service configuration file. To instruct the auditd daemon to use the augenrules program to read audit rules (default configuration), use the following setting:

ExecStartPost=-/sbin/augenrules --load
in the /usr/lib/systemd/system/auditd.service configuration file. In order to instruct the auditd daemon to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules, use the following setting:
ExecStartPost=-/sbin/auditctl -R /etc/audit/audit.rules
in the /usr/lib/systemd/system/auditd.service configuration file. Refer to [Service] section of the /usr/lib/systemd/system/auditd.service configuration file for further details.

Government networks often have substantial auditing requirements and auditd can be configured to meet these requirements. Examining some example audit records demonstrates how the Linux audit system satisfies common requirements. The following example from Fedora Documentation available at https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-US/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/7/html/SELinux_Users_and_Administrators_Guide/sect-Security-Enhanced_Linux-Troubleshooting-Fixing_Problems.html#sect-Security-Enhanced_Linux-Fixing_Problems-Raw_Audit_Messages shows the substantial amount of information captured in a two typical "raw" audit messages, followed by a breakdown of the most important fields. In this example the message is SELinux-related and reports an AVC denial (and the associated system call) that occurred when the Apache HTTP Server attempted to access the /var/www/html/file1 file (labeled with the samba_share_t type):
type=AVC msg=audit(1226874073.147:96): avc:  denied  { getattr } for pid=2465 comm="httpd"
path="/var/www/html/file1" dev=dm-0 ino=284133 scontext=unconfined_u:system_r:httpd_t:s0
tcontext=unconfined_u:object_r:samba_share_t:s0 tclass=file

type=SYSCALL msg=audit(1226874073.147:96): arch=40000003 syscall=196 success=no exit=-13
a0=b98df198 a1=bfec85dc a2=54dff4 a3=2008171 items=0 ppid=2463 pid=2465 auid=502 uid=48
gid=48 euid=48 suid=48 fsuid=48 egid=48 sgid=48 fsgid=48 tty=(none) ses=6 comm="httpd"
exe="/usr/sbin/httpd" subj=unconfined_u:system_r:httpd_t:s0 key=(null)
  • msg=audit(1226874073.147:96)
    • The number in parentheses is the unformatted time stamp (Epoch time) for the event, which can be converted to standard time by using the date command.
  • { getattr }
    • The item in braces indicates the permission that was denied. getattr indicates the source process was trying to read the target file's status information. This occurs before reading files. This action is denied due to the file being accessed having the wrong label. Commonly seen permissions include getattr, read, and write.
  • comm="httpd"
    • The executable that launched the process. The full path of the executable is found in the exe= section of the system call (SYSCALL) message, which in this case, is exe="/usr/sbin/httpd".
  • path="/var/www/html/file1"
    • The path to the object (target) the process attempted to access.
  • scontext="unconfined_u:system_r:httpd_t:s0"
    • The SELinux context of the process that attempted the denied action. In this case, it is the SELinux context of the Apache HTTP Server, which is running in the httpd_t domain.
  • tcontext="unconfined_u:object_r:samba_share_t:s0"
    • The SELinux context of the object (target) the process attempted to access. In this case, it is the SELinux context of file1. Note: the samba_share_t type is not accessible to processes running in the httpd_t domain.
  • From the system call (SYSCALL) message, two items are of interest:
    • success=no: indicates whether the denial (AVC) was enforced or not. success=no indicates the system call was not successful (SELinux denied access). success=yes indicates the system call was successful - this can be seen for permissive domains or unconfined domains, such as initrc_t and kernel_t.
    • exe="/usr/sbin/httpd": the full path to the executable that launched the process, which in this case, is exe="/usr/sbin/httpd".

contains 35 rules

Configure auditd Data Retention   [ref]group

The audit system writes data to /var/log/audit/audit.log. By default, auditd rotates 5 logs by size (6MB), retaining a maximum of 30MB of data in total, and refuses to write entries when the disk is too full. This minimizes the risk of audit data filling its partition and impacting other services. This also minimizes the risk of the audit daemon temporarily disabling the system if it cannot write audit log (which it can be configured to do). For a busy system or a system which is thoroughly auditing system activity, the default settings for data retention may be insufficient. The log file size needed will depend heavily on what types of events are being audited. First configure auditing to log all the events of interest. Then monitor the log size manually for awhile to determine what file size will allow you to keep the required data for the correct time period.

Using a dedicated partition for /var/log/audit prevents the auditd logs from disrupting system functionality if they fill, and, more importantly, prevents other activity in /var from filling the partition and stopping the audit trail. (The audit logs are size-limited and therefore unlikely to grow without bound unless configured to do so.) Some machines may have requirements that no actions occur which cannot be audited. If this is the case, then auditd can be configured to halt the machine if it runs out of space. Note: Since older logs are rotated, configuring auditd this way does not prevent older logs from being rotated away before they can be viewed. If your system is configured to halt when logging cannot be performed, make sure this can never happen under normal circumstances! Ensure that /var/log/audit is on its own partition, and that this partition is larger than the maximum amount of data auditd will retain normally.

contains 7 rules

Configure auditd Max Log File Size   [ref]rule

Determine the amount of audit data (in megabytes) which should be retained in each log file. Edit the file /etc/audit/auditd.conf. Add or modify the following line, substituting the correct value of 6 for STOREMB:

max_log_file = STOREMB
Set the value to 6 (MB) or higher for general-purpose systems. Larger values, of course, support retention of even more audit data.

Rationale:

The total storage for audit log files must be large enough to retain log information over the period required. This is a function of the maximum log file size and the number of logs retained.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)


var_auditd_max_log_file="6"

AUDITCONFIG=/etc/audit/auditd.conf
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="CCE-${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append $AUDITCONFIG '^max_log_file' "$var_auditd_max_log_file" ""
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value var_auditd_max_log_file # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_auditd_max_log_file: !!str |-
        6
  tags:
    - always

- name: Configure auditd Max Log File Size
  lineinfile:
    dest: /etc/audit/auditd.conf
    regexp: '^\s*max_log_file\s*=\s*.*$'
    line: "max_log_file = {{ var_auditd_max_log_file }}"
    state: present
  #notify: reload auditd
  tags:
    - auditd_data_retention_max_log_file
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-11
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.7
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

Configure auditd mail_acct Action on Low Disk Space   [ref]rule

The auditd service can be configured to send email to a designated account in certain situations. Add or correct the following line in /etc/audit/auditd.conf to ensure that administrators are notified via email for those situations:

action_mail_acct = root

Rationale:

Email sent to the root account is typically aliased to the administrators of the system, who can take appropriate action.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)


var_auditd_action_mail_acct="root"

AUDITCONFIG=/etc/audit/auditd.conf
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="CCE-${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append $AUDITCONFIG '^action_mail_acct' "$var_auditd_action_mail_acct" ""
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value var_auditd_action_mail_acct # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_auditd_action_mail_acct: !!str |-
        root
  tags:
    - always

- name: Configure auditd mail_acct Action on Low Disk Space
  lineinfile:
    dest: /etc/audit/auditd.conf
    line: "action_mail_acct = {{ var_auditd_action_mail_acct }}"
    state: present
  #notify: reload auditd
  tags:
    - auditd_data_retention_action_mail_acct
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-4
    - NIST-800-53-AU-5(1)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-5(a)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.3.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.7.a
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

Configure auditd to use audispd's syslog plugin   [ref]rule

To configure the auditd service to use the syslog plug-in of the audispd audit event multiplexor, set the active line in /etc/audisp/plugins.d/syslog.conf to yes. Restart the auditd service:

$ sudo service auditd restart

Rationale:

The auditd service does not include the ability to send audit records to a centralized server for management directly. It does, however, include a plug-in for audit event multiplexor (audispd) to pass audit records to the local syslog server

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)


var_syslog_active="yes"

AUDISP_SYSLOGCONFIG=/etc/audisp/plugins.d/syslog.conf
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="CCE-${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append $AUDISP_SYSLOGCONFIG '^active' "$var_syslog_active" ""

Configure auditd admin_space_left Action on Low Disk Space   [ref]rule

The auditd service can be configured to take an action when disk space is running low but prior to running out of space completely. Edit the file /etc/audit/auditd.conf. Add or modify the following line, substituting ACTION appropriately:

admin_space_left_action = ACTION
Set this value to single to cause the system to switch to single user mode for corrective action. Acceptable values also include suspend and halt. For certain systems, the need for availability outweighs the need to log all actions, and a different setting should be determined. Details regarding all possible values for ACTION are described in the auditd.conf man page.

Rationale:

Administrators should be made aware of an inability to record audit records. If a separate partition or logical volume of adequate size is used, running low on space for audit records should never occur.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)


var_auditd_admin_space_left_action="single"

AUDITCONFIG=/etc/audit/auditd.conf
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="CCE-${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append $AUDITCONFIG '^admin_space_left_action' "$var_auditd_admin_space_left_action" ""
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value var_auditd_admin_space_left_action # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_auditd_admin_space_left_action: !!str |-
        single
  tags:
    - always

- name: Configure auditd admin_space_left Action on Low Disk Space
  lineinfile:
    dest: /etc/audit/auditd.conf
    line: "admin_space_left_action = {{ var_auditd_admin_space_left_action }}"
    regexp: '^\s*admin_space_left_action\s*=\s*.*$'
    state: present
  #notify: reload auditd
  tags:
    - auditd_data_retention_admin_space_left_action
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-4
    - NIST-800-53-AU-5(b)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.3.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.7
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

Configure auditd max_log_file_action Upon Reaching Maximum Log Size   [ref]rule

The default action to take when the logs reach their maximum size is to rotate the log files, discarding the oldest one. To configure the action taken by auditd, add or correct the line in /etc/audit/auditd.conf:

max_log_file_action = ACTION
Possible values for ACTION are described in the auditd.conf man page. These include:
  • syslog
  • suspend
  • rotate
  • keep_logs
Set the ACTION to rotate to ensure log rotation occurs. This is the default. The setting is case-insensitive.

Rationale:

Automatically rotating logs (by setting this to rotate) minimizes the chances of the system unexpectedly running out of disk space by being overwhelmed with log data. However, for systems that must never discard log data, or which use external processes to transfer it and reclaim space, keep_logs can be employed.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)


var_auditd_max_log_file_action="rotate"

AUDITCONFIG=/etc/audit/auditd.conf
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="CCE-${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append $AUDITCONFIG '^max_log_file_action' "$var_auditd_max_log_file_action" ""
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value var_auditd_max_log_file_action # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_auditd_max_log_file_action: !!str |-
        rotate
  tags:
    - always

- name: Configure auditd max_log_file_action Upon Reaching Maximum Log Size
  lineinfile:
    dest: /etc/audit/auditd.conf
    line: "max_log_file_action = {{ var_auditd_max_log_file_action }}"
    regexp: '^\s*max_log_file_action\s*=\s*.*$'
    state: present
  #notify: reload auditd
  tags:
    - auditd_data_retention_max_log_file_action
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-4
    - NIST-800-53-AU-11
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.7
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

Configure auditd space_left Action on Low Disk Space   [ref]rule

The auditd service can be configured to take an action when disk space starts to run low. Edit the file /etc/audit/auditd.conf. Modify the following line, substituting ACTION appropriately:

space_left_action = ACTION
Possible values for ACTION are described in the auditd.conf man page. These include:
  • syslog
  • email
  • exec
  • suspend
  • single
  • halt
Set this to email (instead of the default, which is suspend) as it is more likely to get prompt attention. Acceptable values also include suspend, single, and halt.

Rationale:

Notifying administrators of an impending disk space problem may allow them to take corrective action prior to any disruption.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)


var_auditd_space_left_action="email"

#
# If space_left_action present in /etc/audit/auditd.conf, change value
# to var_auditd_space_left_action, else
# add "space_left_action = $var_auditd_space_left_action" to /etc/audit/auditd.conf
#

AUDITCONFIG=/etc/audit/auditd.conf
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="CCE-${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append $AUDITCONFIG '^space_left_action' "$var_auditd_space_left_action" ""
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value var_auditd_space_left_action # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_auditd_space_left_action: !!str |-
        email
  tags:
    - always

- name: Configure auditd space_left Action on Low Disk Space
  lineinfile:
    dest: /etc/audit/auditd.conf
    line: "space_left_action = {{ var_auditd_space_left_action }}"
    regexp: '^\s*space_left_action\s*=\s*.*$'
    state: present
  #notify: reload auditd
  tags:
    - auditd_data_retention_space_left_action
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-4
    - NIST-800-53-AU-5(1)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-5(b)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.3.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.7
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

Configure auditd Number of Logs Retained   [ref]rule

Determine how many log files auditd should retain when it rotates logs. Edit the file /etc/audit/auditd.conf. Add or modify the following line, substituting NUMLOGS with the correct value of 5:

num_logs = NUMLOGS
Set the value to 5 for general-purpose systems. Note that values less than 2 result in no log rotation.

Rationale:

The total storage for audit log files must be large enough to retain log information over the period required. This is a function of the maximum log file size and the number of logs retained.

Severity:  medium

References:  5.4.1.1, 3.3.1, AU-1(b), AU-11, IR-5, Req-10.7

Remediation Shell script:   (show)


var_auditd_num_logs="5"

AUDITCONFIG=/etc/audit/auditd.conf
# Function to replace configuration setting in config file or add the configuration setting if
# it does not exist.
#
# Expects arguments:
#
# config_file:		Configuration file that will be modified
# key:			Configuration option to change
# value:		Value of the configuration option to change
# cce:			The CCE identifier or '@CCENUM@' if no CCE identifier exists
# format:		The printf-like format string that will be given stripped key and value as arguments,
#			so e.g. '%s=%s' will result in key=value subsitution (i.e. without spaces around =)
#
# Optional arugments:
#
# format:		Optional argument to specify the format of how key/value should be
# 			modified/appended in the configuration file. The default is key = value.
#
# Example Call(s):
#
#     With default format of 'key = value':
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysctl.conf' '^kernel.randomize_va_space' '2' '@CCENUM@'
#
#     With custom key/value format:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' 'disabled' '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
#     With a variable:
#     replace_or_append '/etc/sysconfig/selinux' '^SELINUX=' $var_selinux_state '@CCENUM@' '%s=%s'
#
function replace_or_append {
  local default_format='%s = %s' case_insensitive_mode=yes sed_case_insensitive_option='' grep_case_insensitive_option=''
  local config_file=$1
  local key=$2
  local value=$3
  local cce=$4
  local format=$5

  if [ "$case_insensitive_mode" = yes ]; then
    sed_case_insensitive_option="i"
    grep_case_insensitive_option="-i"
  fi
  [ -n "$format" ] || format="$default_format"
  # Check sanity of the input
  [ $# -ge "3" ] || { echo "Usage: replace_or_append <config_file_location> <key_to_search> <new_value> [<CCE number or literal '@CCENUM@' if unknown>] [printf-like format, default is '$default_format']" >&2; exit 1; }

  # Test if the config_file is a symbolic link. If so, use --follow-symlinks with sed.
  # Otherwise, regular sed command will do.
  sed_command=('sed' '-i')
  if test -L "$config_file"; then
    sed_command+=('--follow-symlinks')
  fi

  # Test that the cce arg is not empty or does not equal @CCENUM@.
  # If @CCENUM@ exists, it means that there is no CCE assigned.
  if [ -n "$cce" ] && [ "$cce" != '@CCENUM@' ]; then
    cce="CCE-${cce}"
  else
    cce="CCE"
  fi

  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
  # adding any search characters to the config file.
  stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "$key")

  # shellcheck disable=SC2059
  printf -v formatted_output "$format" "$stripped_key" "$value"

  # If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
  # We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
  # so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
  if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 $grep_case_insensitive_option -e "${key}\\>" "$config_file"; then
    "${sed_command[@]}" "s/${key}\\>.*/$formatted_output/g$sed_case_insensitive_option" "$config_file"
  else
    # \n is precaution for case where file ends without trailing newline
    printf '\n# Per %s: Set %s in %s\n' "$cce" "$formatted_output" "$config_file" >> "$config_file"
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "$config_file"
  fi
}

replace_or_append $AUDITCONFIG '^num_logs' "$var_auditd_num_logs" ""
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value var_auditd_num_logs # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_auditd_num_logs: !!str |-
        5
  tags:
    - always

- name: Configure auditd Number of Logs Retained
  lineinfile:
    dest: /etc/audit/auditd.conf
    line: "num_logs = {{ var_auditd_num_logs }}"
    regexp: '^\s*num_logs\s*=\s*.*$'
    state: present
  #notify: reload auditd
  tags:
    - auditd_data_retention_num_logs
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-11
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.3.1
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.7
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

Configure auditd Rules for Comprehensive Auditing   [ref]group

The auditd program can perform comprehensive monitoring of system activity. This section describes recommended configuration settings for comprehensive auditing, but a full description of the auditing system's capabilities is beyond the scope of this guide. The mailing list linux-audit@redhat.com exists to facilitate community discussion of the auditing system.

The audit subsystem supports extensive collection of events, including:

  • Tracing of arbitrary system calls (identified by name or number) on entry or exit.
  • Filtering by PID, UID, call success, system call argument (with some limitations), etc.
  • Monitoring of specific files for modifications to the file's contents or metadata.

Auditing rules at startup are controlled by the file /etc/audit/audit.rules. Add rules to it to meet the auditing requirements for your organization. Each line in /etc/audit/audit.rules represents a series of arguments that can be passed to auditctl and can be individually tested during runtime. See documentation in /usr/share/doc/audit-VERSION and in the related man pages for more details.

If copying any example audit rulesets from /usr/share/doc/audit-VERSION, be sure to comment out the lines containing arch= which are not appropriate for your system's architecture. Then review and understand the following rules, ensuring rules are activated as needed for the appropriate architecture.

After reviewing all the rules, reading the following sections, and editing as needed, the new rules can be activated as follows:
$ sudo service auditd restart

contains 27 rules

Records Events that Modify Date and Time Information   [ref]group

Arbitrary changes to the system time can be used to obfuscate nefarious activities in log files, as well as to confuse network services that are highly dependent upon an accurate system time. All changes to the system time should be audited.

contains 5 rules

Record Attempts to Alter Time Through stime   [ref]rule

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d for both 32 bit and 64 bit systems:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S stime -F key=audit_time_rules
Since the 64 bit version of the "stime" system call is not defined in the audit lookup table, the corresponding "-F arch=b64" form of this rule is not expected to be defined on 64 bit systems (the aforementioned "-F arch=b32" stime rule form itself is sufficient for both 32 bit and 64 bit systems). If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file for both 32 bit and 64 bit systems:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S stime -F key=audit_time_rules
Since the 64 bit version of the "stime" system call is not defined in the audit lookup table, the corresponding "-F arch=b64" form of this rule is not expected to be defined on 64 bit systems (the aforementioned "-F arch=b32" stime rule form itself is sufficient for both 32 bit and 64 bit systems). The -k option allows for the specification of a key in string form that can be used for better reporting capability through ausearch and aureport. Multiple system calls can be defined on the same line to save space if desired, but is not required. See an example of multiple combined system calls:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S adjtimex,settimeofday -F key=audit_time_rules

Rationale:

Arbitrary changes to the system time can be used to obfuscate nefarious activities in log files, as well as to confuse network services that are highly dependent upon an accurate system time (such as sshd). All changes to the system time should be audited.

Severity:  unknown

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
	key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)' '|' "$full_rule" : '.*-F[[:space:]]key=\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
	# Check if particular audit rule is already defined
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
	done
	# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
	# * follow the rule pattern, and
	# * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
	# * are current syscall group specific
	IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS

	# Process rules found case-by-case
	for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
	do
		# Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
		if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
		then
			# If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
			rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
			# Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
			# of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
			if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
			then
				# Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
				# subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
				# Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
			else
				# Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
				# for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
				# group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
				# since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
				# Therefore:
				# * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
				# * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
				# keep those not belonging to this syscall group
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
				# * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
				# if the same rule not already present
				#
				# 1) Delete the original rule
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				# 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
				# Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
				IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
				# Reset IFS back to default
				unset IFS
				# Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
				new_syscalls_for_rule=''
				# Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
				for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
				do
					# Skip empty $syscall_arg values
					if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
					then
						continue
					fi
					# If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
					# (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
					if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
					then
						new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
					fi
				done
				# Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
				updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
				# Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
				updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
				# 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
				#    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
				if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
				then
					echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
				fi
			fi
		else
			# $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
			# architecture & key => don't insert it second time
			append_expected_rule=1
		fi
	done

	# We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
	# Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
	# Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
	if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
	then
		echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
	fi
done

return $retval

}


# Function to perform remediation for the 'adjtimex', 'settimeofday', and 'stime' audit
# system calls on RHEL, Fedora or OL systems.
# Remediation performed for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'.
#
# Note: 'stime' system call isn't known at 64-bit arch (see "$ ausyscall x86_64 stime" 's output)
# therefore excluded from the list of time group system calls to be audited on this arch
#
# Example Call:
#
#      perform_audit_adjtimex_settimeofday_stime_remediation
#
function perform_audit_adjtimex_settimeofday_stime_remediation {

# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ $(getconf LONG_BIT) = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do

	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S .* -k *"
	# Create expected audit group and audit rule form for particular system call & architecture
	if [ ${ARCH} = "b32" ]
	then
		# stime system call is known at 32-bit arch (see e.g "$ ausyscall i386 stime" 's output)
		# so append it to the list of time group system calls to be audited
		GROUP="\(adjtimex\|settimeofday\|stime\)"
		FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S adjtimex -S settimeofday -S stime -k audit_time_rules"
	elif [ ${ARCH} = "b64" ]
	then
		# stime system call isn't known at 64-bit arch (see "$ ausyscall x86_64 stime" 's output)
		# therefore don't add it to the list of time group system calls to be audited
		GROUP="\(adjtimex\|settimeofday\)"
		FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S adjtimex -S settimeofday -k audit_time_rules"
	fi
	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done

}

perform_audit_adjtimex_settimeofday_stime_remediation

Record attempts to alter time through settimeofday   [ref]rule

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S settimeofday -F key=audit_time_rules
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S settimeofday -F key=audit_time_rules
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S settimeofday -F key=audit_time_rules
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S settimeofday -F key=audit_time_rules
The -k option allows for the specification of a key in string form that can be used for better reporting capability through ausearch and aureport. Multiple system calls can be defined on the same line to save space if desired, but is not required. See an example of multiple combined syscalls:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S adjtimex,settimeofday -F key=audit_time_rules

Rationale:

Arbitrary changes to the system time can be used to obfuscate nefarious activities in log files, as well as to confuse network services that are highly dependent upon an accurate system time (such as sshd). All changes to the system time should be audited.

Severity:  unknown

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
	key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)' '|' "$full_rule" : '.*-F[[:space:]]key=\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
	# Check if particular audit rule is already defined
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
	done
	# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
	# * follow the rule pattern, and
	# * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
	# * are current syscall group specific
	IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS

	# Process rules found case-by-case
	for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
	do
		# Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
		if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
		then
			# If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
			rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
			# Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
			# of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
			if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
			then
				# Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
				# subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
				# Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
			else
				# Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
				# for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
				# group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
				# since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
				# Therefore:
				# * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
				# * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
				# keep those not belonging to this syscall group
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
				# * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
				# if the same rule not already present
				#
				# 1) Delete the original rule
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				# 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
				# Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
				IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
				# Reset IFS back to default
				unset IFS
				# Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
				new_syscalls_for_rule=''
				# Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
				for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
				do
					# Skip empty $syscall_arg values
					if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
					then
						continue
					fi
					# If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
					# (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
					if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
					then
						new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
					fi
				done
				# Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
				updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
				# Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
				updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
				# 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
				#    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
				if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
				then
					echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
				fi
			fi
		else
			# $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
			# architecture & key => don't insert it second time
			append_expected_rule=1
		fi
	done

	# We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
	# Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
	# Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
	if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
	then
		echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
	fi
done

return $retval

}


# Function to perform remediation for the 'adjtimex', 'settimeofday', and 'stime' audit
# system calls on RHEL, Fedora or OL systems.
# Remediation performed for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'.
#
# Note: 'stime' system call isn't known at 64-bit arch (see "$ ausyscall x86_64 stime" 's output)
# therefore excluded from the list of time group system calls to be audited on this arch
#
# Example Call:
#
#      perform_audit_adjtimex_settimeofday_stime_remediation
#
function perform_audit_adjtimex_settimeofday_stime_remediation {

# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ $(getconf LONG_BIT) = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do

	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S .* -k *"
	# Create expected audit group and audit rule form for particular system call & architecture
	if [ ${ARCH} = "b32" ]
	then
		# stime system call is known at 32-bit arch (see e.g "$ ausyscall i386 stime" 's output)
		# so append it to the list of time group system calls to be audited
		GROUP="\(adjtimex\|settimeofday\|stime\)"
		FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S adjtimex -S settimeofday -S stime -k audit_time_rules"
	elif [ ${ARCH} = "b64" ]
	then
		# stime system call isn't known at 64-bit arch (see "$ ausyscall x86_64 stime" 's output)
		# therefore don't add it to the list of time group system calls to be audited
		GROUP="\(adjtimex\|settimeofday\)"
		FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S adjtimex -S settimeofday -k audit_time_rules"
	fi
	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done

}

perform_audit_adjtimex_settimeofday_stime_remediation

Record Attempts to Alter the localtime File   [ref]rule

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-w /etc/localtime -p wa -k audit_time_rules
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-w /etc/localtime -p wa -k audit_time_rules
The -k option allows for the specification of a key in string form that can be used for better reporting capability through ausearch and aureport and should always be used.

Rationale:

Arbitrary changes to the system time can be used to obfuscate nefarious activities in log files, as well as to confuse network services that are highly dependent upon an accurate system time (such as sshd). All changes to the system time should be audited.

Severity:  unknown

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix audit file system object watch rule for given path:
# * if rule exists, also verifies the -w bits match the requirements
# * if rule doesn't exist yet, appends expected rule form to $files_to_inspect
#   audit rules file, depending on the tool which was used to load audit rules
#
# Expects four arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules'
# * path                        	value of -w audit rule's argument
# * required access bits        	value of -p audit rule's argument
# * key                         	value of -k audit rule's argument
#
# Example call:
#
#       fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/localtime" "wa" "audit_time_rules"
#
function fix_audit_watch_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local path="$2"
local required_access_bits="$3"
local key="$4"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "4" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_watch_rule 'tool' 'path' 'bits' 'key'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Tool used to load audit rules	| Rule already defined	|  Audit rules file to inspect	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#	auditctl		|     Doesn't matter	|  /etc/audit/audit.rules	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# 	augenrules		|          Yes		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules	  |
# 	augenrules		|          No		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
declare -a files_to_inspect

# Check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	exit 1
# If the audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# into the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules')
# If the audit is 'augenrules', then check if rule is already defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to list of files for inspection.
# If rule isn't defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to list of files for inspection.
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Case when particular audit rule is already defined in some of /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules file
	# Get pair -- filepath : matching_row into @matches array
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(grep -P "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	# For each of the matched entries
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		# Extract filepath from the match
		rulesd_audit_file=$(echo $match | cut -f1 -d ':')
		# Append that path into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "$rulesd_audit_file")
	done
	# Case when particular audit rule isn't defined yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		# Append '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		# If the $key.rules file doesn't exist yet, create it with correct permissions
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

# Finally perform the inspection and possible subsequent audit rule
# correction for each of the files previously identified for inspection
for audit_rules_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Check if audit watch file system object rule for given path already present
	if grep -q -P -- "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" "$audit_rules_file"
	then
		# Rule is found => verify yet if existing rule definition contains
		# all of the required access type bits

		# Escape slashes in path for use in sed pattern below
		local esc_path=${path//$'/'/$'\/'}
		# Define BRE whitespace class shortcut
		local sp="[[:space:]]"
		# Extract current permission access types (e.g. -p [r|w|x|a] values) from audit rule
		current_access_bits=$(sed -ne "s/$sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\).*/\1/p" "$audit_rules_file")
		# Split required access bits string into characters array
		# (to check bit's presence for one bit at a time)
		for access_bit in $(echo "$required_access_bits" | grep -o .)
		do
			# For each from the required access bits (e.g. 'w', 'a') check
			# if they are already present in current access bits for rule.
			# If not, append that bit at the end
			if ! grep -q "$access_bit" <<< "$current_access_bits"
			then
				# Concatenate the existing mask with the missing bit
				current_access_bits="$current_access_bits$access_bit"
			fi
		done
		# Propagate the updated rule's access bits (original + the required
		# ones) back into the /etc/audit/audit.rules file for that rule
		sed -i "s/\($sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\)\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\)\(.*\)/\1$current_access_bits\3/" "$audit_rules_file"
	else
		# Rule isn't present yet. Append it at the end of $audit_rules_file file
		# with proper key

		echo "-w $path -p $required_access_bits -k $key" >> "$audit_rules_file"
	fi
done
}

fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/localtime" "wa" "audit_time_rules"
fix_audit_watch_rule "augenrules" "/etc/localtime" "wa" "audit_time_rules"

Record Attempts to Alter Time Through clock_settime   [ref]rule

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S clock_settime -F a0=0x0 -F key=time-change
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S clock_settime -F a0=0x0 -F key=time-change
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S clock_settime -F a0=0x0 -F key=time-change
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S clock_settime -F a0=0x0 -F key=time-change
The -k option allows for the specification of a key in string form that can be used for better reporting capability through ausearch and aureport. Multiple system calls can be defined on the same line to save space if desired, but is not required. See an example of multiple combined syscalls:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S adjtimex,settimeofday -F key=audit_time_rules

Rationale:

Arbitrary changes to the system time can be used to obfuscate nefarious activities in log files, as well as to confuse network services that are highly dependent upon an accurate system time (such as sshd). All changes to the system time should be audited.

Severity:  unknown

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S clock_settime -F a0=.* \(-F key=\|-k \).*"
	GROUP="clock_settime"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S clock_settime -F a0=0x0 -k time-change"
	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
	key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)' '|' "$full_rule" : '.*-F[[:space:]]key=\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
	# Check if particular audit rule is already defined
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
	done
	# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
	# * follow the rule pattern, and
	# * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
	# * are current syscall group specific
	IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS

	# Process rules found case-by-case
	for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
	do
		# Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
		if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
		then
			# If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
			rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
			# Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
			# of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
			if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
			then
				# Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
				# subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
				# Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
			else
				# Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
				# for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
				# group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
				# since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
				# Therefore:
				# * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
				# * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
				# keep those not belonging to this syscall group
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
				# * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
				# if the same rule not already present
				#
				# 1) Delete the original rule
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				# 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
				# Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
				IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
				# Reset IFS back to default
				unset IFS
				# Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
				new_syscalls_for_rule=''
				# Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
				for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
				do
					# Skip empty $syscall_arg values
					if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
					then
						continue
					fi
					# If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
					# (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
					if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
					then
						new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
					fi
				done
				# Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
				updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
				# Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
				updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
				# 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
				#    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
				if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
				then
					echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
				fi
			fi
		else
			# $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
			# architecture & key => don't insert it second time
			append_expected_rule=1
		fi
	done

	# We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
	# Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
	# Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
	if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
	then
		echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
	fi
done

return $retval

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done

Record attempts to alter time through adjtimex   [ref]rule

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S adjtimex -F key=audit_time_rules
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S adjtimex -F key=audit_time_rules
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S adjtimex -F key=audit_time_rules
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S adjtimex -F key=audit_time_rules
The -k option allows for the specification of a key in string form that can be used for better reporting capability through ausearch and aureport. Multiple system calls can be defined on the same line to save space if desired, but is not required. See an example of multiple combined syscalls:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S adjtimex,settimeofday -F key=audit_time_rules

Rationale:

Arbitrary changes to the system time can be used to obfuscate nefarious activities in log files, as well as to confuse network services that are highly dependent upon an accurate system time (such as sshd). All changes to the system time should be audited.

Severity:  unknown

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
	key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)' '|' "$full_rule" : '.*-F[[:space:]]key=\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
	# Check if particular audit rule is already defined
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
	done
	# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
	# * follow the rule pattern, and
	# * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
	# * are current syscall group specific
	IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS

	# Process rules found case-by-case
	for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
	do
		# Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
		if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
		then
			# If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
			rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
			# Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
			# of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
			if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
			then
				# Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
				# subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
				# Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
			else
				# Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
				# for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
				# group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
				# since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
				# Therefore:
				# * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
				# * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
				# keep those not belonging to this syscall group
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
				# * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
				# if the same rule not already present
				#
				# 1) Delete the original rule
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				# 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
				# Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
				IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
				# Reset IFS back to default
				unset IFS
				# Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
				new_syscalls_for_rule=''
				# Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
				for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
				do
					# Skip empty $syscall_arg values
					if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
					then
						continue
					fi
					# If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
					# (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
					if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
					then
						new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
					fi
				done
				# Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
				updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
				# Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
				updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
				# 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
				#    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
				if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
				then
					echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
				fi
			fi
		else
			# $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
			# architecture & key => don't insert it second time
			append_expected_rule=1
		fi
	done

	# We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
	# Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
	# Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
	if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
	then
		echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
	fi
done

return $retval

}


# Function to perform remediation for the 'adjtimex', 'settimeofday', and 'stime' audit
# system calls on RHEL, Fedora or OL systems.
# Remediation performed for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'.
#
# Note: 'stime' system call isn't known at 64-bit arch (see "$ ausyscall x86_64 stime" 's output)
# therefore excluded from the list of time group system calls to be audited on this arch
#
# Example Call:
#
#      perform_audit_adjtimex_settimeofday_stime_remediation
#
function perform_audit_adjtimex_settimeofday_stime_remediation {

# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ $(getconf LONG_BIT) = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do

	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S .* -k *"
	# Create expected audit group and audit rule form for particular system call & architecture
	if [ ${ARCH} = "b32" ]
	then
		# stime system call is known at 32-bit arch (see e.g "$ ausyscall i386 stime" 's output)
		# so append it to the list of time group system calls to be audited
		GROUP="\(adjtimex\|settimeofday\|stime\)"
		FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S adjtimex -S settimeofday -S stime -k audit_time_rules"
	elif [ ${ARCH} = "b64" ]
	then
		# stime system call isn't known at 64-bit arch (see "$ ausyscall x86_64 stime" 's output)
		# therefore don't add it to the list of time group system calls to be audited
		GROUP="\(adjtimex\|settimeofday\)"
		FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=${ARCH} -S adjtimex -S settimeofday -k audit_time_rules"
	fi
	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done

}

perform_audit_adjtimex_settimeofday_stime_remediation

Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls   [ref]group

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. Note that the "-F arch=b32" lines should be present even on a 64 bit system. These commands identify system calls for auditing. Even if the system is 64 bit it can still execute 32 bit system calls. Additionally, these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. An example of this is that the "-S" calls could be split up and placed on separate lines, however, this is less efficient. Add the following to /etc/audit/audit.rules:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chmod,fchmod,fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
    -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chown,fchown,fchownat,lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
    -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S setxattr,lsetxattr,fsetxattr,removexattr,lremovexattr,fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If your system is 64 bit then these lines should be duplicated and the arch=b32 replaced with arch=b64 as follows:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chmod,fchmod,fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
    -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chown,fchown,fchownat,lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
    -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S setxattr,lsetxattr,fsetxattr,removexattr,lremovexattr,fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod

contains 13 rules

Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - fchown   [ref]rule

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod

Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.

Severity:  unknown

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S fchown.*"
	GROUP="perm_mod"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S fchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
	key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)' '|' "$full_rule" : '.*-F[[:space:]]key=\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
	# Check if particular audit rule is already defined
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
	done
	# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
	# * follow the rule pattern, and
	# * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
	# * are current syscall group specific
	IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS

	# Process rules found case-by-case
	for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
	do
		# Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
		if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
		then
			# If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
			rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
			# Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
			# of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
			if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
			then
				# Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
				# subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
				# Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
			else
				# Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
				# for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
				# group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
				# since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
				# Therefore:
				# * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
				# * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
				# keep those not belonging to this syscall group
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
				# * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
				# if the same rule not already present
				#
				# 1) Delete the original rule
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				# 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
				# Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
				IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
				# Reset IFS back to default
				unset IFS
				# Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
				new_syscalls_for_rule=''
				# Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
				for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
				do
					# Skip empty $syscall_arg values
					if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
					then
						continue
					fi
					# If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
					# (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
					if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
					then
						new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
					fi
				done
				# Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
				updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
				# Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
				updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
				# 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
				#    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
				if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
				then
					echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
				fi
			fi
		else
			# $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
			# architecture & key => don't insert it second time
			append_expected_rule=1
		fi
	done

	# We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
	# Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
	# Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
	if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
	then
		echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
	fi
done

return $retval

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict

#
# What architecture are we on?
#
- name: Set architecture for audit fchown tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: "b{{ ansible_architecture | regex_replace('.*(\\d\\d$)','\\1') }}"

#
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/rules.d
#
- name: Search /etc/audit/rules.d for other DAC audit rules
  find:
    paths: "/etc/audit/rules.d"
    recurse: no
    contains: "-F key=perm_mod$"
    patterns: "*.rules"
  register: find_fchown

- name: If existing DAC ruleset not found, use /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules
  when: find_fchown.matched == 0

- name: Use matched file as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - "{{ find_fchown.files | map(attribute='path') | list | first }}"
  when: find_fchown.matched > 0

- name: Inserts/replaces the fchown rule in rules.d when on x86
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    create: yes
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchown
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

- name: Inserts/replaces the fchown rule in rules.d when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    create: yes
  when: audit_arch == 'b64'
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchown
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
#   
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules
#
- name: Inserts/replaces the fchown rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules when on x86
  lineinfile:
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchown
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

- name: Inserts/replaces the fchown rule in audit.rules when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: yes
  when: audit_arch == 'b64'
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchown
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - setxattr   [ref]rule

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S setxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S setxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S setxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S setxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod

Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.

Severity:  unknown

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S setxattr.*"
	GROUP="perm_mod"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S setxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
	key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)' '|' "$full_rule" : '.*-F[[:space:]]key=\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
	# Check if particular audit rule is already defined
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
	done
	# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
	# * follow the rule pattern, and
	# * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
	# * are current syscall group specific
	IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS

	# Process rules found case-by-case
	for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
	do
		# Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
		if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
		then
			# If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
			rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
			# Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
			# of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
			if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
			then
				# Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
				# subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
				# Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
			else
				# Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
				# for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
				# group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
				# since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
				# Therefore:
				# * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
				# * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
				# keep those not belonging to this syscall group
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
				# * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
				# if the same rule not already present
				#
				# 1) Delete the original rule
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				# 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
				# Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
				IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
				# Reset IFS back to default
				unset IFS
				# Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
				new_syscalls_for_rule=''
				# Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
				for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
				do
					# Skip empty $syscall_arg values
					if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
					then
						continue
					fi
					# If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
					# (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
					if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
					then
						new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
					fi
				done
				# Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
				updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
				# Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
				updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
				# 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
				#    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
				if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
				then
					echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
				fi
			fi
		else
			# $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
			# architecture & key => don't insert it second time
			append_expected_rule=1
		fi
	done

	# We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
	# Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
	# Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
	if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
	then
		echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
	fi
done

return $retval

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict

#
# What architecture are we on?
#
- name: Set architecture for audit setxattr tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: "b{{ ansible_architecture | regex_replace('.*(\\d\\d$)','\\1') }}"

#
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/rules.d
#
- name: Search /etc/audit/rules.d for other DAC audit rules
  find:
    paths: "/etc/audit/rules.d"
    recurse: no
    contains: "-F key=perm_mod$"
    patterns: "*.rules"
  register: find_setxattr

- name: If existing DAC ruleset not found, use /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules
  when: find_setxattr.matched == 0

- name: Use matched file as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - "{{ find_setxattr.files | map(attribute='path') | list | first }}"
  when: find_setxattr.matched > 0

- name: Inserts/replaces the setxattr rule in rules.d when on x86
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S setxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    create: yes
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_setxattr
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

- name: Inserts/replaces the setxattr rule in rules.d when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S setxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    create: yes
  when: audit_arch == 'b64'
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_setxattr
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
#   
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules
#
- name: Inserts/replaces the setxattr rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules when on x86
  lineinfile:
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S setxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_setxattr
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

- name: Inserts/replaces the setxattr rule in audit.rules when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S setxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: yes
  when: audit_arch == 'b64'
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_setxattr
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - chown   [ref]rule

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod

Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.

Severity:  unknown

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S chown.*"
	GROUP="perm_mod"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
	key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)' '|' "$full_rule" : '.*-F[[:space:]]key=\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
	# Check if particular audit rule is already defined
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
	done
	# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
	# * follow the rule pattern, and
	# * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
	# * are current syscall group specific
	IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS

	# Process rules found case-by-case
	for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
	do
		# Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
		if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
		then
			# If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
			rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
			# Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
			# of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
			if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
			then
				# Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
				# subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
				# Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
			else
				# Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
				# for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
				# group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
				# since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
				# Therefore:
				# * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
				# * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
				# keep those not belonging to this syscall group
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
				# * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
				# if the same rule not already present
				#
				# 1) Delete the original rule
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				# 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
				# Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
				IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
				# Reset IFS back to default
				unset IFS
				# Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
				new_syscalls_for_rule=''
				# Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
				for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
				do
					# Skip empty $syscall_arg values
					if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
					then
						continue
					fi
					# If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
					# (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
					if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
					then
						new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
					fi
				done
				# Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
				updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
				# Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
				updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
				# 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
				#    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
				if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
				then
					echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
				fi
			fi
		else
			# $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
			# architecture & key => don't insert it second time
			append_expected_rule=1
		fi
	done

	# We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
	# Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
	# Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
	if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
	then
		echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
	fi
done

return $retval

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict

#
# What architecture are we on?
#
- name: Set architecture for audit chown tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: "b{{ ansible_architecture | regex_replace('.*(\\d\\d$)','\\1') }}"

#
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/rules.d
#
- name: Search /etc/audit/rules.d for other DAC audit rules
  find:
    paths: "/etc/audit/rules.d"
    recurse: no
    contains: "-F key=perm_mod$"
    patterns: "*.rules"
  register: find_chown

- name: If existing DAC ruleset not found, use /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules
  when: find_chown.matched == 0

- name: Use matched file as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - "{{ find_chown.files | map(attribute='path') | list | first }}"
  when: find_chown.matched > 0

- name: Inserts/replaces the chown rule in rules.d when on x86
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    create: yes
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_chown
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

- name: Inserts/replaces the chown rule in rules.d when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    create: yes
  when: audit_arch == 'b64'
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_chown
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
#   
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules
#
- name: Inserts/replaces the chown rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules when on x86
  lineinfile:
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_chown
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

- name: Inserts/replaces the chown rule in audit.rules when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: yes
  when: audit_arch == 'b64'
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_chown
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - removexattr   [ref]rule

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root.

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S removexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod


If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S removexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod


If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S removexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod


If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S removexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod

Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S removexattr.*"
	GROUP="perm_mod"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S removexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
	key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)' '|' "$full_rule" : '.*-F[[:space:]]key=\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
	# Check if particular audit rule is already defined
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
	done
	# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
	# * follow the rule pattern, and
	# * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
	# * are current syscall group specific
	IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS

	# Process rules found case-by-case
	for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
	do
		# Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
		if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
		then
			# If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
			rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
			# Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
			# of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
			if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
			then
				# Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
				# subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
				# Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
			else
				# Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
				# for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
				# group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
				# since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
				# Therefore:
				# * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
				# * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
				# keep those not belonging to this syscall group
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
				# * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
				# if the same rule not already present
				#
				# 1) Delete the original rule
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				# 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
				# Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
				IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
				# Reset IFS back to default
				unset IFS
				# Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
				new_syscalls_for_rule=''
				# Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
				for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
				do
					# Skip empty $syscall_arg values
					if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
					then
						continue
					fi
					# If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
					# (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
					if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
					then
						new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
					fi
				done
				# Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
				updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
				# Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
				updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
				# 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
				#    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
				if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
				then
					echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
				fi
			fi
		else
			# $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
			# architecture & key => don't insert it second time
			append_expected_rule=1
		fi
	done

	# We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
	# Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
	# Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
	if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
	then
		echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
	fi
done

return $retval

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict

#
# What architecture are we on?
#
- name: Set architecture for audit removexattr tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: "b{{ ansible_architecture | regex_replace('.*(\\d\\d$)','\\1') }}"

#
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/rules.d
#
- name: Search /etc/audit/rules.d for other DAC audit rules
  find:
    paths: "/etc/audit/rules.d"
    recurse: no
    contains: "-F key=perm_mod$"
    patterns: "*.rules"
  register: find_removexattr

- name: If existing DAC ruleset not found, use /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules
  when: find_removexattr.matched == 0

- name: Use matched file as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - "{{ find_removexattr.files | map(attribute='path') | list | first }}"
  when: find_removexattr.matched > 0

- name: Inserts/replaces the removexattr rule in rules.d when on x86
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S removexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    create: yes
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_removexattr
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

- name: Inserts/replaces the removexattr rule in rules.d when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S removexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    create: yes
  when: audit_arch == 'b64'
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_removexattr
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
#   
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules
#
- name: Inserts/replaces the removexattr rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules when on x86
  lineinfile:
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S removexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_removexattr
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

- name: Inserts/replaces the removexattr rule in audit.rules when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S removexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: yes
  when: audit_arch == 'b64'
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_removexattr
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - fchownat   [ref]rule

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchownat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchownat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchownat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchownat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod

Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.

Severity:  unknown

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S fchownat.*"
	GROUP="perm_mod"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S fchownat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
	key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)' '|' "$full_rule" : '.*-F[[:space:]]key=\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
	# Check if particular audit rule is already defined
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
	done
	# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
	# * follow the rule pattern, and
	# * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
	# * are current syscall group specific
	IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS

	# Process rules found case-by-case
	for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
	do
		# Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
		if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
		then
			# If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
			rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
			# Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
			# of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
			if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
			then
				# Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
				# subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
				# Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
			else
				# Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
				# for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
				# group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
				# since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
				# Therefore:
				# * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
				# * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
				# keep those not belonging to this syscall group
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
				# * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
				# if the same rule not already present
				#
				# 1) Delete the original rule
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				# 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
				# Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
				IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
				# Reset IFS back to default
				unset IFS
				# Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
				new_syscalls_for_rule=''
				# Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
				for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
				do
					# Skip empty $syscall_arg values
					if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
					then
						continue
					fi
					# If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
					# (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
					if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
					then
						new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
					fi
				done
				# Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
				updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
				# Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
				updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
				# 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
				#    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
				if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
				then
					echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
				fi
			fi
		else
			# $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
			# architecture & key => don't insert it second time
			append_expected_rule=1
		fi
	done

	# We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
	# Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
	# Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
	if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
	then
		echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
	fi
done

return $retval

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict

#
# What architecture are we on?
#
- name: Set architecture for audit fchownat tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: "b{{ ansible_architecture | regex_replace('.*(\\d\\d$)','\\1') }}"

#
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/rules.d
#
- name: Search /etc/audit/rules.d for other DAC audit rules
  find:
    paths: "/etc/audit/rules.d"
    recurse: no
    contains: "-F key=perm_mod$"
    patterns: "*.rules"
  register: find_fchownat

- name: If existing DAC ruleset not found, use /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules
  when: find_fchownat.matched == 0

- name: Use matched file as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - "{{ find_fchownat.files | map(attribute='path') | list | first }}"
  when: find_fchownat.matched > 0

- name: Inserts/replaces the fchownat rule in rules.d when on x86
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchownat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    create: yes
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchownat
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

- name: Inserts/replaces the fchownat rule in rules.d when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchownat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    create: yes
  when: audit_arch == 'b64'
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchownat
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
#   
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules
#
- name: Inserts/replaces the fchownat rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules when on x86
  lineinfile:
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchownat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchownat
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

- name: Inserts/replaces the fchownat rule in audit.rules when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchownat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: yes
  when: audit_arch == 'b64'
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchownat
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - chmod   [ref]rule

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod

Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.

Severity:  unknown

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S chmod.*"
	GROUP="perm_mod"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S chmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
	key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)' '|' "$full_rule" : '.*-F[[:space:]]key=\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
	# Check if particular audit rule is already defined
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
	done
	# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
	# * follow the rule pattern, and
	# * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
	# * are current syscall group specific
	IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS

	# Process rules found case-by-case
	for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
	do
		# Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
		if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
		then
			# If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
			rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
			# Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
			# of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
			if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
			then
				# Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
				# subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
				# Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
			else
				# Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
				# for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
				# group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
				# since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
				# Therefore:
				# * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
				# * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
				# keep those not belonging to this syscall group
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
				# * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
				# if the same rule not already present
				#
				# 1) Delete the original rule
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				# 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
				# Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
				IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
				# Reset IFS back to default
				unset IFS
				# Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
				new_syscalls_for_rule=''
				# Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
				for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
				do
					# Skip empty $syscall_arg values
					if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
					then
						continue
					fi
					# If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
					# (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
					if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
					then
						new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
					fi
				done
				# Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
				updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
				# Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
				updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
				# 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
				#    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
				if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
				then
					echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
				fi
			fi
		else
			# $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
			# architecture & key => don't insert it second time
			append_expected_rule=1
		fi
	done

	# We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
	# Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
	# Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
	if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
	then
		echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
	fi
done

return $retval

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict

#
# What architecture are we on?
#
- name: Set architecture for audit chmod tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: "b{{ ansible_architecture | regex_replace('.*(\\d\\d$)','\\1') }}"

#
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/rules.d
#
- name: Search /etc/audit/rules.d for other DAC audit rules
  find:
    paths: "/etc/audit/rules.d"
    recurse: no
    contains: "-F key=perm_mod$"
    patterns: "*.rules"
  register: find_chmod

- name: If existing DAC ruleset not found, use /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules
  when: find_chmod.matched == 0

- name: Use matched file as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - "{{ find_chmod.files | map(attribute='path') | list | first }}"
  when: find_chmod.matched > 0

- name: Inserts/replaces the chmod rule in rules.d when on x86
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    create: yes
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_chmod
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

- name: Inserts/replaces the chmod rule in rules.d when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    create: yes
  when: audit_arch == 'b64'
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_chmod
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
#   
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules
#
- name: Inserts/replaces the chmod rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules when on x86
  lineinfile:
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_chmod
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

- name: Inserts/replaces the chmod rule in audit.rules when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: yes
  when: audit_arch == 'b64'
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_chmod
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - fsetxattr   [ref]rule

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod

Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.

Severity:  unknown

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S fsetxattr.*"
	GROUP="perm_mod"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S fsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
	key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)' '|' "$full_rule" : '.*-F[[:space:]]key=\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
	# Check if particular audit rule is already defined
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
	done
	# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
	# * follow the rule pattern, and
	# * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
	# * are current syscall group specific
	IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS

	# Process rules found case-by-case
	for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
	do
		# Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
		if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
		then
			# If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
			rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
			# Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
			# of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
			if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
			then
				# Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
				# subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
				# Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
			else
				# Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
				# for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
				# group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
				# since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
				# Therefore:
				# * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
				# * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
				# keep those not belonging to this syscall group
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
				# * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
				# if the same rule not already present
				#
				# 1) Delete the original rule
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				# 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
				# Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
				IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
				# Reset IFS back to default
				unset IFS
				# Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
				new_syscalls_for_rule=''
				# Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
				for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
				do
					# Skip empty $syscall_arg values
					if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
					then
						continue
					fi
					# If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
					# (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
					if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
					then
						new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
					fi
				done
				# Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
				updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
				# Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
				updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
				# 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
				#    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
				if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
				then
					echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
				fi
			fi
		else
			# $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
			# architecture & key => don't insert it second time
			append_expected_rule=1
		fi
	done

	# We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
	# Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
	# Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
	if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
	then
		echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
	fi
done

return $retval

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict

#
# What architecture are we on?
#
- name: Set architecture for audit fsetxattr tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: "b{{ ansible_architecture | regex_replace('.*(\\d\\d$)','\\1') }}"

#
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/rules.d
#
- name: Search /etc/audit/rules.d for other DAC audit rules
  find:
    paths: "/etc/audit/rules.d"
    recurse: no
    contains: "-F key=perm_mod$"
    patterns: "*.rules"
  register: find_fsetxattr

- name: If existing DAC ruleset not found, use /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules
  when: find_fsetxattr.matched == 0

- name: Use matched file as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - "{{ find_fsetxattr.files | map(attribute='path') | list | first }}"
  when: find_fsetxattr.matched > 0

- name: Inserts/replaces the fsetxattr rule in rules.d when on x86
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    create: yes
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_fsetxattr
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

- name: Inserts/replaces the fsetxattr rule in rules.d when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    create: yes
  when: audit_arch == 'b64'
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_fsetxattr
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
#   
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules
#
- name: Inserts/replaces the fsetxattr rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules when on x86
  lineinfile:
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_fsetxattr
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

- name: Inserts/replaces the fsetxattr rule in audit.rules when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: yes
  when: audit_arch == 'b64'
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_fsetxattr
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - fchmod   [ref]rule

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod

Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.

Severity:  unknown

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S fchmod.*"
	GROUP="perm_mod"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S fchmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
	key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)' '|' "$full_rule" : '.*-F[[:space:]]key=\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
	# Check if particular audit rule is already defined
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
	done
	# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
	# * follow the rule pattern, and
	# * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
	# * are current syscall group specific
	IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS

	# Process rules found case-by-case
	for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
	do
		# Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
		if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
		then
			# If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
			rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
			# Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
			# of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
			if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
			then
				# Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
				# subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
				# Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
			else
				# Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
				# for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
				# group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
				# since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
				# Therefore:
				# * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
				# * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
				# keep those not belonging to this syscall group
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
				# * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
				# if the same rule not already present
				#
				# 1) Delete the original rule
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				# 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
				# Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
				IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
				# Reset IFS back to default
				unset IFS
				# Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
				new_syscalls_for_rule=''
				# Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
				for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
				do
					# Skip empty $syscall_arg values
					if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
					then
						continue
					fi
					# If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
					# (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
					if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
					then
						new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
					fi
				done
				# Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
				updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
				# Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
				updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
				# 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
				#    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
				if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
				then
					echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
				fi
			fi
		else
			# $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
			# architecture & key => don't insert it second time
			append_expected_rule=1
		fi
	done

	# We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
	# Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
	# Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
	if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
	then
		echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
	fi
done

return $retval

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict

#
# What architecture are we on?
#
- name: Set architecture for audit fchmod tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: "b{{ ansible_architecture | regex_replace('.*(\\d\\d$)','\\1') }}"

#
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/rules.d
#
- name: Search /etc/audit/rules.d for other DAC audit rules
  find:
    paths: "/etc/audit/rules.d"
    recurse: no
    contains: "-F key=perm_mod$"
    patterns: "*.rules"
  register: find_fchmod

- name: If existing DAC ruleset not found, use /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules
  when: find_fchmod.matched == 0

- name: Use matched file as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - "{{ find_fchmod.files | map(attribute='path') | list | first }}"
  when: find_fchmod.matched > 0

- name: Inserts/replaces the fchmod rule in rules.d when on x86
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    create: yes
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchmod
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

- name: Inserts/replaces the fchmod rule in rules.d when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    create: yes
  when: audit_arch == 'b64'
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchmod
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
#   
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules
#
- name: Inserts/replaces the fchmod rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules when on x86
  lineinfile:
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchmod
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

- name: Inserts/replaces the fchmod rule in audit.rules when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: yes
  when: audit_arch == 'b64'
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchmod
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - lsetxattr   [ref]rule

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S lsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S lsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S lsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S lsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod

Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.

Severity:  unknown

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S lsetxattr.*"
	GROUP="perm_mod"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S lsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
	key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)' '|' "$full_rule" : '.*-F[[:space:]]key=\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
	# Check if particular audit rule is already defined
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
	done
	# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
	# * follow the rule pattern, and
	# * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
	# * are current syscall group specific
	IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS

	# Process rules found case-by-case
	for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
	do
		# Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
		if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
		then
			# If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
			rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
			# Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
			# of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
			if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
			then
				# Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
				# subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
				# Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
			else
				# Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
				# for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
				# group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
				# since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
				# Therefore:
				# * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
				# * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
				# keep those not belonging to this syscall group
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
				# * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
				# if the same rule not already present
				#
				# 1) Delete the original rule
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				# 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
				# Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
				IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
				# Reset IFS back to default
				unset IFS
				# Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
				new_syscalls_for_rule=''
				# Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
				for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
				do
					# Skip empty $syscall_arg values
					if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
					then
						continue
					fi
					# If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
					# (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
					if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
					then
						new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
					fi
				done
				# Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
				updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
				# Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
				updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
				# 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
				#    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
				if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
				then
					echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
				fi
			fi
		else
			# $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
			# architecture & key => don't insert it second time
			append_expected_rule=1
		fi
	done

	# We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
	# Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
	# Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
	if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
	then
		echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
	fi
done

return $retval

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict

#
# What architecture are we on?
#
- name: Set architecture for audit lsetxattr tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: "b{{ ansible_architecture | regex_replace('.*(\\d\\d$)','\\1') }}"

#
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/rules.d
#
- name: Search /etc/audit/rules.d for other DAC audit rules
  find:
    paths: "/etc/audit/rules.d"
    recurse: no
    contains: "-F key=perm_mod$"
    patterns: "*.rules"
  register: find_lsetxattr

- name: If existing DAC ruleset not found, use /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules
  when: find_lsetxattr.matched == 0

- name: Use matched file as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - "{{ find_lsetxattr.files | map(attribute='path') | list | first }}"
  when: find_lsetxattr.matched > 0

- name: Inserts/replaces the lsetxattr rule in rules.d when on x86
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S lsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    create: yes
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_lsetxattr
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

- name: Inserts/replaces the lsetxattr rule in rules.d when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S lsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    create: yes
  when: audit_arch == 'b64'
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_lsetxattr
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
#   
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules
#
- name: Inserts/replaces the lsetxattr rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules when on x86
  lineinfile:
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S lsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_lsetxattr
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

- name: Inserts/replaces the lsetxattr rule in audit.rules when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S lsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: yes
  when: audit_arch == 'b64'
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_lsetxattr
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - fremovexattr   [ref]rule

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root.

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod


If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod


If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod


If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod

Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S fremovexattr.*"
	GROUP="perm_mod"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
	key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)' '|' "$full_rule" : '.*-F[[:space:]]key=\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
	# Check if particular audit rule is already defined
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
	done
	# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
	# * follow the rule pattern, and
	# * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
	# * are current syscall group specific
	IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS

	# Process rules found case-by-case
	for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
	do
		# Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
		if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
		then
			# If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
			rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
			# Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
			# of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
			if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
			then
				# Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
				# subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
				# Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
			else
				# Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
				# for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
				# group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
				# since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
				# Therefore:
				# * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
				# * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
				# keep those not belonging to this syscall group
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
				# * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
				# if the same rule not already present
				#
				# 1) Delete the original rule
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				# 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
				# Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
				IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
				# Reset IFS back to default
				unset IFS
				# Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
				new_syscalls_for_rule=''
				# Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
				for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
				do
					# Skip empty $syscall_arg values
					if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
					then
						continue
					fi
					# If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
					# (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
					if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
					then
						new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
					fi
				done
				# Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
				updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
				# Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
				updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
				# 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
				#    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
				if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
				then
					echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
				fi
			fi
		else
			# $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
			# architecture & key => don't insert it second time
			append_expected_rule=1
		fi
	done

	# We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
	# Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
	# Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
	if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
	then
		echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
	fi
done

return $retval

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict

#
# What architecture are we on?
#
- name: Set architecture for audit fremovexattr tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: "b{{ ansible_architecture | regex_replace('.*(\\d\\d$)','\\1') }}"

#
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/rules.d
#
- name: Search /etc/audit/rules.d for other DAC audit rules
  find:
    paths: "/etc/audit/rules.d"
    recurse: no
    contains: "-F key=perm_mod$"
    patterns: "*.rules"
  register: find_fremovexattr

- name: If existing DAC ruleset not found, use /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules
  when: find_fremovexattr.matched == 0

- name: Use matched file as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - "{{ find_fremovexattr.files | map(attribute='path') | list | first }}"
  when: find_fremovexattr.matched > 0

- name: Inserts/replaces the fremovexattr rule in rules.d when on x86
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    create: yes
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_fremovexattr
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

- name: Inserts/replaces the fremovexattr rule in rules.d when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    create: yes
  when: audit_arch == 'b64'
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_fremovexattr
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
#   
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules
#
- name: Inserts/replaces the fremovexattr rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules when on x86
  lineinfile:
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_fremovexattr
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

- name: Inserts/replaces the fremovexattr rule in audit.rules when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: yes
  when: audit_arch == 'b64'
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_fremovexattr
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - lchown   [ref]rule

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod

Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.

Severity:  unknown

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S lchown.*"
	GROUP="perm_mod"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
	key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)' '|' "$full_rule" : '.*-F[[:space:]]key=\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
	# Check if particular audit rule is already defined
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
	done
	# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
	# * follow the rule pattern, and
	# * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
	# * are current syscall group specific
	IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS

	# Process rules found case-by-case
	for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
	do
		# Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
		if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
		then
			# If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
			rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
			# Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
			# of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
			if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
			then
				# Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
				# subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
				# Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
			else
				# Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
				# for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
				# group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
				# since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
				# Therefore:
				# * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
				# * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
				# keep those not belonging to this syscall group
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
				# * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
				# if the same rule not already present
				#
				# 1) Delete the original rule
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				# 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
				# Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
				IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
				# Reset IFS back to default
				unset IFS
				# Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
				new_syscalls_for_rule=''
				# Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
				for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
				do
					# Skip empty $syscall_arg values
					if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
					then
						continue
					fi
					# If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
					# (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
					if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
					then
						new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
					fi
				done
				# Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
				updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
				# Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
				updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
				# 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
				#    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
				if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
				then
					echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
				fi
			fi
		else
			# $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
			# architecture & key => don't insert it second time
			append_expected_rule=1
		fi
	done

	# We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
	# Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
	# Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
	if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
	then
		echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
	fi
done

return $retval

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict

#
# What architecture are we on?
#
- name: Set architecture for audit lchown tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: "b{{ ansible_architecture | regex_replace('.*(\\d\\d$)','\\1') }}"

#
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/rules.d
#
- name: Search /etc/audit/rules.d for other DAC audit rules
  find:
    paths: "/etc/audit/rules.d"
    recurse: no
    contains: "-F key=perm_mod$"
    patterns: "*.rules"
  register: find_lchown

- name: If existing DAC ruleset not found, use /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules
  when: find_lchown.matched == 0

- name: Use matched file as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - "{{ find_lchown.files | map(attribute='path') | list | first }}"
  when: find_lchown.matched > 0

- name: Inserts/replaces the lchown rule in rules.d when on x86
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    create: yes
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_lchown
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

- name: Inserts/replaces the lchown rule in rules.d when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    create: yes
  when: audit_arch == 'b64'
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_lchown
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
#   
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules
#
- name: Inserts/replaces the lchown rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules when on x86
  lineinfile:
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_lchown
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

- name: Inserts/replaces the lchown rule in audit.rules when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: yes
  when: audit_arch == 'b64'
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_lchown
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - fchmodat   [ref]rule

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod

Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.

Severity:  unknown

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S fchmodat.*"
	GROUP="perm_mod"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
	key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)' '|' "$full_rule" : '.*-F[[:space:]]key=\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
	# Check if particular audit rule is already defined
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
	done
	# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
	# * follow the rule pattern, and
	# * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
	# * are current syscall group specific
	IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS

	# Process rules found case-by-case
	for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
	do
		# Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
		if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
		then
			# If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
			rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
			# Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
			# of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
			if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
			then
				# Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
				# subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
				# Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
			else
				# Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
				# for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
				# group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
				# since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
				# Therefore:
				# * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
				# * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
				# keep those not belonging to this syscall group
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
				# * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
				# if the same rule not already present
				#
				# 1) Delete the original rule
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				# 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
				# Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
				IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
				# Reset IFS back to default
				unset IFS
				# Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
				new_syscalls_for_rule=''
				# Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
				for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
				do
					# Skip empty $syscall_arg values
					if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
					then
						continue
					fi
					# If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
					# (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
					if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
					then
						new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
					fi
				done
				# Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
				updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
				# Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
				updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
				# 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
				#    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
				if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
				then
					echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
				fi
			fi
		else
			# $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
			# architecture & key => don't insert it second time
			append_expected_rule=1
		fi
	done

	# We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
	# Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
	# Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
	if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
	then
		echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
	fi
done

return $retval

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict

#
# What architecture are we on?
#
- name: Set architecture for audit fchmodat tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: "b{{ ansible_architecture | regex_replace('.*(\\d\\d$)','\\1') }}"

#
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/rules.d
#
- name: Search /etc/audit/rules.d for other DAC audit rules
  find:
    paths: "/etc/audit/rules.d"
    recurse: no
    contains: "-F key=perm_mod$"
    patterns: "*.rules"
  register: find_fchmodat

- name: If existing DAC ruleset not found, use /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules
  when: find_fchmodat.matched == 0

- name: Use matched file as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - "{{ find_fchmodat.files | map(attribute='path') | list | first }}"
  when: find_fchmodat.matched > 0

- name: Inserts/replaces the fchmodat rule in rules.d when on x86
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    create: yes
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchmodat
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

- name: Inserts/replaces the fchmodat rule in rules.d when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    create: yes
  when: audit_arch == 'b64'
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchmodat
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
#   
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules
#
- name: Inserts/replaces the fchmodat rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules when on x86
  lineinfile:
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchmodat
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

- name: Inserts/replaces the fchmodat rule in audit.rules when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: yes
  when: audit_arch == 'b64'
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchmodat
    - unknown_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - lremovexattr   [ref]rule

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root.

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S lremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod


If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S lremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod


If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S lremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod


If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S lremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod

Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:

The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S lremovexattr.*"
	GROUP="perm_mod"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S lremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
	key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)' '|' "$full_rule" : '.*-F[[:space:]]key=\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
	# Check if particular audit rule is already defined
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
	done
	# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
	# * follow the rule pattern, and
	# * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
	# * are current syscall group specific
	IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS

	# Process rules found case-by-case
	for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
	do
		# Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
		if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
		then
			# If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
			rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
			# Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
			# of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
			if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
			then
				# Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
				# subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
				# Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
			else
				# Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
				# for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
				# group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
				# since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
				# Therefore:
				# * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
				# * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
				# keep those not belonging to this syscall group
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
				# * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
				# if the same rule not already present
				#
				# 1) Delete the original rule
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				# 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
				# Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
				IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
				# Reset IFS back to default
				unset IFS
				# Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
				new_syscalls_for_rule=''
				# Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
				for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
				do
					# Skip empty $syscall_arg values
					if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
					then
						continue
					fi
					# If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
					# (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
					if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
					then
						new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
					fi
				done
				# Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
				updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
				# Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
				updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
				# 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
				#    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
				if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
				then
					echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
				fi
			fi
		else
			# $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
			# architecture & key => don't insert it second time
			append_expected_rule=1
		fi
	done

	# We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
	# Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
	# Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
	if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
	then
		echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
	fi
done

return $retval

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict

#
# What architecture are we on?
#
- name: Set architecture for audit lremovexattr tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: "b{{ ansible_architecture | regex_replace('.*(\\d\\d$)','\\1') }}"

#
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/rules.d
#
- name: Search /etc/audit/rules.d for other DAC audit rules
  find:
    paths: "/etc/audit/rules.d"
    recurse: no
    contains: "-F key=perm_mod$"
    patterns: "*.rules"
  register: find_lremovexattr

- name: If existing DAC ruleset not found, use /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules
  when: find_lremovexattr.matched == 0

- name: Use matched file as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - "{{ find_lremovexattr.files | map(attribute='path') | list | first }}"
  when: find_lremovexattr.matched > 0

- name: Inserts/replaces the lremovexattr rule in rules.d when on x86
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S lremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    create: yes
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_lremovexattr
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

- name: Inserts/replaces the lremovexattr rule in rules.d when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S lremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    create: yes
  when: audit_arch == 'b64'
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_lremovexattr
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1
#   
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules
#
- name: Inserts/replaces the lremovexattr rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules when on x86
  lineinfile:
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S lremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_lremovexattr
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

- name: Inserts/replaces the lremovexattr rule in audit.rules when on x86_64
  lineinfile:
    line: "-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S lremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
    create: yes
  when: audit_arch == 'b64'
  tags:
    - audit_rules_dac_modification_lremovexattr
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

Record Events that Modify the System's Network Environment   [ref]rule

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:

-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S sethostname,setdomainname -F key=audit_rules_networkconfig_modification
-w /etc/issue -p wa -k audit_rules_networkconfig_modification
-w /etc/issue.net -p wa -k audit_rules_networkconfig_modification
-w /etc/hosts -p wa -k audit_rules_networkconfig_modification
-w /etc/sysconfig/network -p wa -k audit_rules_networkconfig_modification
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S sethostname,setdomainname -F key=audit_rules_networkconfig_modification
-w /etc/issue -p wa -k audit_rules_networkconfig_modification
-w /etc/issue.net -p wa -k audit_rules_networkconfig_modification
-w /etc/hosts -p wa -k audit_rules_networkconfig_modification
-w /etc/sysconfig/network -p wa -k audit_rules_networkconfig_modification

Rationale:

The network environment should not be modified by anything other than administrator action. Any change to network parameters should be audited.

Severity:  unknown

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ $(getconf LONG_BIT) = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	PATTERN="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S .* -k *"
	# Use escaped BRE regex to specify rule group
	GROUP="set\(host\|domain\)name"
	FULL_RULE="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH -S sethostname -S setdomainname -k audit_rules_networkconfig_modification"
	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix syscall audit rule for given system call. It is
# based on example audit syscall rule definitions as outlined in
# /usr/share/doc/audit-2.3.7/stig.rules file provided with the audit
# package. It will combine multiple system calls belonging to the same
# syscall group into one audit rule (rather than to create audit rule per
# different system call) to avoid audit infrastructure performance penalty
# in the case of 'one-audit-rule-definition-per-one-system-call'. See:
#
#   https://www.redhat.com/archives/linux-audit/2014-November/msg00009.html
#
# for further details.
#
# Expects five arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules
# * audit rules' pattern		audit rule skeleton for same syscall
# * syscall group			greatest common string this rule shares
# 					with other rules from the same group
# * architecture			architecture this rule is intended for
# * full form of new rule to add	expected full form of audit rule as to be
# 					added into audit.rules file
#
# Note: The 2-th up to 4-th arguments are used to determine how many existing
# audit rules will be inspected for resemblance with the new audit rule
# (5-th argument) the function is going to add. The rule's similarity check
# is performed to optimize audit.rules definition (merge syscalls of the same
# group into one rule) to avoid the "single-syscall-per-audit-rule" performance
# penalty.
#
# Example call:
#
#	See e.g. 'audit_rules_file_deletion_events.sh' remediation script
#
function fix_audit_syscall_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local pattern="$2"
local group="$3"
local arch="$4"
local full_rule="$5"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "5" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_syscall_rule 'tool' 'pattern' 'group' 'arch' 'full rule'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
# 
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
declare -a files_to_inspect

retval=0

# First check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	return 1
# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules' )
# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Extract audit $key from audit rule so we can use it later
	key=$(expr "$full_rule" : '.*-k[[:space:]]\([^[:space:]]\+\)' '|' "$full_rule" : '.*-F[[:space:]]key=\([^[:space:]]\+\)')
	# Check if particular audit rule is already defined
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(sed -s -n -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d;F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "${match}")
	done
	# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

#
# Indicator that we want to append $full_rule into $audit_file by default
local append_expected_rule=0

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that:
	# * follow the rule pattern, and
	# * meet the hardware architecture requirement, and
	# * are current syscall group specific
	IFS=$'\n' existing_rules=($(sed -e "\;${pattern};!d" -e "/${arch}/!d" -e "/${group}/!d"  "$audit_file"))
	if [ $? -ne 0 ]
	then
		retval=1
	fi
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS

	# Process rules found case-by-case
	for rule in "${existing_rules[@]}"
	do
		# Found rule is for same arch & key, but differs (e.g. in count of -S arguments)
		if [ "${rule}" != "${full_rule}" ]
		then
			# If so, isolate just '(-S \w)+' substring of that rule
			rule_syscalls=$(echo $rule | grep -o -P '(-S \w+ )+')
			# Check if list of '-S syscall' arguments of that rule is subset
			# of '-S syscall' list of expected $full_rule
			if grep -q -- "$rule_syscalls" <<< "$full_rule"
			then
				# Rule is covered (i.e. the list of -S syscalls for this rule is
				# subset of -S syscalls of $full_rule => existing rule can be deleted
				# Thus delete the rule from audit.rules & our array
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				existing_rules=("${existing_rules[@]//$rule/}")
			else
				# Rule isn't covered by $full_rule - it besides -S syscall arguments
				# for this group contains also -S syscall arguments for other syscall
				# group. Example: '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' => group='chown'
				# since 'lchown' & 'fchownat' share 'chown' substring
				# Therefore:
				# * 1) delete the original rule from audit.rules
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' rule would be deleted)
				# * 2) delete the -S syscall arguments for this syscall group, but
				# keep those not belonging to this syscall group
				# (original '-S lchown -S fchmod -S fchownat' would become '-S fchmod'
				# * 3) append the modified (filtered) rule again into audit.rules
				# if the same rule not already present
				#
				# 1) Delete the original rule
				sed -i -e "\;${rule};d" "$audit_file"
				if [ $? -ne 0 ]
				then
					retval=1
				fi
				# 2) Delete syscalls for this group, but keep those from other groups
				# Convert current rule syscall's string into array splitting by '-S' delimiter
				IFS=$'-S' read -a rule_syscalls_as_array <<< "$rule_syscalls"
				# Reset IFS back to default
				unset IFS
				# Declare new empty string to hold '-S syscall' arguments from other groups
				new_syscalls_for_rule=''
				# Walk through existing '-S syscall' arguments
				for syscall_arg in "${rule_syscalls_as_array[@]}"
				do
					# Skip empty $syscall_arg values
					if [ "$syscall_arg" == '' ]
					then
						continue
					fi
					# If the '-S syscall' doesn't belong to current group add it to the new list
					# (together with adding '-S' delimiter back for each of such item found)
					if grep -q -v -- "$group" <<< "$syscall_arg"
					then
						new_syscalls_for_rule="$new_syscalls_for_rule -S $syscall_arg"
					fi
				done
				# Replace original '-S syscall' list with the new one for this rule
				updated_rule=${rule//$rule_syscalls/$new_syscalls_for_rule}
				# Squeeze repeated whitespace characters in rule definition (if any) into one
				updated_rule=$(echo "$updated_rule" | tr -s '[:space:]')
				# 3) Append the modified / filtered rule again into audit.rules
				#    (but only in case it's not present yet to prevent duplicate definitions)
				if ! grep -q -- "$updated_rule" "$audit_file"
				then
					echo "$updated_rule" >> "$audit_file"
				fi
			fi
		else
			# $audit_file already contains the expected rule form for this
			# architecture & key => don't insert it second time
			append_expected_rule=1
		fi
	done

	# We deleted all rules that were subset of the expected one for this arch & key.
	# Also isolated rules containing system calls not from this system calls group.
	# Now append the expected rule if it's not present in $audit_file yet
	if [[ ${append_expected_rule} -eq "0" ]]
	then
		echo "$full_rule" >> "$audit_file"
	fi
done

return $retval

}

	fix_audit_syscall_rule "auditctl" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
	fix_audit_syscall_rule "augenrules" "$PATTERN" "$GROUP" "$ARCH" "$FULL_RULE"
done

# Then perform the remediations for the watch rules
# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix audit file system object watch rule for given path:
# * if rule exists, also verifies the -w bits match the requirements
# * if rule doesn't exist yet, appends expected rule form to $files_to_inspect
#   audit rules file, depending on the tool which was used to load audit rules
#
# Expects four arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules'
# * path                        	value of -w audit rule's argument
# * required access bits        	value of -p audit rule's argument
# * key                         	value of -k audit rule's argument
#
# Example call:
#
#       fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/localtime" "wa" "audit_time_rules"
#
function fix_audit_watch_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local path="$2"
local required_access_bits="$3"
local key="$4"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "4" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_watch_rule 'tool' 'path' 'bits' 'key'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Tool used to load audit rules	| Rule already defined	|  Audit rules file to inspect	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#	auditctl		|     Doesn't matter	|  /etc/audit/audit.rules	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# 	augenrules		|          Yes		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules	  |
# 	augenrules		|          No		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
declare -a files_to_inspect

# Check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	exit 1
# If the audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# into the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules')
# If the audit is 'augenrules', then check if rule is already defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to list of files for inspection.
# If rule isn't defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to list of files for inspection.
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Case when particular audit rule is already defined in some of /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules file
	# Get pair -- filepath : matching_row into @matches array
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(grep -P "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	# For each of the matched entries
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		# Extract filepath from the match
		rulesd_audit_file=$(echo $match | cut -f1 -d ':')
		# Append that path into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "$rulesd_audit_file")
	done
	# Case when particular audit rule isn't defined yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		# Append '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		# If the $key.rules file doesn't exist yet, create it with correct permissions
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

# Finally perform the inspection and possible subsequent audit rule
# correction for each of the files previously identified for inspection
for audit_rules_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Check if audit watch file system object rule for given path already present
	if grep -q -P -- "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" "$audit_rules_file"
	then
		# Rule is found => verify yet if existing rule definition contains
		# all of the required access type bits

		# Escape slashes in path for use in sed pattern below
		local esc_path=${path//$'/'/$'\/'}
		# Define BRE whitespace class shortcut
		local sp="[[:space:]]"
		# Extract current permission access types (e.g. -p [r|w|x|a] values) from audit rule
		current_access_bits=$(sed -ne "s/$sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\).*/\1/p" "$audit_rules_file")
		# Split required access bits string into characters array
		# (to check bit's presence for one bit at a time)
		for access_bit in $(echo "$required_access_bits" | grep -o .)
		do
			# For each from the required access bits (e.g. 'w', 'a') check
			# if they are already present in current access bits for rule.
			# If not, append that bit at the end
			if ! grep -q "$access_bit" <<< "$current_access_bits"
			then
				# Concatenate the existing mask with the missing bit
				current_access_bits="$current_access_bits$access_bit"
			fi
		done
		# Propagate the updated rule's access bits (original + the required
		# ones) back into the /etc/audit/audit.rules file for that rule
		sed -i "s/\($sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\)\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\)\(.*\)/\1$current_access_bits\3/" "$audit_rules_file"
	else
		# Rule isn't present yet. Append it at the end of $audit_rules_file file
		# with proper key

		echo "-w $path -p $required_access_bits -k $key" >> "$audit_rules_file"
	fi
done
}

fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/issue" "wa" "audit_rules_networkconfig_modification"
fix_audit_watch_rule "augenrules" "/etc/issue" "wa" "audit_rules_networkconfig_modification"
# Function to fix audit file system object watch rule for given path:
# * if rule exists, also verifies the -w bits match the requirements
# * if rule doesn't exist yet, appends expected rule form to $files_to_inspect
#   audit rules file, depending on the tool which was used to load audit rules
#
# Expects four arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules'
# * path                        	value of -w audit rule's argument
# * required access bits        	value of -p audit rule's argument
# * key                         	value of -k audit rule's argument
#
# Example call:
#
#       fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/localtime" "wa" "audit_time_rules"
#
function fix_audit_watch_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local path="$2"
local required_access_bits="$3"
local key="$4"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "4" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_watch_rule 'tool' 'path' 'bits' 'key'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Tool used to load audit rules	| Rule already defined	|  Audit rules file to inspect	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#	auditctl		|     Doesn't matter	|  /etc/audit/audit.rules	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# 	augenrules		|          Yes		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules	  |
# 	augenrules		|          No		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
declare -a files_to_inspect

# Check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	exit 1
# If the audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# into the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules')
# If the audit is 'augenrules', then check if rule is already defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to list of files for inspection.
# If rule isn't defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to list of files for inspection.
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Case when particular audit rule is already defined in some of /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules file
	# Get pair -- filepath : matching_row into @matches array
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(grep -P "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	# For each of the matched entries
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		# Extract filepath from the match
		rulesd_audit_file=$(echo $match | cut -f1 -d ':')
		# Append that path into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "$rulesd_audit_file")
	done
	# Case when particular audit rule isn't defined yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		# Append '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		# If the $key.rules file doesn't exist yet, create it with correct permissions
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

# Finally perform the inspection and possible subsequent audit rule
# correction for each of the files previously identified for inspection
for audit_rules_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Check if audit watch file system object rule for given path already present
	if grep -q -P -- "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" "$audit_rules_file"
	then
		# Rule is found => verify yet if existing rule definition contains
		# all of the required access type bits

		# Escape slashes in path for use in sed pattern below
		local esc_path=${path//$'/'/$'\/'}
		# Define BRE whitespace class shortcut
		local sp="[[:space:]]"
		# Extract current permission access types (e.g. -p [r|w|x|a] values) from audit rule
		current_access_bits=$(sed -ne "s/$sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\).*/\1/p" "$audit_rules_file")
		# Split required access bits string into characters array
		# (to check bit's presence for one bit at a time)
		for access_bit in $(echo "$required_access_bits" | grep -o .)
		do
			# For each from the required access bits (e.g. 'w', 'a') check
			# if they are already present in current access bits for rule.
			# If not, append that bit at the end
			if ! grep -q "$access_bit" <<< "$current_access_bits"
			then
				# Concatenate the existing mask with the missing bit
				current_access_bits="$current_access_bits$access_bit"
			fi
		done
		# Propagate the updated rule's access bits (original + the required
		# ones) back into the /etc/audit/audit.rules file for that rule
		sed -i "s/\($sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\)\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\)\(.*\)/\1$current_access_bits\3/" "$audit_rules_file"
	else
		# Rule isn't present yet. Append it at the end of $audit_rules_file file
		# with proper key

		echo "-w $path -p $required_access_bits -k $key" >> "$audit_rules_file"
	fi
done
}

fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/issue.net" "wa" "audit_rules_networkconfig_modification"
fix_audit_watch_rule "augenrules" "/etc/issue.net" "wa" "audit_rules_networkconfig_modification"
# Function to fix audit file system object watch rule for given path:
# * if rule exists, also verifies the -w bits match the requirements
# * if rule doesn't exist yet, appends expected rule form to $files_to_inspect
#   audit rules file, depending on the tool which was used to load audit rules
#
# Expects four arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules'
# * path                        	value of -w audit rule's argument
# * required access bits        	value of -p audit rule's argument
# * key                         	value of -k audit rule's argument
#
# Example call:
#
#       fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/localtime" "wa" "audit_time_rules"
#
function fix_audit_watch_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local path="$2"
local required_access_bits="$3"
local key="$4"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "4" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_watch_rule 'tool' 'path' 'bits' 'key'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Tool used to load audit rules	| Rule already defined	|  Audit rules file to inspect	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#	auditctl		|     Doesn't matter	|  /etc/audit/audit.rules	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# 	augenrules		|          Yes		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules	  |
# 	augenrules		|          No		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
declare -a files_to_inspect

# Check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	exit 1
# If the audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# into the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules')
# If the audit is 'augenrules', then check if rule is already defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to list of files for inspection.
# If rule isn't defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to list of files for inspection.
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Case when particular audit rule is already defined in some of /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules file
	# Get pair -- filepath : matching_row into @matches array
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(grep -P "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	# For each of the matched entries
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		# Extract filepath from the match
		rulesd_audit_file=$(echo $match | cut -f1 -d ':')
		# Append that path into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "$rulesd_audit_file")
	done
	# Case when particular audit rule isn't defined yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		# Append '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		# If the $key.rules file doesn't exist yet, create it with correct permissions
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

# Finally perform the inspection and possible subsequent audit rule
# correction for each of the files previously identified for inspection
for audit_rules_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Check if audit watch file system object rule for given path already present
	if grep -q -P -- "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" "$audit_rules_file"
	then
		# Rule is found => verify yet if existing rule definition contains
		# all of the required access type bits

		# Escape slashes in path for use in sed pattern below
		local esc_path=${path//$'/'/$'\/'}
		# Define BRE whitespace class shortcut
		local sp="[[:space:]]"
		# Extract current permission access types (e.g. -p [r|w|x|a] values) from audit rule
		current_access_bits=$(sed -ne "s/$sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\).*/\1/p" "$audit_rules_file")
		# Split required access bits string into characters array
		# (to check bit's presence for one bit at a time)
		for access_bit in $(echo "$required_access_bits" | grep -o .)
		do
			# For each from the required access bits (e.g. 'w', 'a') check
			# if they are already present in current access bits for rule.
			# If not, append that bit at the end
			if ! grep -q "$access_bit" <<< "$current_access_bits"
			then
				# Concatenate the existing mask with the missing bit
				current_access_bits="$current_access_bits$access_bit"
			fi
		done
		# Propagate the updated rule's access bits (original + the required
		# ones) back into the /etc/audit/audit.rules file for that rule
		sed -i "s/\($sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\)\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\)\(.*\)/\1$current_access_bits\3/" "$audit_rules_file"
	else
		# Rule isn't present yet. Append it at the end of $audit_rules_file file
		# with proper key

		echo "-w $path -p $required_access_bits -k $key" >> "$audit_rules_file"
	fi
done
}

fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/hosts" "wa" "audit_rules_networkconfig_modification"
fix_audit_watch_rule "augenrules" "/etc/hosts" "wa" "audit_rules_networkconfig_modification"
# Function to fix audit file system object watch rule for given path:
# * if rule exists, also verifies the -w bits match the requirements
# * if rule doesn't exist yet, appends expected rule form to $files_to_inspect
#   audit rules file, depending on the tool which was used to load audit rules
#
# Expects four arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules'
# * path                        	value of -w audit rule's argument
# * required access bits        	value of -p audit rule's argument
# * key                         	value of -k audit rule's argument
#
# Example call:
#
#       fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/localtime" "wa" "audit_time_rules"
#
function fix_audit_watch_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local path="$2"
local required_access_bits="$3"
local key="$4"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "4" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_watch_rule 'tool' 'path' 'bits' 'key'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Tool used to load audit rules	| Rule already defined	|  Audit rules file to inspect	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#	auditctl		|     Doesn't matter	|  /etc/audit/audit.rules	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# 	augenrules		|          Yes		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules	  |
# 	augenrules		|          No		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
declare -a files_to_inspect

# Check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	exit 1
# If the audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# into the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules')
# If the audit is 'augenrules', then check if rule is already defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to list of files for inspection.
# If rule isn't defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to list of files for inspection.
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Case when particular audit rule is already defined in some of /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules file
	# Get pair -- filepath : matching_row into @matches array
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(grep -P "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	# For each of the matched entries
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		# Extract filepath from the match
		rulesd_audit_file=$(echo $match | cut -f1 -d ':')
		# Append that path into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "$rulesd_audit_file")
	done
	# Case when particular audit rule isn't defined yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		# Append '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		# If the $key.rules file doesn't exist yet, create it with correct permissions
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

# Finally perform the inspection and possible subsequent audit rule
# correction for each of the files previously identified for inspection
for audit_rules_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Check if audit watch file system object rule for given path already present
	if grep -q -P -- "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" "$audit_rules_file"
	then
		# Rule is found => verify yet if existing rule definition contains
		# all of the required access type bits

		# Escape slashes in path for use in sed pattern below
		local esc_path=${path//$'/'/$'\/'}
		# Define BRE whitespace class shortcut
		local sp="[[:space:]]"
		# Extract current permission access types (e.g. -p [r|w|x|a] values) from audit rule
		current_access_bits=$(sed -ne "s/$sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\).*/\1/p" "$audit_rules_file")
		# Split required access bits string into characters array
		# (to check bit's presence for one bit at a time)
		for access_bit in $(echo "$required_access_bits" | grep -o .)
		do
			# For each from the required access bits (e.g. 'w', 'a') check
			# if they are already present in current access bits for rule.
			# If not, append that bit at the end
			if ! grep -q "$access_bit" <<< "$current_access_bits"
			then
				# Concatenate the existing mask with the missing bit
				current_access_bits="$current_access_bits$access_bit"
			fi
		done
		# Propagate the updated rule's access bits (original + the required
		# ones) back into the /etc/audit/audit.rules file for that rule
		sed -i "s/\($sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\)\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\)\(.*\)/\1$current_access_bits\3/" "$audit_rules_file"
	else
		# Rule isn't present yet. Append it at the end of $audit_rules_file file
		# with proper key

		echo "-w $path -p $required_access_bits -k $key" >> "$audit_rules_file"
	fi
done
}

fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/sysconfig/network" "wa" "audit_rules_networkconfig_modification"
fix_audit_watch_rule "augenrules" "/etc/sysconfig/network" "wa" "audit_rules_networkconfig_modification"

Record Events that Modify User/Group Information - /etc/shadow   [ref]rule

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d, in order to capture events that modify account changes:

-w /etc/shadow -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification


If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file, in order to capture events that modify account changes:

-w /etc/shadow -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification

Rationale:

In addition to auditing new user and group accounts, these watches will alert the system administrator(s) to any modifications. Any unexpected users, groups, or modifications should be investigated for legitimacy.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix audit file system object watch rule for given path:
# * if rule exists, also verifies the -w bits match the requirements
# * if rule doesn't exist yet, appends expected rule form to $files_to_inspect
#   audit rules file, depending on the tool which was used to load audit rules
#
# Expects four arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules'
# * path                        	value of -w audit rule's argument
# * required access bits        	value of -p audit rule's argument
# * key                         	value of -k audit rule's argument
#
# Example call:
#
#       fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/localtime" "wa" "audit_time_rules"
#
function fix_audit_watch_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local path="$2"
local required_access_bits="$3"
local key="$4"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "4" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_watch_rule 'tool' 'path' 'bits' 'key'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Tool used to load audit rules	| Rule already defined	|  Audit rules file to inspect	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#	auditctl		|     Doesn't matter	|  /etc/audit/audit.rules	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# 	augenrules		|          Yes		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules	  |
# 	augenrules		|          No		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
declare -a files_to_inspect

# Check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	exit 1
# If the audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# into the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules')
# If the audit is 'augenrules', then check if rule is already defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to list of files for inspection.
# If rule isn't defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to list of files for inspection.
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Case when particular audit rule is already defined in some of /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules file
	# Get pair -- filepath : matching_row into @matches array
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(grep -P "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	# For each of the matched entries
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		# Extract filepath from the match
		rulesd_audit_file=$(echo $match | cut -f1 -d ':')
		# Append that path into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "$rulesd_audit_file")
	done
	# Case when particular audit rule isn't defined yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		# Append '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		# If the $key.rules file doesn't exist yet, create it with correct permissions
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

# Finally perform the inspection and possible subsequent audit rule
# correction for each of the files previously identified for inspection
for audit_rules_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Check if audit watch file system object rule for given path already present
	if grep -q -P -- "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" "$audit_rules_file"
	then
		# Rule is found => verify yet if existing rule definition contains
		# all of the required access type bits

		# Escape slashes in path for use in sed pattern below
		local esc_path=${path//$'/'/$'\/'}
		# Define BRE whitespace class shortcut
		local sp="[[:space:]]"
		# Extract current permission access types (e.g. -p [r|w|x|a] values) from audit rule
		current_access_bits=$(sed -ne "s/$sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\).*/\1/p" "$audit_rules_file")
		# Split required access bits string into characters array
		# (to check bit's presence for one bit at a time)
		for access_bit in $(echo "$required_access_bits" | grep -o .)
		do
			# For each from the required access bits (e.g. 'w', 'a') check
			# if they are already present in current access bits for rule.
			# If not, append that bit at the end
			if ! grep -q "$access_bit" <<< "$current_access_bits"
			then
				# Concatenate the existing mask with the missing bit
				current_access_bits="$current_access_bits$access_bit"
			fi
		done
		# Propagate the updated rule's access bits (original + the required
		# ones) back into the /etc/audit/audit.rules file for that rule
		sed -i "s/\($sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\)\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\)\(.*\)/\1$current_access_bits\3/" "$audit_rules_file"
	else
		# Rule isn't present yet. Append it at the end of $audit_rules_file file
		# with proper key

		echo "-w $path -p $required_access_bits -k $key" >> "$audit_rules_file"
	fi
done
}

fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/shadow" "wa" "audit_rules_usergroup_modification"
fix_audit_watch_rule "augenrules" "/etc/shadow" "wa" "audit_rules_usergroup_modification"
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict

#
# What architecture are we on?
#
- name: Set architecture for audit shadow tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: "b{{ ansible_architecture | regex_replace('.*(\\d\\d$)','\\1') }}"

#
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/rules.d
#
- name: Search /etc/audit/rules.d for other user/group modification audit rules
  find:
    paths: "/etc/audit/rules.d"
    recurse: no
    contains: "-k audit_rules_usergroup_modification$"
    patterns: "*.rules"
  register: find_shadow

- name: If existing user/group modification ruleset not found, use /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules
  when: find_shadow.matched == 0

- name: Use matched file as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - "{{ find_shadow.files | map(attribute='path') | list | first }}"
  when: find_shadow.matched > 0

- name: Inserts/replaces the shadow rule in rules.d when on x86
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-w /etc/shadow -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification"
    create: yes
  tags:
    - audit_rules_usergroup_modification_shadow
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-2(4)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

#   
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules
#
- name: Inserts/replaces the shadow rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules
  lineinfile:
    line: "-w /etc/shadow -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
  tags:
    - audit_rules_usergroup_modification_shadow
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-2(4)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

System Audit Logs Must Be Owned By Root   [ref]rule

All audit logs must be owned by root user and group. By default, the path for audit log is

/var/log/audit/
. To properly set the owner of /var/log/audit, run the command:
$ sudo chown root /var/log/audit 
To properly set the owner of /var/log/audit/*, run the command:
$ sudo chown root /var/log/audit/* 

Rationale:

Unauthorized disclosure of audit records can reveal system and configuration data to attackers, thus compromising its confidentiality.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)


if LC_ALL=C grep -m 1 -q ^log_group /etc/audit/auditd.conf; then
  GROUP=$(awk -F "=" '/log_group/ {print $2}' /etc/audit/auditd.conf | tr -d ' ')
  if ! [ "${GROUP}" == 'root' ] ; then
    chown root.${GROUP} /var/log/audit
    chown root.${GROUP} /var/log/audit/audit.log*
  else
    chown root.root /var/log/audit
    chown root.root /var/log/audit/audit.log*
  fi
else
  chown root.root /var/log/audit
  chown root.root /var/log/audit/audit.log*
fi

Record Events that Modify User/Group Information - /etc/security/opasswd   [ref]rule

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d, in order to capture events that modify account changes:

-w /etc/security/opasswd -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification


If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file, in order to capture events that modify account changes:

-w /etc/security/opasswd -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification

Rationale:

In addition to auditing new user and group accounts, these watches will alert the system administrator(s) to any modifications. Any unexpected users, groups, or modifications should be investigated for legitimacy.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix audit file system object watch rule for given path:
# * if rule exists, also verifies the -w bits match the requirements
# * if rule doesn't exist yet, appends expected rule form to $files_to_inspect
#   audit rules file, depending on the tool which was used to load audit rules
#
# Expects four arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules'
# * path                        	value of -w audit rule's argument
# * required access bits        	value of -p audit rule's argument
# * key                         	value of -k audit rule's argument
#
# Example call:
#
#       fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/localtime" "wa" "audit_time_rules"
#
function fix_audit_watch_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local path="$2"
local required_access_bits="$3"
local key="$4"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "4" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_watch_rule 'tool' 'path' 'bits' 'key'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Tool used to load audit rules	| Rule already defined	|  Audit rules file to inspect	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#	auditctl		|     Doesn't matter	|  /etc/audit/audit.rules	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# 	augenrules		|          Yes		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules	  |
# 	augenrules		|          No		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
declare -a files_to_inspect

# Check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	exit 1
# If the audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# into the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules')
# If the audit is 'augenrules', then check if rule is already defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to list of files for inspection.
# If rule isn't defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to list of files for inspection.
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Case when particular audit rule is already defined in some of /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules file
	# Get pair -- filepath : matching_row into @matches array
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(grep -P "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	# For each of the matched entries
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		# Extract filepath from the match
		rulesd_audit_file=$(echo $match | cut -f1 -d ':')
		# Append that path into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "$rulesd_audit_file")
	done
	# Case when particular audit rule isn't defined yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		# Append '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		# If the $key.rules file doesn't exist yet, create it with correct permissions
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

# Finally perform the inspection and possible subsequent audit rule
# correction for each of the files previously identified for inspection
for audit_rules_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Check if audit watch file system object rule for given path already present
	if grep -q -P -- "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" "$audit_rules_file"
	then
		# Rule is found => verify yet if existing rule definition contains
		# all of the required access type bits

		# Escape slashes in path for use in sed pattern below
		local esc_path=${path//$'/'/$'\/'}
		# Define BRE whitespace class shortcut
		local sp="[[:space:]]"
		# Extract current permission access types (e.g. -p [r|w|x|a] values) from audit rule
		current_access_bits=$(sed -ne "s/$sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\).*/\1/p" "$audit_rules_file")
		# Split required access bits string into characters array
		# (to check bit's presence for one bit at a time)
		for access_bit in $(echo "$required_access_bits" | grep -o .)
		do
			# For each from the required access bits (e.g. 'w', 'a') check
			# if they are already present in current access bits for rule.
			# If not, append that bit at the end
			if ! grep -q "$access_bit" <<< "$current_access_bits"
			then
				# Concatenate the existing mask with the missing bit
				current_access_bits="$current_access_bits$access_bit"
			fi
		done
		# Propagate the updated rule's access bits (original + the required
		# ones) back into the /etc/audit/audit.rules file for that rule
		sed -i "s/\($sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\)\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\)\(.*\)/\1$current_access_bits\3/" "$audit_rules_file"
	else
		# Rule isn't present yet. Append it at the end of $audit_rules_file file
		# with proper key

		echo "-w $path -p $required_access_bits -k $key" >> "$audit_rules_file"
	fi
done
}

fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/security/opasswd" "wa" "audit_rules_usergroup_modification"
fix_audit_watch_rule "augenrules" "/etc/security/opasswd" "wa" "audit_rules_usergroup_modification"
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict

#
# What architecture are we on?
#
- name: Set architecture for audit opasswd tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: "b{{ ansible_architecture | regex_replace('.*(\\d\\d$)','\\1') }}"

#
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/rules.d
#
- name: Search /etc/audit/rules.d for other user/group modification audit rules
  find:
    paths: "/etc/audit/rules.d"
    recurse: no
    contains: "-k audit_rules_usergroup_modification$"
    patterns: "*.rules"
  register: find_opasswd

- name: If existing user/group modification ruleset not found, use /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules
  when: find_opasswd.matched == 0

- name: Use matched file as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - "{{ find_opasswd.files | map(attribute='path') | list | first }}"
  when: find_opasswd.matched > 0

- name: Inserts/replaces the opasswd rule in rules.d when on x86
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-w /etc/security/opasswd -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification"
    create: yes
  tags:
    - audit_rules_usergroup_modification_opasswd
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-2(4)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

#   
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules
#
- name: Inserts/replaces the opasswd rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules
  lineinfile:
    line: "-w /etc/security/opasswd -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
  tags:
    - audit_rules_usergroup_modification_opasswd
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-2(4)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

Record Events that Modify the System's Mandatory Access Controls   [ref]rule

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:

-w /etc/selinux/ -p wa -k MAC-policy
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-w /etc/selinux/ -p wa -k MAC-policy

Rationale:

The system's mandatory access policy (SELinux) should not be arbitrarily changed by anything other than administrator action. All changes to MAC policy should be audited.

Severity:  unknown

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix audit file system object watch rule for given path:
# * if rule exists, also verifies the -w bits match the requirements
# * if rule doesn't exist yet, appends expected rule form to $files_to_inspect
#   audit rules file, depending on the tool which was used to load audit rules
#
# Expects four arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules'
# * path                        	value of -w audit rule's argument
# * required access bits        	value of -p audit rule's argument
# * key                         	value of -k audit rule's argument
#
# Example call:
#
#       fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/localtime" "wa" "audit_time_rules"
#
function fix_audit_watch_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local path="$2"
local required_access_bits="$3"
local key="$4"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "4" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_watch_rule 'tool' 'path' 'bits' 'key'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Tool used to load audit rules	| Rule already defined	|  Audit rules file to inspect	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#	auditctl		|     Doesn't matter	|  /etc/audit/audit.rules	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# 	augenrules		|          Yes		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules	  |
# 	augenrules		|          No		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
declare -a files_to_inspect

# Check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	exit 1
# If the audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# into the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules')
# If the audit is 'augenrules', then check if rule is already defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to list of files for inspection.
# If rule isn't defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to list of files for inspection.
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Case when particular audit rule is already defined in some of /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules file
	# Get pair -- filepath : matching_row into @matches array
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(grep -P "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	# For each of the matched entries
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		# Extract filepath from the match
		rulesd_audit_file=$(echo $match | cut -f1 -d ':')
		# Append that path into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "$rulesd_audit_file")
	done
	# Case when particular audit rule isn't defined yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		# Append '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		# If the $key.rules file doesn't exist yet, create it with correct permissions
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

# Finally perform the inspection and possible subsequent audit rule
# correction for each of the files previously identified for inspection
for audit_rules_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Check if audit watch file system object rule for given path already present
	if grep -q -P -- "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" "$audit_rules_file"
	then
		# Rule is found => verify yet if existing rule definition contains
		# all of the required access type bits

		# Escape slashes in path for use in sed pattern below
		local esc_path=${path//$'/'/$'\/'}
		# Define BRE whitespace class shortcut
		local sp="[[:space:]]"
		# Extract current permission access types (e.g. -p [r|w|x|a] values) from audit rule
		current_access_bits=$(sed -ne "s/$sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\).*/\1/p" "$audit_rules_file")
		# Split required access bits string into characters array
		# (to check bit's presence for one bit at a time)
		for access_bit in $(echo "$required_access_bits" | grep -o .)
		do
			# For each from the required access bits (e.g. 'w', 'a') check
			# if they are already present in current access bits for rule.
			# If not, append that bit at the end
			if ! grep -q "$access_bit" <<< "$current_access_bits"
			then
				# Concatenate the existing mask with the missing bit
				current_access_bits="$current_access_bits$access_bit"
			fi
		done
		# Propagate the updated rule's access bits (original + the required
		# ones) back into the /etc/audit/audit.rules file for that rule
		sed -i "s/\($sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\)\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\)\(.*\)/\1$current_access_bits\3/" "$audit_rules_file"
	else
		# Rule isn't present yet. Append it at the end of $audit_rules_file file
		# with proper key

		echo "-w $path -p $required_access_bits -k $key" >> "$audit_rules_file"
	fi
done
}

fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/selinux/" "wa" "MAC-policy"
fix_audit_watch_rule "augenrules" "/etc/selinux/" "wa" "MAC-policy"

System Audit Logs Must Have Mode 0640 or Less Permissive   [ref]rule

If log_group in /etc/audit/auditd.conf is set to a group other than the root group account, change the mode of the audit log files with the following command:

$ sudo chmod 0640 audit_file

Otherwise, change the mode of the audit log files with the following command:
$ sudo chmod 0600 audit_file

Rationale:

If users can write to audit logs, audit trails can be modified or destroyed.

Severity:  medium

References:  5.4.1.1, 3.3.1, AC-6, AU-1(b), AU-9, IR-5, Req-10.5

Remediation Shell script:   (show)


if LC_ALL=C grep -m 1 -q ^log_group /etc/audit/auditd.conf; then
  GROUP=$(awk -F "=" '/log_group/ {print $2}' /etc/audit/auditd.conf | tr -d ' ')
  if ! [ "${GROUP}" == 'root' ] ; then
    chmod 0640 /var/log/audit/audit.log
    chmod 0440 /var/log/audit/audit.log.*
  else
    chmod 0600 /var/log/audit/audit.log
    chmod 0400 /var/log/audit/audit.log.*
  fi

  chmod 0640 /etc/audit/audit*
  chmod 0640 /etc/audit/rules.d/*
else
  chmod 0600 /var/log/audit/audit.log
  chmod 0400 /var/log/audit/audit.log.*
  chmod 0640 /etc/audit/audit*
  chmod 0640 /etc/audit/rules.d/*
fi

Record Events that Modify User/Group Information - /etc/gshadow   [ref]rule

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d, in order to capture events that modify account changes:

-w /etc/gshadow -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification


If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file, in order to capture events that modify account changes:

-w /etc/gshadow -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification

Rationale:

In addition to auditing new user and group accounts, these watches will alert the system administrator(s) to any modifications. Any unexpected users, groups, or modifications should be investigated for legitimacy.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix audit file system object watch rule for given path:
# * if rule exists, also verifies the -w bits match the requirements
# * if rule doesn't exist yet, appends expected rule form to $files_to_inspect
#   audit rules file, depending on the tool which was used to load audit rules
#
# Expects four arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules'
# * path                        	value of -w audit rule's argument
# * required access bits        	value of -p audit rule's argument
# * key                         	value of -k audit rule's argument
#
# Example call:
#
#       fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/localtime" "wa" "audit_time_rules"
#
function fix_audit_watch_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local path="$2"
local required_access_bits="$3"
local key="$4"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "4" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_watch_rule 'tool' 'path' 'bits' 'key'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Tool used to load audit rules	| Rule already defined	|  Audit rules file to inspect	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#	auditctl		|     Doesn't matter	|  /etc/audit/audit.rules	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# 	augenrules		|          Yes		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules	  |
# 	augenrules		|          No		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
declare -a files_to_inspect

# Check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	exit 1
# If the audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# into the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules')
# If the audit is 'augenrules', then check if rule is already defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to list of files for inspection.
# If rule isn't defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to list of files for inspection.
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Case when particular audit rule is already defined in some of /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules file
	# Get pair -- filepath : matching_row into @matches array
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(grep -P "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	# For each of the matched entries
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		# Extract filepath from the match
		rulesd_audit_file=$(echo $match | cut -f1 -d ':')
		# Append that path into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "$rulesd_audit_file")
	done
	# Case when particular audit rule isn't defined yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		# Append '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		# If the $key.rules file doesn't exist yet, create it with correct permissions
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

# Finally perform the inspection and possible subsequent audit rule
# correction for each of the files previously identified for inspection
for audit_rules_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Check if audit watch file system object rule for given path already present
	if grep -q -P -- "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" "$audit_rules_file"
	then
		# Rule is found => verify yet if existing rule definition contains
		# all of the required access type bits

		# Escape slashes in path for use in sed pattern below
		local esc_path=${path//$'/'/$'\/'}
		# Define BRE whitespace class shortcut
		local sp="[[:space:]]"
		# Extract current permission access types (e.g. -p [r|w|x|a] values) from audit rule
		current_access_bits=$(sed -ne "s/$sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\).*/\1/p" "$audit_rules_file")
		# Split required access bits string into characters array
		# (to check bit's presence for one bit at a time)
		for access_bit in $(echo "$required_access_bits" | grep -o .)
		do
			# For each from the required access bits (e.g. 'w', 'a') check
			# if they are already present in current access bits for rule.
			# If not, append that bit at the end
			if ! grep -q "$access_bit" <<< "$current_access_bits"
			then
				# Concatenate the existing mask with the missing bit
				current_access_bits="$current_access_bits$access_bit"
			fi
		done
		# Propagate the updated rule's access bits (original + the required
		# ones) back into the /etc/audit/audit.rules file for that rule
		sed -i "s/\($sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\)\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\)\(.*\)/\1$current_access_bits\3/" "$audit_rules_file"
	else
		# Rule isn't present yet. Append it at the end of $audit_rules_file file
		# with proper key

		echo "-w $path -p $required_access_bits -k $key" >> "$audit_rules_file"
	fi
done
}

fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/gshadow" "wa" "audit_rules_usergroup_modification"
fix_audit_watch_rule "augenrules" "/etc/gshadow" "wa" "audit_rules_usergroup_modification"
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict

#
# What architecture are we on?
#
- name: Set architecture for audit gshadow tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: "b{{ ansible_architecture | regex_replace('.*(\\d\\d$)','\\1') }}"

#
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/rules.d
#
- name: Search /etc/audit/rules.d for other user/group modification audit rules
  find:
    paths: "/etc/audit/rules.d"
    recurse: no
    contains: "-k audit_rules_usergroup_modification$"
    patterns: "*.rules"
  register: find_gshadow

- name: If existing user/group modification ruleset not found, use /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules
  when: find_gshadow.matched == 0

- name: Use matched file as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - "{{ find_gshadow.files | map(attribute='path') | list | first }}"
  when: find_gshadow.matched > 0

- name: Inserts/replaces the gshadow rule in rules.d when on x86
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-w /etc/gshadow -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification"
    create: yes
  tags:
    - audit_rules_usergroup_modification_gshadow
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-2(4)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

#   
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules
#
- name: Inserts/replaces the gshadow rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules
  lineinfile:
    line: "-w /etc/gshadow -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
  tags:
    - audit_rules_usergroup_modification_gshadow
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-2(4)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

Record Events that Modify User/Group Information - /etc/passwd   [ref]rule

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d, in order to capture events that modify account changes:

-w /etc/passwd -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification


If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file, in order to capture events that modify account changes:

-w /etc/passwd -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification

Rationale:

In addition to auditing new user and group accounts, these watches will alert the system administrator(s) to any modifications. Any unexpected users, groups, or modifications should be investigated for legitimacy.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix audit file system object watch rule for given path:
# * if rule exists, also verifies the -w bits match the requirements
# * if rule doesn't exist yet, appends expected rule form to $files_to_inspect
#   audit rules file, depending on the tool which was used to load audit rules
#
# Expects four arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules'
# * path                        	value of -w audit rule's argument
# * required access bits        	value of -p audit rule's argument
# * key                         	value of -k audit rule's argument
#
# Example call:
#
#       fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/localtime" "wa" "audit_time_rules"
#
function fix_audit_watch_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local path="$2"
local required_access_bits="$3"
local key="$4"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "4" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_watch_rule 'tool' 'path' 'bits' 'key'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Tool used to load audit rules	| Rule already defined	|  Audit rules file to inspect	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#	auditctl		|     Doesn't matter	|  /etc/audit/audit.rules	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# 	augenrules		|          Yes		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules	  |
# 	augenrules		|          No		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
declare -a files_to_inspect

# Check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	exit 1
# If the audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# into the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules')
# If the audit is 'augenrules', then check if rule is already defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to list of files for inspection.
# If rule isn't defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to list of files for inspection.
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Case when particular audit rule is already defined in some of /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules file
	# Get pair -- filepath : matching_row into @matches array
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(grep -P "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	# For each of the matched entries
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		# Extract filepath from the match
		rulesd_audit_file=$(echo $match | cut -f1 -d ':')
		# Append that path into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "$rulesd_audit_file")
	done
	# Case when particular audit rule isn't defined yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		# Append '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		# If the $key.rules file doesn't exist yet, create it with correct permissions
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

# Finally perform the inspection and possible subsequent audit rule
# correction for each of the files previously identified for inspection
for audit_rules_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Check if audit watch file system object rule for given path already present
	if grep -q -P -- "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" "$audit_rules_file"
	then
		# Rule is found => verify yet if existing rule definition contains
		# all of the required access type bits

		# Escape slashes in path for use in sed pattern below
		local esc_path=${path//$'/'/$'\/'}
		# Define BRE whitespace class shortcut
		local sp="[[:space:]]"
		# Extract current permission access types (e.g. -p [r|w|x|a] values) from audit rule
		current_access_bits=$(sed -ne "s/$sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\).*/\1/p" "$audit_rules_file")
		# Split required access bits string into characters array
		# (to check bit's presence for one bit at a time)
		for access_bit in $(echo "$required_access_bits" | grep -o .)
		do
			# For each from the required access bits (e.g. 'w', 'a') check
			# if they are already present in current access bits for rule.
			# If not, append that bit at the end
			if ! grep -q "$access_bit" <<< "$current_access_bits"
			then
				# Concatenate the existing mask with the missing bit
				current_access_bits="$current_access_bits$access_bit"
			fi
		done
		# Propagate the updated rule's access bits (original + the required
		# ones) back into the /etc/audit/audit.rules file for that rule
		sed -i "s/\($sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\)\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\)\(.*\)/\1$current_access_bits\3/" "$audit_rules_file"
	else
		# Rule isn't present yet. Append it at the end of $audit_rules_file file
		# with proper key

		echo "-w $path -p $required_access_bits -k $key" >> "$audit_rules_file"
	fi
done
}

fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/passwd" "wa" "audit_rules_usergroup_modification"
fix_audit_watch_rule "augenrules" "/etc/passwd" "wa" "audit_rules_usergroup_modification"
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict

#
# What architecture are we on?
#
- name: Set architecture for audit passwd tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: "b{{ ansible_architecture | regex_replace('.*(\\d\\d$)','\\1') }}"

#
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/rules.d
#
- name: Search /etc/audit/rules.d for other user/group modification audit rules
  find:
    paths: "/etc/audit/rules.d"
    recurse: no
    contains: "-k audit_rules_usergroup_modification$"
    patterns: "*.rules"
  register: find_passwd

- name: If existing user/group modification ruleset not found, use /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules
  when: find_passwd.matched == 0

- name: Use matched file as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - "{{ find_passwd.files | map(attribute='path') | list | first }}"
  when: find_passwd.matched > 0

- name: Inserts/replaces the passwd rule in rules.d when on x86
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-w /etc/passwd -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification"
    create: yes
  tags:
    - audit_rules_usergroup_modification_passwd
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-2(4)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

#   
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules
#
- name: Inserts/replaces the passwd rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules
  lineinfile:
    line: "-w /etc/passwd -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
  tags:
    - audit_rules_usergroup_modification_passwd
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-2(4)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

Record Events that Modify User/Group Information - /etc/group   [ref]rule

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d, in order to capture events that modify account changes:

-w /etc/group -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification


If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file, in order to capture events that modify account changes:

-w /etc/group -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification

Rationale:

In addition to auditing new user and group accounts, these watches will alert the system administrator(s) to any modifications. Any unexpected users, groups, or modifications should be investigated for legitimacy.

Severity:  medium

Remediation Shell script:   (show)



# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
# Function to fix audit file system object watch rule for given path:
# * if rule exists, also verifies the -w bits match the requirements
# * if rule doesn't exist yet, appends expected rule form to $files_to_inspect
#   audit rules file, depending on the tool which was used to load audit rules
#
# Expects four arguments (each of them is required) in the form of:
# * audit tool				tool used to load audit rules,
# 					either 'auditctl', or 'augenrules'
# * path                        	value of -w audit rule's argument
# * required access bits        	value of -p audit rule's argument
# * key                         	value of -k audit rule's argument
#
# Example call:
#
#       fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/localtime" "wa" "audit_time_rules"
#
function fix_audit_watch_rule {

# Load function arguments into local variables
local tool="$1"
local path="$2"
local required_access_bits="$3"
local key="$4"

# Check sanity of the input
if [ $# -ne "4" ]
then
	echo "Usage: fix_audit_watch_rule 'tool' 'path' 'bits' 'key'"
	echo "Aborting."
	exit 1
fi

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Tool used to load audit rules	| Rule already defined	|  Audit rules file to inspect	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#	auditctl		|     Doesn't matter	|  /etc/audit/audit.rules	  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# 	augenrules		|          Yes		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules	  |
# 	augenrules		|          No		|  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
declare -a files_to_inspect

# Check sanity of the specified audit tool
if [ "$tool" != 'auditctl' ] && [ "$tool" != 'augenrules' ]
then
	echo "Unknown audit rules loading tool: $1. Aborting."
	echo "Use either 'auditctl' or 'augenrules'!"
	exit 1
# If the audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# into the list of files to be inspected
elif [ "$tool" == 'auditctl' ]
then
	files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" '/etc/audit/audit.rules')
# If the audit is 'augenrules', then check if rule is already defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to list of files for inspection.
# If rule isn't defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to list of files for inspection.
elif [ "$tool" == 'augenrules' ]
then
	# Case when particular audit rule is already defined in some of /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules file
	# Get pair -- filepath : matching_row into @matches array
	IFS=$'\n' matches=($(grep -P "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules))
	# Reset IFS back to default
	unset IFS
	# For each of the matched entries
	for match in "${matches[@]}"
	do
		# Extract filepath from the match
		rulesd_audit_file=$(echo $match | cut -f1 -d ':')
		# Append that path into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect=("${files_to_inspect[@]}" "$rulesd_audit_file")
	done
	# Case when particular audit rule isn't defined yet
	if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
	then
		# Append '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' into list of files for inspection
		files_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules"
		# If the $key.rules file doesn't exist yet, create it with correct permissions
		if [ ! -e "$files_to_inspect" ]
		then
			touch "$files_to_inspect"
			chmod 0640 "$files_to_inspect"
		fi
	fi
fi

# Finally perform the inspection and possible subsequent audit rule
# correction for each of the files previously identified for inspection
for audit_rules_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do

	# Check if audit watch file system object rule for given path already present
	if grep -q -P -- "[\s]*-w[\s]+$path" "$audit_rules_file"
	then
		# Rule is found => verify yet if existing rule definition contains
		# all of the required access type bits

		# Escape slashes in path for use in sed pattern below
		local esc_path=${path//$'/'/$'\/'}
		# Define BRE whitespace class shortcut
		local sp="[[:space:]]"
		# Extract current permission access types (e.g. -p [r|w|x|a] values) from audit rule
		current_access_bits=$(sed -ne "s/$sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\).*/\1/p" "$audit_rules_file")
		# Split required access bits string into characters array
		# (to check bit's presence for one bit at a time)
		for access_bit in $(echo "$required_access_bits" | grep -o .)
		do
			# For each from the required access bits (e.g. 'w', 'a') check
			# if they are already present in current access bits for rule.
			# If not, append that bit at the end
			if ! grep -q "$access_bit" <<< "$current_access_bits"
			then
				# Concatenate the existing mask with the missing bit
				current_access_bits="$current_access_bits$access_bit"
			fi
		done
		# Propagate the updated rule's access bits (original + the required
		# ones) back into the /etc/audit/audit.rules file for that rule
		sed -i "s/\($sp*-w$sp\+$esc_path$sp\+-p$sp\+\)\([rxwa]\{1,4\}\)\(.*\)/\1$current_access_bits\3/" "$audit_rules_file"
	else
		# Rule isn't present yet. Append it at the end of $audit_rules_file file
		# with proper key

		echo "-w $path -p $required_access_bits -k $key" >> "$audit_rules_file"
	fi
done
}

fix_audit_watch_rule "auditctl" "/etc/group" "wa" "audit_rules_usergroup_modification"
fix_audit_watch_rule "augenrules" "/etc/group" "wa" "audit_rules_usergroup_modification"
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict

#
# What architecture are we on?
#
- name: Set architecture for audit group tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: "b{{ ansible_architecture | regex_replace('.*(\\d\\d$)','\\1') }}"

#
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/rules.d
#
- name: Search /etc/audit/rules.d for other user/group modification audit rules
  find:
    paths: "/etc/audit/rules.d"
    recurse: no
    contains: "-k audit_rules_usergroup_modification$"
    patterns: "*.rules"
  register: find_group

- name: If existing user/group modification ruleset not found, use /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - /etc/audit/rules.d/privileged.rules
  when: find_group.matched == 0

- name: Use matched file as the recipient for the rule
  set_fact:
    all_files:
      - "{{ find_group.files | map(attribute='path') | list | first }}"
  when: find_group.matched > 0

- name: Inserts/replaces the group rule in rules.d when on x86
  lineinfile:
    path: "{{ all_files[0] }}"
    line: "-w /etc/group -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification"
    create: yes
  tags:
    - audit_rules_usergroup_modification_group
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-2(4)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

#   
# Inserts/replaces the rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules
#
- name: Inserts/replaces the group rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules
  lineinfile:
    line: "-w /etc/group -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification"
    state: present
    dest: /etc/audit/audit.rules
  tags:
    - audit_rules_usergroup_modification_group
    - medium_severity
    - restrict_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-2(4)
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(7)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.5
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

Enable auditd Service   [ref]rule

The auditd service is an essential userspace component of the Linux Auditing System, as it is responsible for writing audit records to disk. The auditd service can be enabled with the following command:

$ sudo systemctl enable auditd.service

Rationale:

Without establishing what type of events occurred, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events leading up to an outage or attack. Ensuring the auditd service is active ensures audit records generated by the kernel are appropriately recorded.

Additionally, a properly configured audit subsystem ensures that actions of individual system users can be uniquely traced to those users so they can be held accountable for their actions.

Severity:  high

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable

SYSTEMCTL_EXEC='/usr/bin/systemctl'
"$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" start 'auditd.service'
"$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" enable 'auditd.service'
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:enable
- name: Enable service auditd
  service:
    name: auditd
    enabled: "yes"
    state: "started"
  tags:
    - service_auditd_enabled
    - high_severity
    - enable_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AU-3
    - NIST-800-53-AC-17(1)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-1(b)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-10
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(a)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
    - NIST-800-53-AU-14(1)
    - NIST-800-53-IR-5
    - NIST-800-171-3.3.1
    - NIST-800-171-3.3.2
    - NIST-800-171-3.3.6
    - PCI-DSS-Req-10.1
    - CJIS-5.4.1.1

File Permissions and Masks   [ref]group

Traditional Unix security relies heavily on file and directory permissions to prevent unauthorized users from reading or modifying files to which they should not have access.

Several of the commands in this section search filesystems for files or directories with certain characteristics, and are intended to be run on every local partition on a given system. When the variable PART appears in one of the commands below, it means that the command is intended to be run repeatedly, with the name of each local partition substituted for PART in turn.

The following command prints a list of all xfs partitions on the local system, which is the default filesystem for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 installations:

$ mount -t xfs | awk '{print $3}'
For any systems that use a different local filesystem type, modify this command as appropriate.

contains 9 rules

Verify Permissions on Important Files and Directories   [ref]group

Permissions for many files on a system must be set restrictively to ensure sensitive information is properly protected. This section discusses important permission restrictions which can be verified to ensure that no harmful discrepancies have arisen.

contains 9 rules
contains 9 rules

Verify Permissions on shadow File   [ref]rule

To properly set the permissions of /etc/shadow, run the command:

$ sudo chmod 0640 /etc/shadow

Rationale:

The /etc/shadow file contains the list of local system accounts and stores password hashes. Protection of this file is critical for system security. Failure to give ownership of this file to root provides the designated owner with access to sensitive information which could weaken the system security posture.

Severity:  medium

References:  6.1.3, 5.5.2.2, AC-6, Req-8.7.c

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure

chmod 0000 /etc/shadow
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure
- name: Ensure permission 0000 on /etc/shadow
  file:
    path: /etc/shadow
    mode: 0000
  tags:
    - file_permissions_etc_shadow
    - medium_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.7.c
    - CJIS-5.5.2.2

Verify User Who Owns shadow File   [ref]rule

To properly set the owner of /etc/shadow, run the command:

$ sudo chown root /etc/shadow 

Rationale:

The /etc/shadow file contains the list of local system accounts and stores password hashes. Protection of this file is critical for system security. Failure to give ownership of this file to root provides the designated owner with access to sensitive information which could weaken the system security posture.

Severity:  medium

References:  6.1.3, 5.5.2.2, AC-6, Req-8.7.c

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure

chown 0 /etc/shadow
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure
- name: Test for existence /etc/shadow
  stat:
    path: /etc/shadow
  register: file_exists

- name: Ensure owner 0 on /etc/shadow
  file:
    path: /etc/shadow
    owner: 0
  when: file_exists.stat.exists
  tags:
    - file_owner_etc_shadow
    - medium_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.7.c
    - CJIS-5.5.2.2

Verify User Who Owns group File   [ref]rule

To properly set the owner of /etc/group, run the command:

$ sudo chown root /etc/group 

Rationale:

The /etc/group file contains information regarding groups that are configured on the system. Protection of this file is important for system security.

Severity:  medium

References:  6.1.4, 5.5.2.2, AC-6, Req-8.7.c

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure

chown 0 /etc/group
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure
- name: Test for existence /etc/group
  stat:
    path: /etc/group
  register: file_exists

- name: Ensure owner 0 on /etc/group
  file:
    path: /etc/group
    owner: 0
  when: file_exists.stat.exists
  tags:
    - file_owner_etc_group
    - medium_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.7.c
    - CJIS-5.5.2.2

Verify Permissions on group File   [ref]rule

To properly set the permissions of /etc/passwd, run the command:

$ sudo chmod 0644 /etc/passwd

Rationale:

The /etc/group file contains information regarding groups that are configured on the system. Protection of this file is important for system security.

Severity:  medium

References:  6.1.4, 5.5.2.2, AC-6, Req-8.7.c

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure

chmod 0644 /etc/group
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure
- name: Ensure permission 0644 on /etc/group
  file:
    path: /etc/group
    mode: 0644
  tags:
    - file_permissions_etc_group
    - medium_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.7.c
    - CJIS-5.5.2.2

Verify Group Who Owns passwd File   [ref]rule

To properly set the group owner of /etc/passwd, run the command:

$ sudo chgrp root /etc/passwd

Rationale:

The /etc/passwd file contains information about the users that are configured on the system. Protection of this file is critical for system security.

Severity:  medium

References:  6.1.2, 5.5.2.2, AC-6, Req-8.7.c

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure

chgrp 0 /etc/passwd
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure
- name: Test for existence /etc/passwd
  stat:
    path: /etc/passwd
  register: file_exists

- name: Ensure group owner 0 on /etc/passwd
  file:
    path: /etc/passwd
    group: 0
  when: file_exists.stat.exists
  tags:
    - file_groupowner_etc_passwd
    - medium_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.7.c
    - CJIS-5.5.2.2

Verify Group Who Owns shadow File   [ref]rule

To properly set the group owner of /etc/shadow, run the command:

$ sudo chgrp root /etc/shadow

Rationale:

The /etc/shadow file stores password hashes. Protection of this file is critical for system security.

Severity:  medium

References:  6.1.3, 5.5.2.2, AC-6, Req-8.7.c

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure

chgrp 0 /etc/shadow
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure
- name: Test for existence /etc/shadow
  stat:
    path: /etc/shadow
  register: file_exists

- name: Ensure group owner 0 on /etc/shadow
  file:
    path: /etc/shadow
    group: 0
  when: file_exists.stat.exists
  tags:
    - file_groupowner_etc_shadow
    - medium_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.7.c
    - CJIS-5.5.2.2

Verify Group Who Owns group File   [ref]rule

To properly set the group owner of /etc/group, run the command:

$ sudo chgrp root /etc/group

Rationale:

The /etc/group file contains information regarding groups that are configured on the system. Protection of this file is important for system security.

Severity:  medium

References:  6.1.4, 5.5.2.2, AC-6, Req-8.7.c

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure

chgrp 0 /etc/group
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure
- name: Test for existence /etc/group
  stat:
    path: /etc/group
  register: file_exists

- name: Ensure group owner 0 on /etc/group
  file:
    path: /etc/group
    group: 0
  when: file_exists.stat.exists
  tags:
    - file_groupowner_etc_group
    - medium_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.7.c
    - CJIS-5.5.2.2

Verify User Who Owns passwd File   [ref]rule

To properly set the owner of /etc/passwd, run the command:

$ sudo chown root /etc/passwd 

Rationale:

The /etc/passwd file contains information about the users that are configured on the system. Protection of this file is critical for system security.

Severity:  medium

References:  6.1.2, 5.5.2.2, AC-6, Req-8.7.c

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure

chown 0 /etc/passwd
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure
- name: Test for existence /etc/passwd
  stat:
    path: /etc/passwd
  register: file_exists

- name: Ensure owner 0 on /etc/passwd
  file:
    path: /etc/passwd
    owner: 0
  when: file_exists.stat.exists
  tags:
    - file_owner_etc_passwd
    - medium_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.7.c
    - CJIS-5.5.2.2

Verify Permissions on passwd File   [ref]rule

To properly set the permissions of /etc/passwd, run the command:

$ sudo chmod 0644 /etc/passwd

Rationale:

If the /etc/passwd file is writable by a group-owner or the world the risk of its compromise is increased. The file contains the list of accounts on the system and associated information, and protection of this file is critical for system security.

Severity:  medium

References:  6.1.2, 5.5.2.2, AC-6, Req-8.7.c

Remediation Shell script:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure

chmod 0644 /etc/passwd
Remediation Ansible snippet:   (show)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Strategy:configure
- name: Ensure permission 0644 on /etc/passwd
  file:
    path: /etc/passwd
    mode: 0644
  tags:
    - file_permissions_etc_passwd
    - medium_severity
    - configure_strategy
    - low_complexity
    - low_disruption
    - NIST-800-53-AC-6
    - PCI-DSS-Req-8.7.c
    - CJIS-5.5.2.2
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